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Dachau
Dachau
(German pronunciation: [ˈdaxaʊ]) is a town in Upper Bavaria, in the southern part of Germany. It is a major district town—a Große Kreisstadt—of the administrative region of Upper Bavaria, about 20 kilometres (12 miles) north-west of Munich. It is now a popular residential area for people working in Munich
Munich
with roughly 45,000 inhabitants. The historic centre of town with its 18th-century castle is situated on an elevation and visible over a great distance. Dachau
Dachau
was founded in the 9th century. It was home to many artists during the late 19th and early 20th centuries; well-known author and editor Ludwig Thoma
Ludwig Thoma
lived here for two years. The town is also known for its proximity to the infamous Dachau concentration camp
Dachau concentration camp
built in 1933 by the Nazis, in which tens of thousands of prisoners died.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Prehistoric times and Early Middle Ages 2.2 Middle Ages 2.3 From the 16th century to modern times 2.4 Second World War

3 Geography

3.1 Geographical location

4 Bodies of water 5 Transportation 6 Sights 7 Twin cities 8 People 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links

Etymology[edit] The origin of the name is not known, it possibly originated with the Celts
Celts
who lived there before the Germans came. An alternative idea is that it comes from the old high German word daha meaning clay, and ouwe, water overflown land. History[edit] Prehistoric times and Early Middle Ages[edit] As the Amper
Amper
River would divert into backwaters in several places, there were many fords making it possible to cross the river. The oldest findings of human presence here date back to the Stone Age. The most noteworthy findings were discovered near Feldgeding in the adjoining municipality Bergkirchen. Around 1000 B.C. the Celts
Celts
arrived in this area and settled. The name “Dachau” originated in the Celtic Dahauua, which roughly translates to “loamy meadow” and also alludes to the loamy soil of the surrounding hills. Some theories assume the name “Amper” river may derive from the Celtic word for “water”. Approximately at the turn of the first millennium the Romans conquered the area and incorporated it into the province of Rhaetia. A Roman trade road between Salzburg
Salzburg
and today’s Augsburg
Augsburg
is said to have run through Dachau. Remains of this old route are found along the Amper
Amper
marshlands. Middle Ages[edit] The first known documentation of Dachau
Dachau
occurs in a medieval deed issued by the Noble Erchana of Dahauua to the prince-bishop of Freising[2], both descendants of the lineage of the Aribonids. With this deed, dated to August 15, 805 A.D. (the Feast of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary), she donated her entire property in Dachau, including five so-called Colonenhöfe and some serfs and bondsman, to devolve to the Bishop of the Diocese of Freising after her death. During much of the 12th century, Dachau
Dachau
was the primary residence of a smaller branch from the House of Wittelsbach
House of Wittelsbach
led by Otto I, Count of Scheyern-Dauchau. When Conrad III died in 1182, Duke Otto I of Bavaria purchased the land and granted it market rights, that were then affirmed between 1270 and 1280 by Duke Ludwig II der Strenge (the Strict).[3] In 1467 Sigismund, Duke of Bavaria
Bavaria
resigned and then kept only Bavaria- Dachau
Dachau
as his domain until his death in 1501. From the 16th century to modern times[edit] Between 1546 and 1577, the House of Wittelsbach
House of Wittelsbach
had the Dachau
Dachau
Palace erected in the Renaissance
Renaissance
style. From June 1715 to Autumn 1717, Joseph Effner
Joseph Effner
remodeled the palace to suit the contemporary taste in style. At the beginning of the 19th century, the castle's north-, east- and south-wing had to be demolished due to their state of disrepair. The west-wing housing the dance hall with a superb view of the enchanting gardens, still remains today. On the first floor the original renaissance wood carved, coffered ceiling can be admired by visitors. During the second half of the 19th century, the town began to attract landscape artists. The Dachau
Dachau
art colony, which flourished between 1890 and 1914, brought the town recognition as one of the most important artist's colonies in Germany
Germany
beside Worpswede. Second World War[edit] In 1933 the Dachau concentration camp
Dachau concentration camp
was built east of the city by the Nazis and operated until 1945. It was the first of what became many camps. 25,613 prisoners were murdered in the camp and almost another 10,000 in its subcamps.[4] Geography[edit] Geographical location[edit] Dachau
Dachau
is 20 km (12 mi) northwest of Munich. It is 482 meters above sea level by the river Amper, with a boundary demarcated by lateral moraines formed during the last ice age and the Amper glacial valley. It is also close to a large marshy area called Dachauer Moos. Highest elevation of the district is the so-called "Schlossberg", the lowest point is near the neighborhood of Prittlbach, at the border to the next community of Hebertshausen. The bordering communities are Bergkirchen
Bergkirchen
to the west, Schwabhausen
Schwabhausen
to the northwest, Röhrmoos
Röhrmoos
to the north, Hebertshausen
Hebertshausen
to the northeast, and Karlsfeld
Karlsfeld
to the south. To the east the greater district Dachau borders on the greater district of Munich
Munich
with the community of Oberschleißheim. The city is divided into 3 zones:

Historic Center: Dachau
Dachau
Old Town, Mitterndorf, Udlding, Etzenhausen, Unterer Markt, Webling Dachau-East: Oberaugustenfeld, Unteraugustenfeld, Polln, Obergrashof, parts of Prittlbach Dachau-South: Himmelreich, Holzgarten, parts of Gröbenried

Since 1972 the former communities of Pellheim with Pullhausen, Assenhausen, Lohfeld, and Viehgarten have been incorporated into Dachau. Bodies of water[edit] Running from the west, the river Amper
Amper
runs south of Dachau’s old town, changes its direction at the former paper milling plant to the northeast and continues through Prittlbach into Hebertshausen. Coming from Karlsfeld, the Würm crosses Dachau-East and merges into the river Amper
Amper
just outside the district limit of Hebertshausen. The Gröbenbach, which has its source south of Puchheim, runs through town coming from the south and merges into the Amper
Amper
river at several locations near the festival grounds. The Mühlbach, a man made canal, is diverted from the river Amper
Amper
at the electrical power plant and runs parallel and flows back into it after passing the paper mill. The name derives from the frequent mills in former times along the canal which took advantage of the decline between Mühlbach and Amper. West of the so-called Festwiese runs another canal, called Lodererbach. In town there are still parts of the Schleißheimer canal remaining today. This canal was built in the mid-eighteenth century as part of the northern Munich
Munich
canal system to which the Nymphenburger Canal belongs as well. It functioned as a transportation route between Dachau
Dachau
and Schleißheim. The building material recovered from the demolition of three wings of the Dachau
Dachau
castle was transported to Schleißheim this way. By allowing it to run to seed and through deliberate cultivation by the town of Dachau
Dachau
the canal is only still recognizable as such between Frühlingstrasse and the Pollnbach. Outside the city limit the original canal continues on to Schloss Schleißheim. Within the city boundaries, in Dachau
Dachau
Süd (South), there is also a small lake called Stadtweiher. Transportation[edit]

Dachau
Dachau
Train and Bus Station

The city is served by Munich
Munich
S-Bahn (S2) and Deutsche Bahn
Deutsche Bahn
via Dachau railway station located in the South of the town. The station is also annexed to the central bus terminal. In Dachau
Dachau
the line S2 is split in two directions: Petershausen
Petershausen
and Altomünster. Both lines are named S2 but with different direction names. The offshoot to Altomünster
Altomünster
is also served by Dachau
Dachau
Stadt Railway Station which is much smaller than the main railway station. There are five bus lines which are operated by Stadtwerke Dachau: 719, 720, 722, 724 and 726. There is no tramway transport. Dachau
Dachau
has a well-developed road infrastructure for regional transportation. The city is connected to Bundesautobahn 8
Bundesautobahn 8
(via Fürstenfeldbruck) with Munich- Pasing
Pasing
southbound, and westbound terminating in Karlsruhe. Dachau
Dachau
is connected to Bundesautobahn 92
Bundesautobahn 92
via Oberschleißheim
Oberschleißheim
connector which is located east of Dachau. Bundesautobahn 99
Bundesautobahn 99
is connected with Dachau
Dachau
via Karlsfeld
Karlsfeld
which is located south of Dachau. Bundesstraße
Bundesstraße
No. 471 (via Rothschwaige) connects eastbound towns such as the neighboring city Fürstenfeldbruck and westbound towns such as Oberschleißheim. Bundesstraße
Bundesstraße
No. 304 starts in the south of the city and connects southbound towns until the German-Austrian border. Additionally, several Staatsstraßen connect Dachau
Dachau
with surrounding towns and villages. Sights[edit]

Dachau
Dachau
in fall 2002

Old town including the Town Hall Church of St. Jakob (St. James), built in the 17th century (Stadtpfarrkirche).[citation needed] Church of St. Nicolas and St. Mary, Mitterndorf (1496) Dachau Palace
Dachau Palace
and Palace Garden: A medieval castle which became the favorite residence of the Bavarian dukes in the 16th century. It was once renovated into an enormous four-wing complex. Only one wing still exists today. Dachau
Dachau
Concentration Camp memorial Site: Dachau
Dachau
is best known for its proximity to the relatively well-preserved site of the infamous Dachau concentration camp, the first large-scale German concentration camp, converted from an old gunpowder factory by the Nazi regime in 1933.[5][6] Dachauer Moos: a wetland area

Dachau
Dachau
South

City of Dachau Twin cities[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Germany Dachau
Dachau
is twinned with:

Klagenfurt, Austria Comune di Fondi, Italy

There exists also some cooperation with:

Rosh HaAyin, Israel Cultural cooperation with Renkum, Netherlands Cultural cooperation with Tervuren, Belgium Friendship with Areguá, Paraguay

People[edit] Notable people who lived, worked or were born in Dachau
Dachau
include

Hans-Jürgen Bäumler
Hans-Jürgen Bäumler
(born 1942), figure skater and actor Lovis Corinth, (1858–1925), artist Heimito von Doderer, (1896–1966), Austrian writer Joseph Effner
Joseph Effner
(1687–1745), architect, landscape architect and decorator Anton Fink
Anton Fink
(born 1987), football player Aloys Fleischmann (Senior)
Aloys Fleischmann (Senior)
(1880–1964), composer and choirmaster Josef Goller
Josef Goller
(1868–1947), glass painter and printmaker Christiane Herzog (1936–2000), wife of Roman Herzog Roman Herzog
Roman Herzog
(born 1934), German politician (CDU) Adolf Hölzel
Adolf Hölzel
(1853–1934), painter Leonhard von Hohenhausen, (1788-1872), military and war minister Patrick Lindner
Patrick Lindner
(born 1960), Volksmusik singer Jesse Martin (born 1981), sailor Christian Morgenstern
Christian Morgenstern
(1871–1914), author and poet Sigmund Rascher
Sigmund Rascher
(1909–1945), concentration camp doctor Carl Spitzweg
Carl Spitzweg
(1808–1885), painter Ludwig Thoma
Ludwig Thoma
(1867–1921), author and publisher Wilhelm von Thoma
Wilhelm von Thoma
(1891–1948), General of the Armoured Forces in World War II Ernst Toller
Ernst Toller
(1893–1939), playwright Egon Zill (1906–1974), Nazi SS concentration camp commandant

Ludwig Thoma
Ludwig Thoma
in 1909

Adolf Hölzel
Adolf Hölzel
Adoration 1912

Carl Spitzweg, self-portrait 1840/1842

References[edit]

^ "Fortschreibung des Bevölkerungsstandes". Bayerisches Landesamt für Statistik und Datenverarbeitung (in German). January 2018.  ^ "Stadt Dachau: History". www.dachau.de (in German). Retrieved 2017-05-11.  ^ "Finanzamt Dachau: Über uns - Geschichte". www.finanzamt.bayern.de (in German). 2014-04-25. Retrieved 2017-05-11.  ^ That Was Dachau
Dachau
1933 - 1945 by Stanislav Zámečník Page 377 and 379 ^ "75th anniversary of the first transport of prisoners from Dachau
Dachau
to the Hartheim Castle euthanasia killing center". KZ Gedenkstaette Dachau. Retrieved 22 March 2017.  ^ "Dachau". www.ushmm.org. Retrieved 2017-02-15. 

Further reading[edit]

Hans-Günther Richardi: Dachauer Zeitgeschichtsführer. Stadt Dachau, Dachau
Dachau
1998. (in German)

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Dachau.

Dachau
Dachau
travel guide from Wikivoyage Town Web site http://www.dachau.info/cont/index.php?LANG=EN (in English) Dachau
Dachau
at Curlie (based on DMOZ) An American Adventure Trailer Jimmy Gentry

v t e

Towns and municipalities in Dachau

Altomünster Bergkirchen Dachau Erdweg Haimhausen Hebertshausen Hilgertshausen-Tandern Karlsfeld Markt Indersdorf Odelzhausen Petershausen Pfaffenhofen an der Glonn Röhrmoos Schwabhausen Sulzemoos Vierkirchen Weichs

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 151279148 GND: 4010844-2 BNF: cb1195

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