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Dachau
Dachau
concentration camp (/ˈdɑːxaʊ/;[3] German: Konzentrationslager (KZ) Dachau, IPA: [ˈdaxaʊ]) was the first of the Nazi concentration camps
Nazi concentration camps
opened in 1933, intended to hold political prisoners. It is located on the grounds of an abandoned munitions factory northeast of the medieval town of Dachau, about 16 km (10 mi) northwest of Munich
Munich
in the state of Bavaria, in southern Germany.[4] Opened by Heinrich Himmler, its purpose was enlarged to include forced labor, and eventually, the imprisonment of Jews, German and Austrian criminals, and eventually foreign nationals from countries that Germany
Germany
occupied or invaded. The Dachau
Dachau
camp system grew to include nearly 100 sub-camps, which were mostly work camps or Arbeitskommandos, and were located throughout southern Germany
Germany
and Austria.[5] The camps were liberated by U.S. forces on 29 April 1945. Prisoners lived in constant fear of brutal treatment and terror detention including standing cells, floggings, the so-called tree or pole hanging, and standing at attention for extremely long periods.[6] There were 32,000 documented deaths at the camp, and thousands that are undocumented.[7] Approximately 10,000 of the 30,000 prisoners were sick at the time of liberation.[8][9] In the postwar years the Dachau
Dachau
facility served to hold SS soldiers awaiting trial. After 1948, it held ethnic Germans who had been expelled from eastern Europe and were awaiting resettlement, and also was used for a time as a United States military base during the occupation. It was finally closed in 1960. There are several religious memorials within the Memorial Site,[10] which is open to the public.[11]

.mw-parser-output .toclimit-2 .toclevel-1 ul,.mw-parser-output .toclimit-3 .toclevel-2 ul,.mw-parser-output .toclimit-4 .toclevel-3 ul,.mw-parser-output .toclimit-5 .toclevel-4 ul,.mw-parser-output .toclimit-6 .toclevel-5 ul,.mw-parser-output .toclimit-7 .toclevel-6 ul display:none Contents

1 General overview 2 History

2.1 Establishment 2.2 Forced labor 2.3 Operation Barbarossa 2.4 Final days

3 Main camp

3.1 Purpose 3.2 Organization 3.3 Medical experimentation 3.4 Demographics

3.4.1 Clergy 3.4.2 Staff

4 Satellite camps and sub-camps 5 Liberation

5.1 Main camp 5.2 Satellite camps liberation 5.3 Killing of camp guards 5.4 Post-liberation Easter

6 After liberation

6.1 Deportation of Soviet nationals

7 List of personnel

7.1 Commandants 7.2 Other staff 7.3 SS and civilian doctors

8 Memorial 9 In media 10 See also 11 Notes 12 References 13 Bibliography 14 External links

General overview[edit] Dachau
Dachau
served as a prototype and model for the other German concentration camps that followed. Almost every community in Germany had members taken away to these camps. Newspapers continually reported "the removal of the enemies of the Reich to concentration camps." As early as 1935, a jingle went around: "Lieber Herr Gott, mach mich stumm, Das ich nicht nach Dachau
Dachau
komm'" ("Dear God, make me silent, That I may not come to Dachau").[12]

Aerial photo of the Dachau
Dachau
complex with the actual concentration camp on the left The camp's layout and building plans were developed by Commandant Theodor Eicke
Theodor Eicke
and were applied to all later camps. He had a separate secure camp near the command center, which consisted of living quarters, administration, and army camps. Eicke became the chief inspector for all concentration camps, responsible for organizing others according to his model.[13] The Dachau
Dachau
complex included the prisoners' camp, which occupied approximately 5 acres, and the much larger area of SS training school including barracks, factories, plus other facilities of around 20 acres.[14] The entrance gate used by prisoners carries the phrase "Arbeit macht frei" (lit. "Work makes free", or "Work makes [one] free"; contextual English translation: "Work shall set you free"). This phrase was also used in Theresienstadt, near Prague, and Auschwitz I.

The camp commander gives a speech to prisoners about to be released as part of a pardoning action near Christmas 1933. Dachau
Dachau
was the concentration camp that was in operation the longest from March 1933 to April 1945, nearly all twelve years of the Nazi regime. Dachau's close proximity to Munich, where Hitler came to power and where the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
had its official headquarters, made Dachau
Dachau
a convenient location. From 1933 to 1938, the prisoners were mainly German nationals detained for political reasons. After the Reichspogromnacht or Kristallnacht, 30,000 male Jewish citizens were deported to concentration camps. More than 10,000 of them were interned in Dachau
Dachau
alone. As the German military occupied other European states, citizens from across Europe were sent to concentration camps. Subsequently, the camp was used for prisoners of all sorts, from every nation occupied by the forces of the Third Reich.[15]:137 In the postwar years, the camp continued in use. From 1945 through 1948, the camp was used by the Allies as a prison for SS officers awaiting trial. After 1948, when hundreds of thousands of ethnic Germans were expelled from eastern Europe, it held Germans from Czechoslovakia until they could be resettled. It also served as a military base for the United States, which maintained forces in the country. It was closed in 1960. At the insistence of survivors, various memorials have been constructed and installed here.[15]:138

Two Dachau
Dachau
crematoriums Demographic statistics vary but they are in the same general range. History will likely never know how many people were interned or died there, due to periods of disruption. One source gives a general estimate of over 200,000 prisoners from more than 30 countries for the Third Reich's years, of whom two-thirds were political prisoners, including many Catholic priests, and nearly one-third were Jews. 25,613 prisoners are believed to have died in the camp and almost another 10,000 in its subcamps,[16] primarily from disease, malnutrition and suicide. In late 1944, a typhus epidemic occurred in the camp caused by poor sanitation and overcrowding, which caused more than 15,000 deaths.[17] It was followed by an evacuation, in which large numbers of the prisoners died. Toward the end of the war, death marches to and from the camp caused the deaths of numerous unrecorded prisoners. After liberation, prisoners weakened beyond recovery by the starvation conditions continued to die.[18] Two thousand cases of "the dread black typhus" had already been identified by 3 May, and the U.S. Seventh Army was "working day and night to alleviate the appalling conditions at the camp".[19] Prisoners with typhus, a louse-borne disease with an incubation period from 12 to 18 days, were treated by the 116th Evacuation Hospital, while the 127th would be the general hospital for the other illnesses. There were 227 documented deaths among the 2,252 patients cared for by the 127th.[18]

Survivors of KZ Dachau
Dachau
demonstrate the operation of the crematorium by pushing a corpse into one of the ovens.[20] Over the 12 years of use as a concentration camp, the Dachau administration recorded the intake of 206,206 prisoners and deaths of 31,951. Crematoria were constructed to dispose of the deceased. Visitors may now walk through the buildings and view the ovens used to cremate bodies, which hid the evidence of many deaths. It is claimed that in 1942, more than 3,166 prisoners in weakened condition were transported to Hartheim Castle
Hartheim Castle
near Linz, and were executed by poison gas because they were deemed unfit.[15]:137[21] The gas chamber Inside a prison cell Between January and April 1945 11,560 detainees died at KZ Dachau
Dachau
according to a U.S. Army
U.S. Army
report of 1945,[22] though the Dachau
Dachau
administration registered 12,596 deaths from typhus at the camp over the same period.[17] Dachau
Dachau
was the third concentration camp to be liberated by British or American Allied forces.[23]

History[edit] Establishment[edit] After the takeover of Bavaria
Bavaria
on 9 March 1933, Heinrich Himmler, then Chief of Police
Chief of Police
in Munich, began to speak with the administration of an unused gunpowder and munitions factory. He toured the site to see if it could be used for quartering protective-custody prisoners. The Concentration Camp at Dachau
Dachau
was opened 22 March 1933, with the arrival of about 200 prisoners from Stadelheim Prison
Stadelheim Prison
in Munich
Munich
and the Landsberg fortress (where Hitler had written Mein Kampf
Mein Kampf
during his imprisonment).[24] Himmler announced in the Münchner Neuesten Nachrichten newspaper that the camp could hold up to 5,000 people, and described it as "the first concentration camp for political prisoners" to be used to restore calm to Germany.[25] It became the first regular concentration camp established by the coalition government of the National Socialist German Worker's Party (Nazi Party) and the German National People's Party
German National People's Party
(dissolved on 6 July 1933). Jehovah's Witnesses, homosexuals, and emigrants were sent to Dachau after the 1935 passage of the Nuremberg Laws
Nuremberg Laws
which institutionalized racial discrimination.[26] In early 1937, the SS, using prisoner labor, initiated construction of a large complex capable of holding 6,000 prisoners. The construction was officially completed in mid-August 1938.[13] More political opponents, and over 11,000 German and Austrian Jews were sent to the camp after the annexation of Austria
Austria
and the Sudetenland
Sudetenland
in 1938. Sinti and Roma in the hundreds were sent to the camp in 1939, and over 13,000 prisoners were sent to the camp from Poland in 1940.[26][27]

Heinrich Himmler
Heinrich Himmler
(front right, beside prisoner) inspecting Dachau Concentration Camp on 8 May 1936. Forced labor[edit] German concentration camps: Auschwitz, Oranienburg, Mauthausen and Dachau
Dachau
in "The Polish White Book", New York (1941). The prisoners of Dachau
Dachau
concentration camp originally were to serve as forced labor for a munition factory, and to expand the camp. It was used as a training center for the SS-Totenkopfverbände
SS-Totenkopfverbände
guards and was a model for other concentration camps.[28] The camp was about 300 m × 600 m (1,000 ft × 2,000 ft) in rectangular shape. The prisoners' entrance was secured by an iron gate with the motto "Arbeit macht frei" ("Work will make you free"). This reflected Nazi propaganda, which trivialized concentration camps as labor and re-education camps, when in fact forced labor was used as a method of torture and murder.[29] As of 1938, the procedure for new arrivals occurred at the Schubraum, where prisoners were to hand over their clothing and possessions.[30]:61 One former Luxembourgian prisoner, Albert Theis, reflected about the room, "There we were stripped of all our clothes. Everything had to be handed over: money, rings, watches. One was now stark naked".[31] The camp included an administration building that contained offices for the Gestapo
Gestapo
trial commissioner, SS authorities, the camp leader and his deputies. These administration offices consisted of large storage rooms for the personal belongings of prisoners, the bunker, roll-call square where guards would also inflict punishment on prisoners (especially those who tried to escape), the canteen where prisoners served SS men with cigarettes and food, the museum containing plaster images of prisoners who suffered from bodily defects, the camp office, the library, the barracks, and the infirmary, which was staffed by prisoners who had previously held occupations such as physicians or army surgeons.[32]

Operation Barbarossa[edit] Over 4,000 Soviet prisoners of war were murdered by the Dachau commandant's guard at the SS shooting range located two kilometers from the main camp in the years 1942/1943.[33][34][35] These murders were a clear violation of the provisions laid down in the Geneva Convention for prisoners of war. The SS used the cynical term "special treatment" for these criminal executions. The first executions of the Soviet prisoners of war at the Hebertshausen shooting range took place on 25 November 1941.[36] After 1942, the number of prisoners regularly held at the camp continued to exceed 12,000.[37] Dachau
Dachau
originally held Communists, leading Socialists and other "enemies of the state" in 1933, but over time the Nazis began to send German Jews to the camp. In the early years of imprisonment, Jews were offered permission to emigrate overseas if they "voluntarily" gave their property to enhance Hitler’s public treasury.[37] Once Austria
Austria
was annexed and Czechoslovakia was defeated, the citizens of both countries became the next prisoners at Dachau. In 1940, Dachau
Dachau
became filled with Polish prisoners, who constituted the majority of the prisoner population until Dachau
Dachau
was officially liberated.[38]

The gate at the Jourhaus building through which the prisoner's camp was entered contains the slogan, Arbeit macht frei, or 'Work Sets You Free.' The prisoner enclosure at the camp was heavily guarded to ensure that no prisoners escaped. A 3-metre-wide (10 ft) no-man's land was the first marker of confinement for prisoners; an area which upon entry would elicit lethal gunfire from guard towers. Guards are known to have tossed inmates' caps into this area, resulting in the death of the prisoners when they attempted to retrieve the caps. Despondent prisoners committed suicide by entering the zone. A four-foot-deep and eight-foot-broad (1.2 × 2.4 m) creek, connected with the river Amper, lay on the west side between the "neutral-zone" and the electrically charged, and barbed wire fence which surrounded the entire prisoner enclosure.[39] In August 1944 a women's camp opened inside Dachau. In the last months of the war, the conditions at Dachau
Dachau
deteriorated. As Allied forces advanced toward Germany, the Germans began to move prisoners from concentration camps near the front to more centrally located camps. They hoped to prevent the liberation of large numbers of prisoners. Transports from the evacuated camps arrived continuously at Dachau. After days of travel with little or no food or water, the prisoners arrived weak and exhausted, often near death. Typhus
Typhus
epidemics became a serious problem as a result of overcrowding, poor sanitary conditions, insufficient provisions, and the weakened state of the prisoners.[citation needed] Owing to repeated transports from the front, the camp was constantly overcrowded and the hygiene conditions were beneath human dignity. Starting from the end of 1944 up to the day of liberation, 15,000 people died, about half of all the prisoners held at KZ Dachau. Five hundred Soviet POWs were executed by firing squad. The first shipment of women came from Auschwitz-Birkenau.[40]

Final days[edit] As late as 19 April 1945, prisoners were sent to KZ Dachau; on that date a freight train from Buchenwald
Buchenwald
with nearly 4,500 was diverted to Nammering. SS troops and police confiscated food and water, which local townspeople tried to give to the prisoners. Nearly three hundred dead bodies were ordered removed from the train and carried to a ravine over 400 metres (.25 mi) away. The 524 prisoners who had been forced to carry the dead to this site were then shot by the guards, and buried along with those who had died on the train. Nearly 800 bodies went into this mass grave. "Grave of many thousand unknown." The train continued on to KZ Dachau.[41] During April 1945 as U.S. troops drove deeper into Bavaria, the commander of KZ Dachau
Dachau
suggested to Gestapo
Gestapo
Chief Heinrich Himmler that the camp be turned over to the Allies. Himmler, in signed correspondence, prohibited such a move, adding that "No prisoners shall be allowed to fall into the hands of the enemy alive."[42] On 24 April 1945, just days before the U.S. troops arrived at the camp, the commandant and a strong guard forced between 6,000 and 7,000 surviving inmates – on a death march from Dachau
Dachau
south to Eurasburg, then eastwards towards the Tegernsee; liberated two days after Hitler's death by a Nisei-ethnicity U.S. Army
U.S. Army
artillery battalion.[43] Any prisoners who could not keep up on the six-day march were shot. Many others died of exhaustion, hunger and exposure.[44] Months later a mass grave containing 1,071 prisoners was found along the route.[45][46] Though at the time of liberation the death rate had peaked at 200 per day, after the liberation by U.S. forces the rate eventually fell to between 50 and 80 deaths per day. In addition to the direct abuse of the SS and the harsh conditions, people died from typhus epidemics and starvation. The number of inmates had peaked in 1944 with transports from evacuated camps in the east (such as Auschwitz), and the resulting overcrowding led to an increase in the death rate.[47]

Main camp[edit] Purpose[edit] Roll-call of Jewish prisoners (wearing Star of David
Star of David
badges), 20 July 1938 Dachau
Dachau
was opened in March 1933.[4] The press statement given at the opening stated:

.mw-parser-output .templatequote overflow:hidden;margin:1em 0;padding:0 40px .mw-parser-output .templatequote .templatequotecite line-height:1.5em;text-align:left;padding-left:1.6em;margin-top:0 On Wednesday the first concentration camp is to be opened in Dachau
Dachau
with an accommodation for 5000 people. 'All Communists and—where necessary—Reichsbanner and Social Democratic
Social Democratic
functionaries who endanger state security are to be concentrated here, as in the long run it is not possible to keep individual functionaries in the state prisons without overburdening these prisons, and on the other hand these people cannot be released because attempts have shown that they persist in their efforts to agitate and organize as soon as they are released.[48]

Between the years 1933 and 1945, more than 3.5 million Germans were imprisoned in such concentration camps or prison for political reasons.[49][50][51] Approximately 77,000 Germans were killed for one or another form of resistance by Special Courts, courts-martial, and the civil justice system. Many of these Germans had served in government, the military, or in civil positions, which were considered to enable them to engage in subversion and conspiracy against the Nazis.[52]

Organization[edit] The camp was divided into two sections: the camp area and the crematorium. The camp area consisted of 32 barracks, including one for clergy imprisoned for opposing the Nazi regime and one reserved for medical experiments. The courtyard between the prison and the central kitchen was used for the summary execution of prisoners. The camp was surrounded by an electrified barbed-wire gate, a ditch, and a wall with seven guard towers.[13]

Prisoners' barracks in 1945 In early 1937, the SS, using prisoner labor, initiated construction of a large complex of buildings on the grounds of the original camp. The construction was officially completed in mid-August 1938 and the camp remained essentially unchanged and in operation until 1945. A crematorium that was next to, but not directly accessible from within the camp, was erected in 1942. KZ Dachau
Dachau
was therefore the longest running concentration camp of the Third Reich. The Dachau
Dachau
complex included other SS facilities beside the concentration camp—a leader school of the economic and civil service, the medical school of the SS, etc. The camp at that time was called a "protective custody camp," and occupied less than half of the area of the entire complex.[13]

Medical experimentation[edit] Hundreds of prisoners suffered and died, or were executed in medical experiments conducted at KZ Dachau, for which Sigmund Rascher
Sigmund Rascher
was in charge. Hypothermia experiments involved exposure to vats of icy water or being strapped down naked outdoors in freezing temperatures. Attempts at reviving the subjects included scalding baths, and forcing naked women to copulate with the unconscious victim. Nearly 100 prisoners died during these experiments.[53] The original records of the experiments were destroyed "in an attempt to conceal the atrocities".[a][54] Extensive communication between the investigators and Heinrich Himmler, head of the SS, documents the experiments.[55] During 1942 high altitude experiments were conducted. Victims were subjected to rapid decompression to pressures found at 4,300 metres (14,100 ft) and experienced spasmodic convulsions, agonal breathing, and eventual death.[56]

Demographics[edit] The camp was originally designed for holding German and Austrian political prisoners and Jews, but in 1935 it began to be used also for ordinary criminals. Inside the camp there was a sharp division between the two groups of prisoners; those who were there for political reasons and therefore wore a red tag, and the criminals, who wore a green tag.[47] The political prisoners who were there because they disagreed with Nazi Party
Nazi Party
policies, or with Hitler, naturally did not consider themselves criminals. Dachau
Dachau
was used as the chief camp for Christian (mainly Catholic) clergy who were imprisoned for not conforming with the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
line.[citation needed]

Polish prisoners in Dachau
Dachau
toast their liberation from the camp. Poles constituted the largest ethnic group in the camp during the war, followed by Russians, French, Yugoslavs, Jews, and Czechs. During the war, other nationals were transferred to it, including French; in 1940 Poles; in 1941 people from the Balkans, Czechs, Yugoslavs; and in 1942, Russians.[47][47] Prisoners were divided into categories. At first, they were classified by the nature of the crime for which they were accused, but eventually were classified by the specific authority-type under whose command a person was sent to camp.[57]:53 Political prisoners who had been arrested by the Gestapo
Gestapo
wore a red badge, "professional" criminals sent by the Criminal Courts wore a green badge, Cri-Po prisoners arrested by the criminal police wore a brown badge, "work-shy and asocial" people sent by the welfare authorities or the Gestapo
Gestapo
wore a black badge, Jehovah's Witnesses
Jehovah's Witnesses
arrested by the Gestapo
Gestapo
wore a violet badge, homosexuals sent by the criminal courts wore a pink badge, emigrants arrested by the Gestapo
Gestapo
wore a blue badge, "race polluters" arrested by the criminal court or Gestapo
Gestapo
wore badges with a black outline, second-termers arrested by the Gestapo wore a bar matching the color of their badge, "idiots" wore a white armband with the label Blöd (Stupid), and Jews, whose incarceration in the Dachau
Dachau
concentration camp dramatically increased after Kristallnacht, wore a yellow badge, combined with another color.[57]:54–69 The average number of Germans in the camp during the war was 3,000. Just before the liberation many German prisoners were evacuated, but 2,000 of these Germans died during the evacuation transport. Evacuated prisoners included such prominent political and religious figures as Martin Niemöller, Kurt von Schuschnigg, Édouard Daladier, Léon Blum, Franz Halder, and Hjalmar Schacht.[47]

Clergy[edit] Main article: Priest Barracks of Dachau
Dachau
Concentration Camp German scientist, Friedrich Hoffman, testifies at the trial of former camp personnel and prisoners from Dachau. In his hand he holds records showing that hundreds of priests died at the camp after being exposed to malaria during Nazi medical experiments. In effort to counter the strength and influence of spiritual resistance, Nazi security services monitored clergy very closely.[58]:141–2 Priests were frequently denounced, arrested and sent to concentration camps, often simply on the basis of being "suspected of activities hostile to the State" or that there was reason to "suppose that his dealings might harm society".[58]:142 Despite SS hostility to religious observance, the Vatican and German bishops successfully lobbied the regime to concentrate clergy at one camp and obtained permission to build a chapel, for the priests to live communally and for time to be allotted to them for the religious and intellectual activity. Priests Barracks at Dachau
Dachau
were established in Blocks 26, 28 and 30, though only temporarily. 26 became the international block and 28 was reserved for Poles – the most numerous group.[58]:145–6 Of a total of 2,720 clergy recorded as imprisoned at Dachau, the overwhelming majority, some 2,579 (or 94.88%) were Catholic. Among the other denominations, there were 109 Protestants, 22 Greek Orthodox, 8 Old Catholics and Mariavites and 2 Muslims. In his Dachau: The Official History 1933–1945, Paul Berben noted that R. Schnabel's 1966 investigation, Die Frommen in der Hölle ("The Pious Ones in Hell") found an alternative total of 2,771 and included the fate all the clergy listed, with 692 noted as deceased and 336 sent out on "invalid trainloads" and therefore presumed dead.[58]:276–277 Over 400 German priests were sent to Dachau.[59] Total numbers incarcerated are nonetheless difficult to assert, for some clergy were not recognised as such by the camp authorities, and some—particularly Poles—did not wish to be identified as such, fearing they would be mistreated.[58]:157 The Nazis introduced a racial hierarchy—keeping Poles in harsh conditions, while favoring German priests.[58]:148 697 Poles arrived in December 1941, and a further 500 of mainly elderly clergy were brought in October the following year. Inadequately clothed for the bitter cold, of this group only 82 survived. A large number of Polish priests were chosen for Nazi medical experiments. In November 1942, 20 were given phlegmons. 120 were used by Dr Schilling for malaria experiments between July 1942 and May 1944. Several Poles met their deaths with the "invalid trains" sent out from the camp, others were liquidated in the camp and given bogus death certificates. Some died of cruel punishment for misdemeanors—beaten to death or run to exhaustion.[58]:148–9

Staff[edit] The camp staff consisted mostly of SS males, although 19 female guards served at Dachau
Dachau
as well, most of them until liberation.[60] Sixteen have been identified including Fanny Baur, Leopoldine Bittermann, Ernestine Brenner, Anna Buck, Rosa Dolaschko, Maria Eder, Rosa Grassmann, Betty Hanneschaleger, Ruth Elfriede Hildner, Josefa Keller, Berta Kimplinger, Lieselotte Klaudat, Theresia Kopp, Rosalie Leimboeck, and Thea Miesl.[61] Women guards were assigned also to the Augsburg Michelwerke, Burgau, Kaufering, Mühldorf, and Munich Agfa Camera Werke subcamps. In mid-April 1945, female subcamps at Kaufering, Augsburg, and Munich
Munich
were closed, and the SS stationed the women at Dachau. Several Norwegians worked as guards at the Dachau camp.[62] In the major Dachau
Dachau
war crimes case (United States of America v. Martin Gottfried Weiss
Martin Gottfried Weiss
et.al.), forty-two officials of Dachau
Dachau
were tried from November to December 1945. All were found guilty – thirty-six of the defendants were sentenced to death on 13 December 1945, of whom 23 were hanged on 28–29 May 1946, including the commandant, SS-Obersturmbannführer
SS-Obersturmbannführer
Martin Gottfried Weiss, SS-Obersturmführer Freidrich Wilhelm Ruppert
Wilhelm Ruppert
and camp doctors Karl Schilling and Fritz Hintermeyer.[63] Camp commandant Weiss admitted in affidavit testimony that most of the deaths at Dachau during his administration were due to "typhus, TB, dysentery, pneumonia, pleurisy, and body weakness brought about by lack of food." His testimony also admitted to deaths by shootings, hangings and medical experiments.[64][65][66] Ruppert ordered and supervised the deaths of innumerable prisoners at Dachau main and subcamps, according to the War Crimes Commission official trial transcript. He testified about hangings, shootings and lethal injections, but did not admit to direct responsibility for any individual deaths.[67] An anonymous Dutch prisoner contended that British Special Operations Executive
Special Operations Executive
(SOE) agent Noor Inayat Khan was cruelly beaten by SS officer Wilhelm Ruppert
Wilhelm Ruppert
before being shot from behind; the beating may have been the actual cause of her death.[68]

Satellite camps and sub-camps[edit] Further information: List of subcamps of Dachau Satellite camps under the authority of Dachau
Dachau
were established in the summer and autumn of 1944 near armaments factories throughout southern Germany
Germany
to increase war production. Dachau
Dachau
alone had more than 30 large subcamps, and hundreds of smaller ones[69], in which over 30,000 prisoners worked almost exclusively on armaments.[70] Overall, the Dachau
Dachau
concentration camp system included 123 sub-camps and Kommandos which were set up in 1943 when factories were built near the main camp to make use of forced labor of the Dachau
Dachau
prisoners. Out of the 123 sub-camps, eleven of them were called Kaufering, distinguished by a number at the end of each. All Kaufering
Kaufering
sub-camps were set up to specifically build three underground factories (Allied bombing raids made it necessary for them to be underground) for a project called Ringeltaube (wood pigeon), which planned to be the location in which the German jet fighter plane, Messerschmitt Me 262, was to be built. In the last days of war, in April 1945, the Kaufering camps were evacuated and around 15,000 prisoners were sent up to the main Dachau
Dachau
camp. Typhus
Typhus
alone was estimated to have caused 15,000 deaths between December 1944 and April 1945.[71][72] "Within the first month after the arrival of the American troops, 10,000 prisoners were treated for malnutrition and kindred diseases. In spite of this one hundred prisoners died each day during the first month from typhus, dysentery or general weakness".[65] As U.S. Army
U.S. Army
troops neared the Dachau
Dachau
sub-camp at Landsberg on 27 April 1945, the SS officer in charge ordered that 4,000 prisoners be murdered. Windows and doors of their huts were nailed shut. The buildings were then doused with gasoline and set afire. Prisoners who were naked or nearly so were burned to death, while some managed to crawl out of the buildings before dying. Earlier that day, as Wehrmacht troops withdrew from Landsberg am Lech, towns people hung white sheets from their windows. Infuriated SS troops dragged German civilians from their homes and hanged them from trees.[73][74]

Liberation[edit] Main camp[edit] Female prisoners at Dachau
Dachau
wave to their liberators As the Allies began to advance on Nazi Germany, the SS began to evacuate the first concentration camps in summer 1944.[30] Thousands of prisoners were killed before the evacuation due to being ill or unable to walk. At the end of 1944, the overcrowding of camps began to take its toll on the prisoners. The unhygienic conditions and the supplies of food rations became disastrous. In November a typhus fever epidemic broke out that took thousands of lives.[30] In the second phase of the evacuation, in April 1945, Himmler gave direct evacuation routes for remaining camps. Prisoners who were from the northern part of Germany
Germany
were to be directed to the Baltic and North Sea coasts to be drowned. The prisoners from the southern part were to be gathered in the Alps, which was the location in which the SS wanted to resist the Allies[30]. On 28 April 1945, an armed revolt took place in the town of Dachau. Both former and escaped concentration camp prisoners, and a renegade Volkssturm
Volkssturm
(civilian militia) company took part. At about 8:30 am the rebels occupied the Town Hall. The advanced forces of the SS gruesomely suppressed the revolt within a few hours.[30]

Bodies in the Dachau
Dachau
death train SS men confer with General Henning Linden
Henning Linden
(person with helmet, looking to his right) during the liberation of the Dachau concentration camp (April 29, 1945) Being fully aware that Germany
Germany
was about to be defeated in World War II, the SS invested its time in removing evidence of the crimes it committed in the concentration camps. They began destroying incriminating evidence in April 1945 and planned on murdering the prisoners using codenames "Wolke A-I" (Cloud A-1) and "Wolkenbrand" (Cloud fire).[75] However, these plans were not carried out. In mid-April, plans to evacuate the camp started by sending prisoners toward Tyrol. On 26 April, over 10,000 prisoners were forced to leave the Dachau
Dachau
concentration camp on foot, in trains, or in trucks. The largest group of some 7,000 prisoners was driven southward on a foot-march lasting several days. More than 1,000 prisoners did not survive this march. The evacuation transports cost many thousands of prisoners their lives.[30] On 26 April 1945 prisoner Karl Riemer fled the Dachau
Dachau
concentration camp to get help from American troops and on 28 April Victor Maurer, a representative of the International Red Cross, negotiated an agreement to surrender the camp to U.S. troops. That night a secretly formed International Prisoners Committee took over the control of the camp. Units of 3rd Battalion, 157th Infantry Regiment, 45th Infantry Division, commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Felix L. Sparks, were ordered to secure the camp. On 29 April Sparks led part of his battalion as they entered the camp over a side wall.[76] At about the same time, Brigadier General Henning Linden
Henning Linden
led the 222nd Infantry Regiment of the 42nd (Rainbow) Infantry Division soldiers including his aide, Lieutenant William Cowling,[77] to accept the formal surrender of the camp from German Lieutenant Heinrich Wicker at an entrance between the camp and the compound for the SS garrison. Linden was traveling with Marguerite Higgins
Marguerite Higgins
and other reporters, as a result, Linden's detachment generated international headlines by accepting the surrender of the camp. More than 30,000 Jews and political prisoners were freed, and since 1945 adherents of the 42nd and 45th Division versions of events have argued over which unit was the first to liberate Dachau.[30]:201[78]:283[79][80][81]

Satellite camps liberation[edit] The first Dachau
Dachau
subcamp discovered by advancing Allied forces was Kaufering
Kaufering
Lager IV at Landsberg am Lech
Landsberg am Lech
by the 12th Armored Division on 27 April 1945.[82][83] Subcamps liberated by the 12th Armored Division included: Hurlach, Erpting, Kaufering, Schrobenhausen, Schwabing, Langerringen, Türkheim, Lauingen, Schwabach, Germering.[84]

SS officer Johann Baptist Eichelsdörfer, April 1945, Commandant of Kaufering
Kaufering
IV Konzentrationslager, Landsberg [Executed 29 May 1946 Landsberg]. During the liberation of the sub-camps surrounding Dachau, advance scouts of the U.S. Army's 522nd Field Artillery Battalion, a segregated battalion consisting of Nisei, 2nd generation Japanese-Americans, liberated the 3,000 prisoners of the " Kaufering
Kaufering
IV Hurlach"[85] slave labor camp.[86] Perisco describes an Office of Strategic Services
Office of Strategic Services
(OSS) team (code name LUXE) leading Army Intelligence to a "Camp IV" on 29 April. "They found the camp afire and a stack of some four hundred bodies burning ... American soldiers then went into Landsberg and rounded up all the male civilians they could find and marched them out to the camp. The former commandant was forced to lie amidst a pile of corpses. The male population of Landsberg was then ordered to walk by, and ordered to spit on the commandant as they passed. The commandant was then turned over to a group of liberated camp survivors".[87] The 522nd's personnel later discovered the survivors of a death march[88] headed generally southwards from the Dachau
Dachau
main camp to Eurasburg, then eastwards towards the Austrian border on 2 May, just west of the town of Waakirchen.[89][90] Weather at the time of liberation was unseasonably cool and temperatures trended down through the first two days of May; on 2 May, the area received a snowstorm with 10 centimetres (4 in) of snow at nearby Munich.[91] Proper clothing was still scarce and film footage from the time (as seen in The World at War) shows naked, gaunt people either wandering on snow or dead under it. Due to the number of sub-camps over a large area that comprised the Dachau
Dachau
concentration camp complex, many Allied units have been officially recognized by the United States Army
United States Army
Center of Military History and the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
as liberating units of Dachau, including: the 4th Infantry Division, 36th Infantry Division, 42nd Infantry Division, 45th Infantry Division, 63rd Infantry Division, 99th Infantry Division, 103rd Infantry Division, 10th Armored Division, 12th Armored Division, 14th Armored Division, 20th Armored Division, and the 101st Airborne Division.[92]

Killing of camp guards[edit] Main article: Dachau
Dachau
liberation reprisals Photograph allegedly showing an unauthorized execution of SS troops in a coal yard in the area of the Dachau
Dachau
concentration camp during its liberation—part of the Dachau
Dachau
liberation reprisals. 29 April 1945 ( U.S. Army
U.S. Army
photograph)[b] American troops killed some of the camp guards after they had surrendered. The number is disputed as some were killed in combat, some while attempting to surrender, and others after their surrender was accepted. In 1989 Brigadier General Felix L. Sparks, the Colonel in command of a battalion that was present, stated:

The total number of German guards killed at Dachau
Dachau
during that day most certainly does not exceed fifty, with thirty probably being a more accurate figure. The regimental records of the 157th Field Artillery Regiment for that date indicate that over a thousand German prisoners were brought to the regimental collecting point. Since my task force was leading the regimental attack, almost all the prisoners were taken by the task force, including several hundred from Dachau.[93]

An Inspector General report resulting from a US Army investigation conducted between 3 and 8 May 1945 and titled, "American Army Investigation of Alleged Mistreatment of German Guards at Dachau," found that 21 plus "a number" of presumed SS men were killed with others being wounded after their surrender had been accepted.[94][95] In addition, 25 to 50 SS guards were estimated to have been killed by the liberated prisoners.[96] Lee Miller
Lee Miller
visited the camp just after liberation, and photographed several guards who were killed by soldiers or prisoners.[97] According to Sparks, court-martial charges were drawn up against him and several other men under his command but General George S. Patton, who had recently been appointed military governor of Bavaria, chose to dismiss the charges.[93] Colonel Charles L. Decker, an acting deputy judge advocate, concluded in late 1945 that, while war crimes had been committed at Dachau
Dachau
by Germany, "Certainly, there was no such systematic criminality among United States forces as pervaded the Nazi groups in Germany."[98] American troops also forced local citizens to the camp to see for themselves the conditions there and to help bury the dead.[83] Many local residents were shocked about the experience and claimed no knowledge of the activities at the camp.[78]:292

Post-liberation Easter[edit] 6 May 1945 (23 April on the Orthodox calendar) was the day of Pascha, Orthodox Easter. In a cell block used by Catholic priests to say daily Mass, several Greek, Serbian and Russian priests and one Serbian deacon, wearing makeshift vestments made from towels of the SS guard, gathered with several hundred Greek, Serbian and Russian prisoners to celebrate the Paschal Vigil. A prisoner named Rahr described the scene:[99]

Liberated Dachau
Dachau
camp prisoners cheer U.S. troops In the entire history of the Orthodox Church there has probably never been an Easter service like the one at Dachau
Dachau
in 1945. Greek and Serbian priests together with a Serbian deacon adorned the make-shift 'vestments' over their blue and gray-striped prisoners' uniforms. Then they began to chant, changing from Greek to Slavic, and then back again to Greek. The Easter Canon, the Easter Sticheras—everything was recited from memory. The Gospel—In the beginning was the Word—also from memory. And finally, the Homily of Saint John—also from memory. A young Greek monk from the Holy Mountain stood up in front of us and recited it with such infectious enthusiasm that we shall never forget him as long as we live. Saint John Chrysostomos himself seemed to speak through him to us and to the rest of the world as well!

There is a Russian Orthodox chapel at the camp today, and it is well known for its icon of Christ leading the prisoners out of the camp gates. The U.S. 7th Army's version of the events of the Dachau Liberation is available in Report of Operations of the Seventh United States Army, Vol. 3, page 382.

After liberation[edit] Play media Footage from after liberation Authorities worked night and day to alleviate conditions at the camp immediately following the liberation as an epidemic of black typhus swept through the prisoner population. Two thousand cases had already been reported by that 3 May.[100] By October of the same year the camp was being used by the U.S. Army as a place of confinement for war criminals, the SS and important witnesses.[101] It was also the site of the Dachau
Dachau
Trials for German war criminals, a site chosen for its symbolism. In 1948 the Bavarian government established housing for refugees on the site, and this remained for many years.[102] Among those held in the Dachau
Dachau
internment camp set up under the U.S. Army
U.S. Army
were Elsa Ehrich, Maria Mandl, and Elisabeth Ruppert.

Deportation of Soviet nationals[edit] By January 1946, 18,000 members of the SS were being confined at the camp along with an additional 12,000 persons, including deserters from the Russian army. The occupants of one barracks rioted as 271 of the Russian deserters were to be loaded onto trains that would return them to Russian-controlled lands, as agreed at the Yalta Conference. Ten of the soldiers, who had been captured in German Army uniforms, committed suicide during the riot. Twenty-one others attempted suicide, apparently with razor blades. Many had "cracked heads" inflicted by 500 American and Polish guards, in the attempt to bring the situation under control. Inmates barricaded themselves inside and set fire to the building, tore off their clothing, and linked arms to resist being removed from the building. Some begged American soldiers to shoot them. Tear gas was used by the soldiers before rushing the building.[103] There were 275 cases of suicide or attempted suicide, whether by hanging, smashing window panes and cutting their throats on the shards of glass, or throwing themselves into the flames of their burning barracks.[104][105] The Kaserne quarters and other buildings used by the guards and trainee guards were converted and served as the Eastman Barracks, an American military post, for many years. It had its own elementary school: Dachau
Dachau
American Elementary School, a part of the U.S. Department of Defense dependent school system. After the closure of the Eastman Barracks, these areas are now occupied by the Bavarian Bereitschaftspolizei
Bereitschaftspolizei
(rapid response police unit).[106]

List of personnel[edit] This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.Find sources: " Dachau
Dachau
concentration camp" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR
JSTOR
(March 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Adolf Eichmann
Adolf Eichmann
on trial in 1961 Commandants[edit] SS- Standartenführer
Standartenführer
Hilmar Wäckerle (22 March 1933 – 26 June 1933) SS- Gruppenführer
Gruppenführer
Theodor Eicke
Theodor Eicke
(26 June 1933 – 4 July 1934) SS- Oberführer
Oberführer
Alexander Reiner [de] (4 July 1934 – 22 October 1934) SS- Brigadeführer
Brigadeführer
Berthold Maack (22 October 1934 – 12 January 1935) SS- Oberführer
Oberführer
Heinrich Deubel (12 January 1935 – 31 March 1936) SS- Oberführer
Oberführer
Hans Loritz
Hans Loritz
(31 March 1936 – 7 January 1939) SS- Hauptsturmführer
Hauptsturmführer
Alexander Piorkowski
Alexander Piorkowski
(7 January 1939 – 2 January 1942) SS-Obersturmbannführer
SS-Obersturmbannführer
Martin Weiß (3 January 1942 – 30 September 1943) SS- Hauptsturmführer
Hauptsturmführer
Eduard Weiter
Eduard Weiter
(30 September 1943 – 26 April 1945) SS-Obersturmbannführer
SS-Obersturmbannführer
Martin Weiß (26 April 1945 – 28 April 1945) SS- Untersturmführer
Untersturmführer
Johannes Otto (28 April 1945) SS- Untersturmführer
Untersturmführer
Heinrich Wicker (28 April 1945 – 29 April 1945) Other staff[edit] Adolf Eichmann
Adolf Eichmann
(29 January 1934 – October 1934)[107] (Eichmann claimed that his unit had nothing to do with the concentration camp)[108] Rudolf Höss
Rudolf Höss
(1934–1938)[109] Max Kögel
Max Kögel
(1937–1938) Gerhard Freiherr von Almey, a SS-Obergruppenführer, half-brother of Ludolf von Alvensleben. Executed in 1955, in Moscow. Johannes Heesters[110] (visited the camp and entertained the SS-officers, was also given/giving tours)[111] Otto Rahn
Otto Rahn
(1937)[112] SS and civilian doctors[edit] Dr. Hans Eisele in American internment SS- Untersturmführer
Untersturmführer
– Dr. Hans Eisele – (13 March 1912 – 1967) – Escaped to Egypt SS-Obersturmführer – Dr. Fritz Hintermayer – (28 Oct 1911 – 29 May 1946) – Executed by the Allies Dr. Ernst Holzlöhner – (Committed suicide) SS- Hauptsturmführer
Hauptsturmführer
– Dr. Fridolin Karl Puhr – (30 April 1913 – ?) – Sentenced to death, later commuted to 10-years imprisonment SS- Untersturmführer
Untersturmführer
Dr. Sigmund Rascher
Sigmund Rascher
– (12 February 1909 – 26 April 1945) – Executed by the SS Dr. Claus Schilling
Claus Schilling
– (25 July 1871 – 28 May 1946) – Executed by the Allies SS Sturmbannführer – Dr. Horst Schumann
Horst Schumann
– (11 May 1906 – 5 May 1983) – Escaped to Ghana, later extradited to West Germany SS Obersturmführer – Dr. Helmuth Vetter – (21 March 1910 – 2 February 1949) – Executed by the Allies SS Sturmbannführer – Dr. Wilhelm Witteler – (20 April 1909 – ?) – Sentenced to death, later commuted to 20-years imprisonment SS Sturmbannführer – Dr. Waldemar Wolter – (19 May 1908 – 28 May 1947) – Executed by the Allies Memorial[edit] Memorial sculpture by Nandor Glid
Nandor Glid
erected in 1968 Orthodox chapel in the memorial. Aerial photo of the memorial in 2012 Between 1945 and 1948 when the camp was handed over to the Bavarian authorities, many accused war criminals and members of the SS were imprisoned at the camp. Owing to the severe refugee crisis mainly caused by the expulsions of ethnic Germans, the camp was from late 1948 used to house 2000 Germans from Czechoslovakia (mainly from the Sudetenland). This settlement was called Dachau-East, and remained until the mid-1960s.[113] During this time, former prisoners banded together to erect a memorial on the site of the camp, finding it unbelievable that there were still people (refugees) living in the former camp.[citation needed] The display, which was reworked in 2003, takes the visitor through the path of new arrivals to the camp. Special
Special
presentations of some of the notable prisoners are also provided. Two of the barracks have been rebuilt and one shows a cross-section of the entire history of the camp, since the original barracks had to be torn down due to their poor condition when the memorial was built. The other 32 barracks are indicated by concrete foundations. The memorial includes four chapels for the various religions represented among the prisoners.[citation needed]

In media[edit] In his 2013 autobiography, Moose: Chapters from My Life, in the chapter entitled, "Dachau", author Robert B. Sherman
Robert B. Sherman
chronicles his experiences as an American Army serviceman during the initial hours of Dachau's liberation.[114] In Lewis Black's first book, Nothing's Sacred, he mentions visiting the camp as part of his tour of Europe and how it looked all cleaned up and spiffy, "like some delightful holiday camp", and only the crematorium building showed any sign of the horror that went on there. In Maus, Vladek describes his time interned at Dachau, among his time at other concentration camps. He describes the journey to Dachau
Dachau
in over-crowded trains, trading rations for other goods and favors to stay alive, and contracting typhus. Frontline: "Memory of the Camps" (7 May 1985, Season 3, Episode 18), is a 56-minute television documentary that addresses Dachau
Dachau
and other Nazi concentration camps[115][116] See also[edit] Karl von Eberstein List of Nazi concentration camps List of subcamps of Dachau

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Dachau
Dachau
concentration camp.

Notes[edit]

^ "In an attempt to conceal the atrocities, the original, incriminating records of most of the concentration camp studies of humans were destroyed before the camps were captured by the Allied forces." (See Medicine, Ethics, and the Third Reich: Historical and Contemporary Issues Page 88)

^ The caption for the photograph in the U.S. National Archives reads, "SC208765, Soldiers of the 42nd Infantry Division, U.S. Seventh Army, order SS men to come forward when one of their number tried to escape from the Dachau, Germany, concentration camp after it was captured by U.S. forces. Men on the ground in background feign death by falling as the guards fired a volley at the fleeing SS men. (157th Regt. 4/29/45)."

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^ The Gestapo
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on trial : evidence from Nuremberg. Carruthers, Bob, (The illustrated ed.). South Yorkshire, England. ISBN 1473849438. OCLC 903967032.CS1 maint: others (link)

^ 45th Infantry Division.com

^ Cowan, Howard (Associated Press) (30 April 1945). "Notorious Nazi Prison Camp is Liberated, 32,000 are Freed". The Evening Times. Sayre, PA. p. 7.

^ a b Alex Kershaw, The Liberator: One World War II Soldier's 500-Day Odyssey from the Beaches of Sicily to the Gates of Dachau, 2012.

^ James Stuart Olson, Historical Dictionary of the 1950s, 2000, page 125

^ Joe Wilson, The 761st "Black Panther" Tank Battalion in World War II, 1999, page 185

^ Sam Dann, Dachau
Dachau
29 April 1945: the Rainbow Liberation Memoirs, 1998, page 6

^ "The 12th Armored Division". The Holocaust
The Holocaust
Encyclopedia. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Retrieved 14 September 2015.

^ a b "Die Amerikanische Armee entdeckt den Holocaust (The American army discovered the Holocaust)". Europäische Holocaustgedenkstätte Stiftung (European Holocaust Memorial Foundation). Retrieved 15 September 2015.

^ "Liberation of Concentration Camps". The 12th Armored Division Memorial Museum. Retrieved 14 September 2015.

^ " Kaufering
Kaufering
IV – Hurlach
Hurlach
– Schwabmunchen". Kaufering.com. 19 January 2008. Retrieved 6 July 2012.

^ "Central Europe Campaign – 522nd Field Artillery Battalion". Retrieved 17 March 2009.

^ Joseph E Persico (1979). Piercing the Reich. Viking Press. p. 306. ISBN 0-670-55490-1.

^ "Todesmärsche Dachau
Dachau
memorial website's map page of KZ- Dachau
Dachau
death march". Archived from the original on 3 October 2016. Retrieved 18 September 2016.

^ "Central Europe Campaign – 522nd Field Artillery Battalion". Retrieved 12 January 2015.

^ USHMM photos of Waakirchen
Waakirchen
with 522nd personnel and rescued prisoners

^ http://kachelmannwetter.com/de/messwerte Kachelmann Weather archive

^ " U.S. Army
U.S. Army
Divisions Recognized as Liberating Units by the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum and the Center of Military". The Holocaust Encyclopedia- US ARMY UNITS. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Retrieved 14 September 2015.

^ a b Albert Panebianco (ed). Dachau
Dachau
its liberation 157th Infantry Association, Felix L. Sparks, Secretary 15 June 1989. (backup site)

^ "Testimony of: Lt. Howard E. Buchner, MC, 0-435481, 3rd Bn., 157th Infantry". Archived from the original on 18 September 2013. Retrieved 20 September 2013.

^ The Nuremberg Trials: International Criminal Law Since 1945 / Die Nürnberger ... By Lawrence Raful. 60th Anniversary International Conference / Internationale Konferenz zum 60. Jahrestag (Google eBook).page 314

^ Zarusky, Jürgen (2002). "'That is not the American Way of Fighting:' The Shooting of Captured SS-Men During the Liberation of Dachau". In Wolfgang Benz; Barbara Distel (eds.). Dachau
Dachau
and the Nazi Terror 1933–1945. 2, Studies and Reports. Dachau: Verlag Dachauer Hefte. pp. 156–157. ISBN 978-3-9808587-1-7. Excerpt online

^ Burke, Carolyn (2005). Lee Miller: A Life. New York, NY: Alfred A. Knopf. p. 261. ISBN 978-0-375-40147-3.

^ ETO, War Crimes and Punishment of War Crimes. page 6 Retrieved 11 January 2014

^ "Gleb Alexandrovitch Rahr – Prisoner R (Russian) – Pascha (Easter) in Dachau". Orthodoxytoday.org. Retrieved 6 July 2012.

^ Typhus
Typhus
Epidemic Sweeping Camp. (INS) New Castle news 3 May 1945 page 1

^ " Dachau
Dachau
Officials Will Face Trail – U.S. Army
U.S. Army
Will Open Hearings of Cases Against 40 to 50 Early Next Month". Wireless to the New York Times. New York Times 21 October 1945, page 11

^ Dachau
Dachau
Concentration Camp Memorial Site (pedagogical information) Archived 18 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
(in German)

^ McLaughlin, Kathleen (20 January 1946). Soviet Deserters Suicides in Dachau
Dachau
– 10 Die, 21 Slash Themselves as Russians Who Fought with Nazis Defy Repatriation. New York Times. p. 25. Retrieved June 2016. Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)

^ Jeffrey Rogers Hummel (1974), "Operation Keelhaul Exposed", Reason, p. 7

^ Lyons, Eugene (1954). Our Secret Allies:The Peoples of Russia. New York: Duell, Sloan and Pearce. p. 264.

^ Sven Felix Kellerhoff (21 October 2002). "Neue Museumskonzepte für die Konzentrationslager". WELT ONLINE (in German). Axel Springer AG. Retrieved 2 June 2008. . . . die SS-Kasernen neben dem KZ Dachau wurden zuerst (bis 1974) von der US-Armee bezogen. Seither nutzt sie die VI. Bayerische Bereitschaftspolizei. (. . . the SS barracks adjacent to the Dachau
Dachau
concentration camp were at first occupied by the US Army (until 1974). Since then they have been used by the Sixth Rapid Response Unit of the Bavarian Police.)

^ "The Nizkor Project". transcript from the 1961 Eichmann trial. Shofar FTP archive and the Nizkor project. Retrieved 2 February 2009.

^ "people/e/eichmann.adolf/transcripts/Sessions/Session-075-05". transcript from the 1961 Eichmann trial. Shofar FTP archive and the Nizkor project. Retrieved 2 February 2009.

^ "The Trial of German Major War Criminals Sitting at Nuremberg, Germany
Germany
4th April to 15th April, 1946: One Hundred and Eighth Day: Monday, 15th April, 1946 (Part 1 of 10)". the Nizkor Project. 1991–2009. Retrieved 5 March 2010.

^ Klee, Kulturlexikon, S. 227.

^ Klee, Kulturlexikon, S. 232.

^ Preston, John (21 May 2008). "The original Indiana Jones: Otto Rahn and the temple of doom". ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 23 October 2017.

^ Legacies of Dachau: The Uses and Abuses of a Concentration Camp, 1933–2001 Harold Marcuse

^ Sherman, Robert B.
Sherman, Robert B.
"Dachau" in Moose: Chapters From My Life; AuthorHouse Publishers; Bloomington IN; 2013; ISBN 978-1-491-88366-2

^ "Memory of the Camps". IMDb. 1985.

^ "Memory of the Camps". TopDocumentaries.com. 1985.

Bibliography[edit] Bishop, Lt. Col. Leo V.; Glasgow, Maj. Frank J.; Fisher, Maj. George A., eds. (1946). The Fighting Forty-Fifth: the Combat Report of an Infantry Division. Baton Rouge, Louisiana.: 45th Infantry Division [Army & Navy Publishing Co.] OCLC 4249021. Buechner, Howard A. (1986). Dachau—The Hour of the Avenger. Thunderbird Press. ISBN 0-913159-04-2. Dillon, Christopher (2015). Dachau
Dachau
and the SS: A Schooling in Violence. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-199-65652-3. Kozal, Czesli W. (2004). Memoir of Fr. Czesli W. (Chester) Kozal, O.M.I. Translated by Ischler, Paul. Missionary Oblates of Mary Immaculate. OCLC 57253860. Marcuse, Harold (2001). Legacies of Dachau: The Uses and Abuses of a Concentration Camp, 1933–2001. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-55204-2. Roberts, Donald R (2008). Heather R. Biola (ed.). The other war, a World War II journal. Elkins, W.V.: McClain Printing Co. ISBN 978-0-87012-775-5. Includes report written for: United States. Army. Infantry Division, 9th. Office of the Surgeon. Interrogation of SS Officers and Men at Dachau. Headquarters Third US Army and Eastern Military District, Office of the Judge Advocate. "Review of Proceedings of General Military Court in the Case of United States vs. Martin Weiss et.al." (PDF). Retrieved 16 September 2015.("US v. Weiss") The United Nations War Crimes Commission (1949). Law Reports of Trials of War Criminals, vol. XI (PDF). His Majesty's Stationery Office. Retrieved 16 September 2015. ("UN War Crimes Commission") External links[edit] 7th Army, U.S. (1945). Dachau. University of Wisconsin Digital Collection. Anderson, Stuart (2008–2010). " Dachau
Dachau
Concentration Camp Memorial". Destination Munich. Video Footage showing the Liberation of Dachau The short film A German is tried for murder [etc. (1945)] is available for free download at the Internet Archive "Communists to be interned in Dachau". The Guardian. 21 March 1933. Cramer, Douglas. " Dachau
Dachau
1945: The Souls of All Are Aflame". Orthodoxy Today.org. " Dachau
Dachau
Concentration Camp Memorial Site". Stiftung Bayerische Gedenkstätten, German. Retrieved 2 March 2010. " Dachau
Dachau
Memorial Site, UCSB Department of History". Professor Harold Marcuse, PhD. Retrieved 6 June 2010. Doyle, Chris (2009). " Dachau
Dachau
(Konzentrationslager Dachau): An Overview". Never Again! Online Holocaust Memorial. Perez, R.H. (2002). " Dachau
Dachau
Concentration Camp – Liberation: A Documentary – U. S. Massacre of Waffen SS – April 29, 1945". Humanitas International. Archived from the original on 24 March 2010. Retrieved 28 February 2010. "The European Holocaust Memorial". Landsberg im 20. Jahrhundert. Watson, Simon (Fall 2007). " Dachau
Dachau
Awakening". Queen's Quarterly 114/3. Dachau
Dachau
camp prisoner testimonies page, 041940.pl "The Angel of Dachau". – Pope Francis declares concentration camp priest a martyr – CNA "Traces of Evil". Illustrative History of Dachau
Dachau
and Environs

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