DVB-T2 is an abbreviation for "
Digital Video Broadcasting
Digital Video Broadcasting — Second
Generation Terrestrial"; it is the extension of the television
standard DVB-T, issued by the consortium DVB, devised for the
broadcast transmission of digital terrestrial television. DVB has been
standardized by ETSI.
This system transmits compressed digital audio, video, and other data
in "physical layer pipes" (PLPs), using
OFDM modulation with
concatenated channel coding and interleaving. The higher offered bit
rate, with respect to its predecessor DVB-T, makes it a system suited
HDTV signals on the terrestrial TV channel (though many
broadcasters still use plain
DVB-T for this purpose).
As of 2014[update], it was implemented in broadcasts in the United
Kingdom (Freeview HD, eight channels across two multiplexes, plus an
extra multiplex in
Northern Ireland carrying three SD channels), Italy
(Europa 7 HD, twelve channels),
Finland (21 channels, five in HD),
Germany (six HD (1080p50) channels, with 40 in planning), Sweden
Thailand (41 SD, 9 HD channels)
Serbia (eight channels),
Ukraine (32 SD and HD
channels in four nationwide multiplexes),
Croatia (two pay-TV
Denmark (two pay-TV multiplexes with 20 channels),
Romania (8 SD channels, 1 HD channel) and some other countries.
1.1 Preliminary investigation
2 The standard
3 System differences with DVB-T
4 Technical details
5 Market adoption
5.6 Czech Republic
5.16 SADC(Zimbabwe, South Africa, Zambia, Malawi, Tanzania, Namibia,
Mozambique, Lesotho, Swaziland)
5.17 Sri Lanka
5.21 United Kingdom
5.23 Western Asia and North Africa
6 See also
9 External links
In March 2006 DVB decided to study options for an upgraded DVB-T
standard. In June 2006, a formal study group named TM-T2 (Technical
Module on Next Generation DVB-T) was established by the DVB Group to
develop an advanced modulation scheme that could be adopted by a
second generation digital terrestrial television standard, to be named
According to the commercial requirements and call for technologies
issued in April 2007, the first phase of
DVB-T2 would be devoted to
provide optimum reception for stationary (fixed) and portable
receivers (i.e., units which can be nomadic, but not fully mobile)
using existing aerials, whereas a second and third phase would study
methods to deliver higher payloads (with new aerials) and the mobile
reception issue. The novel system should provide a minimum 30%
increase in payload, under similar channel conditions already used for
The BBC, ITV,
Channel 4 and Channel 5 agreed with the regulator Ofcom
to convert one UK multiplex (B, or PSB3) to
DVB-T2 to increase
HDTV via DTT. They expected the first TV region to use
the new standard would be Granada in November 2009 (with existing
switched over regions being changed at the same time). It was expected
that over time there would be enough
DVB-T2 receivers sold to switch
all DTT transmissions to DVB-T2, and H.264.
Ofcom published its final decision on 3 April 2008, for
DVB-T2 and H.264:
BBC HD would have one HD slot after digital
switchover (DSO) at Granada. ITV and C4 had, as expected, applied to
Ofcom for the 2 additional HD slots available from 2009 to 2012.
Ofcom indicated that it found an unused channel covering
3.7 million households in London, which could be used to
DVB-T2 HD multiplex from 2010, i.e., before DSO in
Ofcom indicated that they would look for more unused UHF
channels in other parts of the UK, that can be used for the
multiplex from 2010 until DSO.
DVB-T2 test modulator developed by
BBC Research & Innovation
Spectrum of a
DVB-T2 signal (8 MHz channel)
DVB-T2 draft standard was ratified by the DVB Steering Board on 26
June 2008, and published on the DVB homepage as
BlueBook. It was handed over to the European Telecommunications
Standards Institute (ETSI) by DVB.ORG on 20 June 2008. The ETSI
process resulted in the
DVB-T2 standard being adopted on 9 September
ETSI process had several phases, but the only changes
were text clarifications. Since the
DVB-T2 physical layer
specification was complete, and there would be no further technical
enhancements, receiver VLSI chip design started with confidence in
stability of specification. A draft PSI/SI (program and system
information) specification document was also agreed with the
Prototype receivers were shown in September IBC 2008 and more recent
version at the IBC 2009 in Amsterdam. A number of other manufacturers
DVB-T2 at IBC 2009 including Albis Technologies, Arqiva,
DekTec, Enensys Technologies, Harris, Pace, Rohde & Schwarz,
Tandberg, Thomson Broadcast and TeamCast. As of 2012, Appear TV also
DVB-T2 modulators and
DVB-T2 gateways. Other
DVB-T2 equipment launches include Alitronika,
CellMetric, Cisco, Digital TV Labs, Humax, NXP Semiconductors,
Panasonic, ProTelevision Technologies, Screen Service, SIDSA, Sony, ST
Microelectronics and T-VIPS. The first test from a real TV
transmitter was performed by the
BBC Research & Innovation in the
last weeks of June 2008 using channel 53 from the Guildford
transmitter, southwest of London:
BBC had developed and built the
modulator/demodulator prototype in parallel with the
being drafted. Other companies like ENKOM or IfN develop software
(processor) based decoding.
NORDIG published a
DVB-T2 receiver specification and performance
requirement on 1 July 2009. In March 2009 the Digital TV Group
(DTG), the industry association for digital TV in the UK, published
the technical specification for high definition services on digital
terrestrial television (Freeview) using the new
DVB-T2 standard. The
DTG's test house: DTG Testing are testing
Freeview HD products against
this specification.
Many tests broadcast transmission using this standard are being in
process in France, with local Gap filler near Rennes CCETT.
DVB-T2 was tested in October 2010, in Geneva region, with Mont
Salève's repeater, in UHF band on Channel 36. A mobile van was
testing BER, strength, and quality reception, with special PCs used as
spectrum analysers, constellation testers. The van was moving in
Canton Geneva (Switzerland), and
France (Annemasse, Pays de Gex).
However, none were demonstrated in TELECOM 2011 at Palexpo.
The following characteristics have been devised for the T2 standard:
OFDM modulation with QPSK, 16-QAM, 64-QAM, or 256-
OFDM modes are 1k, 2k, 4k, 8k, 16k, and 32k. The symbol length for 32k
mode is about 4 ms.
Guard intervals are 1/128, 1/32, 1/16, 19/256, 1/8, 19/128, and 1/4.
(For 32k mode, the maximum is 1/8.)
FEC is concatenated
LDPC and BCH codes (as in
DVB-S2 and DVB-C2), with
rates 1/2, 3/5, 2/3, 3/4, 4/5, and 5/6.
There are fewer pilots, in 8 different pilot-patterns, and
equalization can be based also on the
RAI CD3 system.
In the 32k mode, a larger part of the standard 8 MHz channel can
be used, adding about 2% extra capacity.
DVB-T2 is specified for 1.7, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 10 MHz channel
MISO (Multiple-Input Single-Output) may be used (Alamouti scheme), but
MIMO will not be used. Diversity receivers can be used (as they are
Multiple PLPs to enable service-specific robustness at a particular
Bundling of more channels into a SuperMUX (called TFS) is not in the
standard, but may be added later.
System differences with DVB-T
The following table reports a comparison of available modes in DVB-T
Transport Stream (TS)
Transport Stream and
Generic Stream Encapsulation
Generic Stream Encapsulation (GSE)
Constant Coding & Modulation
Variable Coding & Modulation
Forward Error Correction (FEC)
Convolutional Coding + Reed Solomon
1/2, 2/3, 3/4, 5/6, 7/8
LDPC + BCH
1/2, 3/5, 2/3, 3/4, 4/5, 5/6
QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM
QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM, 256QAM
1/4, 1/8, 1/16, 1/32
1/4, 19/128, 1/8, 19/256, 1/16, 1/32, 1/128
Discrete Fourier transform
Discrete Fourier transform (DFT) size
1k, 2k, 4k, 8k, 16k, 32k
8% of total
1%, 2%, 4%, 8% of total
2.6% of total
0.35% of total
For instance, a UK MFN
DVB-T profile (64-QAM, 8k mode, coding rate
2/3, guard interval 1/32) and a
DVB-T2 equivalent (256-QAM, 32k,
coding rate 3/5, guard interval 1/128) allows for an increase in bit
rate from 24.13 Mbit/s to 35.4 Mbit/s (+46.5%). Another
example, for an Italian SFN
DVB-T profile (64-QAM, 8k, coding rate
2/3, guard interval 1/4) and a
DVB-T2 equivalent (256-QAM, 32k, coding
rate 3/5, guard interval 1/16), achieves an increase in bit rate from
19.91 Mbit/s to 33.3 Mbit/s (+67%).
Recommended maximum bit-rate configurations for 8 MHz bandwidth,
32K FFT, guard interval 1/128, pilot pattern 7:
Frame length LF
FEC blocks per frame
DVB-T2 at a glance
Framing structure of DVB-T2
The processing workflow is as follows:
Physical Layer Pipe (PLP)
PLPs, which had already been introduced in DVB-S2, are logical
channels carrying one or more services, with a modulation scheme and
robustness particular to that individual pipe.
PLP creation: adaptation of
Transport Stream (TS), Generic Stream
Encapsulation (GSE), Generic Continuous Stream (GCS), or Generic
Fixed-length Packetized Stream (GFPS)
Single PLP (mode 'A'): data are assembled in groups called BaseBand
Frames (BBFRAMEs), with lengths of
displaystyle K_ bch
bits, defined by modulation and coding (MODCOD) parameters, in a
'normal' length or 'short' length version
BaseBand (BB) header insertion
Multiple PLPs (mode 'B')
Input stream synchronization
Null packets deletion
BB header insertion
Single PLP (mode 'A')
BB scrambling: a Pseudo Random Binary Sequence (PRBS) with generator
displaystyle 1+x^ 14 +x^ 15
is used to scramble completely every BBFRAME
Multiple PLPs (mode 'B')
In-band signaling or padding insertion
Bit Interleaved Coding and
Forward Error Correction (FEC) encoding: each BBFRAME is converted
into a FECFRAME of
displaystyle N_ ldpc
bits, by adding parity data. Normal FECFRAMEs are 64,800 bits long,
whereas short FECFRAMEs are 16,200 bits long. The effective code rates
are 32,208/64,800 (1/2), 38,688/64,800 (3/5), 43,040/64,800 (2/3),
48,408/64,800 (3/4), 51,648/64,800 (4/5), 53,840/64,800 (5/6)
Outer encoding: a BCH code, capable to correct 10 or 12 errors per
FECFRAME, is used to compute parity data for the information data
field. The BCH generator polynomial is of the 160th, 168th, or 192nd
Inner encoding: a Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) code is cascaded to
Parity bits block interleaving
Twist column interleaving
Bit demultiplexing to cell words
Constellation map of the rotated 256-
QAM modulation (tilt angle is
Gray mapping of cell words to constellations: either
16-QAM, 64-QAM, or 256-
QAM maps are used
Constellation rotation and cyclic quadrature (Q) delay: optionally,
the constellations may be tilted counterclockwise by an amount of up
to 30 degrees. Furthermore, the quadrature (imaginary) part of the
cells is cyclically shifted by one cell
Frame building: the transmitted stream is organized in super frames,
which are composed by T2 frames and FEF (Future Extension Frame) parts
Cell mapping: cells are mapped to
OFDM symbols. A T2 frame is composed
by a P1 symbol, one or more P2 symbols, regular data symbols, and a
Frame Closing symbol (for certain configuration parameters). The P1
symbol is used for synchronization purposes, the P2 symbols convey L1
parameter configuration signaling, whereas the data symbols carry PLP
data (there are three types: common PLPs, type 1 PLPs, and type 2
PLPs), auxiliary streams, and dummy symbols used as space filler
Frequency interleaving: random interleaving is done on every OFDM
symbol (except P1)
Multiple-Input Single-Output (MISO) processing: Alamouti
pre-processing is optionally applied to pairs of
OFDM symbol cells.
displaystyle a_ i
the input cells,
displaystyle e_ i ^ (1)
displaystyle e_ i ^ (2)
transmitter group 1 and 2 cells, the mapping is done as
displaystyle e_ i ^ (1) =a_ i
displaystyle e_ i+1 ^ (1) =a_ i+1
for group 1, and as
displaystyle e_ i ^ (2) =-a_ i+1 ^ *
displaystyle e_ i+1 ^ (2) =a_ i ^ *
for group 2
Pilot insertion and dummy tone reservation: three classes of pilot
tones are added. They are either continual (fixed position), scattered
(cyclically moving position), or edge (boundary positions). There are
8 different configuration for scattered pilots (PP1 ... PP8).
Moreover, a number of dummy carriers are not modulated and reserved to
reduce the dynamic range of the
DVB-T2 output signal (it helps to
combat nonlinear phenomena in power amplifiers during broadcast).
Inverse Discrete Fourier Transform (IDFT): classic IDFT is used to
switch from the frequency domain into the time domain, after having
adjusted carrier position relevant to the central transmit frequency.
1k (1024) to 32k (32768) carriers are available. There is also an
extended mode, which allows to fill more data in the available
bandwidth, using more active carriers and reducing the number of guard
band (null) carriers.
Peak-to-Average-Power-Ratio (PAPR) reduction
Guard interval insertion: a cyclic prefix is inserted before the IDFT
symbol, to recover from transmit channel echoes (multipath). Lengths
from 1/128 to 1/4 of the IDFT length are allowed.
P1 symbol insertion: the P1 symbol is a particularly crafted 1k OFDM
symbol, always inserted at the head of a T2 frame. It conveys few bits
of information (spread, scrambled and DBPSK modulated), as it is
mainly dedicated to fast synchronization (both in time and in
frequency) at the receiver side. It is prepended and postpended by
frequency shifted repetitions of itself, to ease receiver lock even if
the nominal center frequency of the T2 signal is up to 500 kHz
Digital-to-Analog Conversion (DAC): the T2 samples are converted into
an analog BB complex (I&Q) signal at a sample rate that depends on
the channelization bandwidth. For instance, in 8 MHz wide
channels, the complex sample time is 7/64 μs.
When the digital terrestrial
Freeview HD was launched in
December 2009, it was the first
DVB-T2 service intended for the
general public. As of November 2010,
DVB-T2 broadcasts where available
in a couple of European countries.
The earliest introductions of T2 have usually been tied with a launch
of high-definition television. There are however some countries where
HDTV is broadcast using the old
DVB-T standard with no immediate plans
to switch those broadcasts to DVB-T2. Among countries using
nationwide broadcasts of
HDTV are France, Ireland, Italy, Norway,
Denmark, Spain, and Taiwan. These are usually using MPEG4. Australia
started broadcasting HD content over
DVB-T with MPEG2, although in
2015 some Australian broadcasters switched to MPEG4.
DVB-T2 is in use include:
Afghanistan: Four multiplexes, fully launched April 2015 
Albania: One multiplex full launch in July 2011.
Argentina: Launch in February 2014 (Antina - UHF operating
Buenos Aires area).
Armenia: Launch in May 2015.
Austria: three multiplexes (D, E, F), full launch in April 2013, 22
transmissions sites
Belgium: Expected to begin in March 2013.
Croatia: Two multiplexes launched in late 2012. pay TV platform EVO
Colombia: Adoption started in 2012
Denmark: two multiplexes.
Estonia: one multiplex, soft launch in December 2012 (not all
Finland: five multiplexes, soft launch in January 2011, full launch in
February 2011
Georgia: Launch in July 1, 2015.
Germany: one multiplex, six HD channels (1080p50/HEVC) since June
2016; around 40 channels will be available by March 2017 in major
urban areas, replacing current DVB-T/MPEG2 services.
Iceland: Adoption to begin in 2013 and finish by end of 2014
India: Launched on 25 Feb 2016 
Indonesia: Adoption to begin in 2012 and finish by end of 2018 or more
(depends on 2018 situation later)
Israel: Tests begun on 2015, and regular service on mid-2017, through
the "Idan Plus" service.
Kenya: Multichoice Africa using the GOTV brand launched in
Malaysia: Soft launch in 2016, full launch in mid-2017. Will abandon
analog in 2018.
Middle East: Ten multiplex full launch in 2013.
New Zealand: One multiplex with a full launch in 2012 via the Igloo
platfoorm - A joint venture between Sky Television and Television New
DVB-T2 is the official standard for over-the-air TV
DVB-T was only used in experimental transmissions in
two cities, and will be phased out. The analogue switchoff was made on
2015/06/17, although the complete digital switchover was still in
progress at that time.
Romania is allocated 5 nationwide DVB-T2
multiplexes, as well as more than 50 regional/local ones.
Russia: two multiplexes 20 TV and 3 radio channel, soft launch in
Serbia: three multiplexes, soft launch in March 2012, full launch in
April 2013 is postponed till May 2015.
Singapore: Full launch in 2016, 7 TV channels broadcast in HD.
Sweden: two multiplexes, full launch in November 2010.
Thailand: Full launched on April ,1st 2014. With
H.264 encoding (36
channels , 5 Multiplexes)
Turkey: Experimental three multiplex. Full launch in 2013. Analog
broadcasting will be abolished in 2015.
DVB-T2 multiplexes × 167 transmission sites, 150 of
which have been officially launched on 10 October 2011
United Kingdom: Three multiplexes, soft launch in December 2009, full
launch in April 2010. An additional
DVB-T2 multiplex was launched in
Northern Ireland in October 2012, and extra one launched across
selected areas of the UK in December 2013.
Vietnam: three multiplexes, launched on 11 November 2011, by the Audio
Visual Global JSC.
France announced in May 2014
DVB-T2 tests in
Paris for Ultra HD
HEVC broadcast with objectives to replace by 2020 the current DVB-T
MPEG4 national broadcast.
Southern African Development Community
Southern African Development Community announced in November 2010
DVB-T2 would be the preferred standard for the region.
In Serbia, both SD and HD broadcasts will air in DVB-T2.
Media Development Authority
Media Development Authority of
Singapore announced in June 2012
that the country's free-to-air TV channels will go fully digital by
the end of 2013 using DVB-T2.
It has been trialled in Spain and Germany. Sri Lanka
Austria is also expected to use it.
Currently Malaysia, which has yet to officially launch its DVB-T
transmission, is running tests on DVB-T2. The government has
announced that it plans to roll out
DVB-T2 in stages starting in
Mid-2015, with analog shutoff planned for sometime in 2017.
Broadcasters in the United States are starting experimental trials of
DVB-T2 in the Baltimore, MD area on
WNUV-TV in the early morning hours
as of 15 February 2013. The tests are to determine viability as a
broadcast standard for mobile devices and UltraHD.
In April 2015, "OQAAB" started
DVB-T2 broadcasting in Kabul.
Current challenges are the security situation and the economic
development of the country. The company who was issued the license is
still waiting for the digital regulation which is not issued yet by
the government. So the switch off date of the analogue network is not
announced. The infrastructure in six more provinces (Herat, Kandahar,
Jalalabad, Mazar, Ghazni, Kunduz) is built but the transmitters are
not installed yet.
In July 2011, "DIGITALB" started
DVB-T2 broadcasting in Tirana,
Durrës at 29 UHF 29 channels (26 HD, 3 in SD).
In April 2013,
Telenet started with
DVB-T2 broadcasting in
Flanders. However it was discontinued one year later on the 31th
of March 2014. As of the end of 2017, TV Vlaanderen started
DVB-T2 television using Norkring's network. The
following centre frequencies are used in Flanders: 650 MHz, 658 MHz,
674 MHz and 682MHz.
DVB-T2 as the national standard for
terrestrial television, replacing DVB-T, the previously selected
standard for digital TV, which was selected after technical evaluation
of several digital TV standards. The two standards coexisted until
2015. The digital TV has been deployed gradually across the country,
starting at the four main cities, Bogotá, Medellín, Cali and
Barranquilla followed by smaller cities such as Armenia, Bucaramanga,
Cartagena, Cúcuta, Manizales, Pereira and Santa Marta. By 2014 main
cities had digital TV, however the signal is not available in the
First two available signals were emitted by the two private open TV
RCN TV and Caracol TV.
RTVC the national government TV
broadcaster started to broadcast using the standard in 2013.
The digital system is known in
Colombia as TDT which means Televisión
digital Terrestre (Digital Terrestrial Television).
On 13 October 2011, the Croatian Post and Electronic Communications
Agency granted license for MUX C and MUX E, both in
Also in October 2011, OiV - Transmitters & Communications started
testing on UHF channel 53 from Sljeme.
DVB-T2 multiplexes launched in late 2012 by pay TV platform EVO
DVB-T2 was launched in March 2017, using video format
Finland, the first country in Europe to cease analog terrestrial TV
and move to DVB-T, has announced that
DVB-T2 will be used exclusively
from end March 2020. Many FTA channels are dual broadcast in SD via
DVB-T and in HD using DVB-T2. All pay-TV channels moved to
DVB-T2 switchover will allow more channels to move to HD as
well as releasing bandwidth for new SD channels over DVB-T2.
Digital Terrestrial Television services to provide mobile TV at 16
cities e.g. Pitampura(Delhi)(578.00 MHz), Mumbai
(474.00 MHz), Kolkata, Chennai, Guwahati, Patna, Ranchi, Cuttack,
Lucknow, Jallandhar, Raipur, Indore, Aurangabad, Bhopal, Bangalore and
Ahmadabad, Hyderabad, were started on 25 February 2016. Mobile TV can
be received using
DVB-T2 Dongles in OTG enabled smart phones and
Wi-Fi dongles, besides in integrated digital TV (iDTV).
Public and private transportation vehicles and public places are
potential environments for mobile television. Currently DD National,
DD News, DD Bharati, DD Sports, and DD Regional/DD Kisan are being
The project to adopt
DVB-T technology in
Indonesia was started about
2007 with 'full' government support as the project initiator. All
television broadcasters were offered to transform their analog
broadcasts into the new digital form, some were interested to follow
suit and started testing their new digital broadcasts and some are
still uninterested back then.
DVB-T testing period, Indonesian government (via its
Ministry of Information & Communication Technology [ICT]) wanted
to switch to
DVB-T2 technology which provides better signal
efficiency, capacity and corrections compared to DVB-T. The TV
broadcasters still testing their
DVB-T broadcasts agreed to join the
DVB-T2 conversion program offered by the government since they saw the
significant benefits by switching to
DVB-T2 (such as higher data rate
for HD content and better carrier-to-noise ratio management), even
though it would introduce additional cost for those who have bought
DVB-T equipment. The official switch to
DVB-T was started
February 2012, based on ICT Minister decree (about 5 years from DVB-T
introduction and adopting/nurturing period in Indonesia).
The Indonesian Ministry of Information & Communication Technology
expects the final
DVB-T2 digital television regulation to be finished
in 2020 and the analog switch off transition will begin in the same
DVB-T in 2006, but outlined plans to switch to DVB-T2
in 2011, after which tests of both were run concurrently. The DVB-T
test concluded in 2016 and at the same time license to roll out DVB-T2
transmitters was contracted to Puncak Semangat Sdn. Bhd. Roll-out
began in late 2016 in the Borneo states of
Malaysia and has mostly
concluded by mid-2017. Plans to shut off analog by mid-2018.
on 5 January 2015 StarCom company switched to
DVB-T2 technology which
provided a better signal, reaching most regions of Palestine instead
of limited signal covering (was function only in Gaza Strip while in
testing period using DVB-T1).
Star TV Transponder offers a range of entertainment and sports
channels system dvb-t2. The package consists of 10 channels on the UHF
DVB-T Broadcasting in 2005 with the MPEG-2
standard for SD broadcast and MPEG 4 for HD, it was only experimental.
In June 2011
Romania shifted to
MPEG4 both for SD and HD. In 2012, the
Romanian authorities decided that
DVB-T2 will be the standard used for
terrestrial broadcasts, as it allows a larger number of programs to be
broadcast on the same multiplex. Romania's switchover plans were
initially delayed due to economical and feasibility-related reasons.
One of the reasons was that most Romanian consumers already
extensively used either cable or satellite services, which developed
very quickly and became very popular after 1990. In fact, a
technological boom started around 2003, driven by a solid economical
development in the field of telecommunications, made several private
operators create large networks of fiber optics and cable covering all
of Romania, which are now used for providing both TV, telephony, and
high quality broadband internet. As the prices for complete packages
(TV, internet, telephony) are low and the quality quite good (e.g.
about 20 EUR for 500Mbit/s internet, ~120 SD and HD digital cable TV
channels and telephony, with an added 2-4 EUR for mobile telephony),
the interest for over-the-air TV quickly became very low. There are
rumors that commercial broadcasters that traditionally transmitted
over-the-air using analogue channels (like MediaPro, Antena GROUP,
Prima TV) will give up terrestrial broadcasting and will be available
only on pay-TV services, like cable, satellite and IPTV. It is also
rumored that the
DVB-T standard (with MPEG-4 encoding) will continue
On 17 June 2015 analogue terrestrial television was switched off, with
the exception of the main public TV program (TVR1) which will continue
to be broadcast strictly in the VHF band until the end of 2016.
DVB-T2 broadcasts on MUX1 (provided by the state-owned
Radiocom) are available since June 2015 in Timisoara (UHF channel 21),
Cluj-Napoca (UHF channel 26), Iasi (UHF channel 25), and Bucharest
(UHF channel 30). The coverage will be extendend so that at the
end of 2016, over 90% of the territory will be covered. For now
(2015/06/30), only five channels are broadcast on MUX1: TVR1, TVR2,
TVR News, TVR 3, and TVR HD, with plans to be extended to 14-16 SD and
HD programs. Radiocom's MUX2 and MUX4 implementations will also
start in 2016. Legacy
DVB-T broadcasts are still available in
Bucharest: 6 channels can be received on channels 54 and 59, but will
be shut down eventually, being replaced by DVB-T2. TVR announced that
TVR News and TVR 3 will be closed, and the fate of TVR HD, is
uncertain. This will lower the number of channels available on DVB-T.
On 2 July 2015, Kanal D
Romania left the terrestrial platform. The
only broadcast that remained on terrestrial except TVR is Antena 3,
but it is unknown whether it will stay on DVB-T, will shift to DVB-T2
or completely leave terrestrial platform. This will lead to only 3
channels in DVB-T2, and with many TV sets that are only DVB-T
compatible ( most of sold models being equipped with digital cable
tuner) to an unattractive terrestrial platform, and more and more
people will subscribe to a cable provider, or a DTH operator in areas
where there is no cable TV available.
DVB-T transmitters were shut down since September 1, 2016, so only
DVB-T2 network remains on air. As of October 1, 2016, 85% of the
population and 78% of the Romanian territory (as stated by the
broadcaster) are covered by
DVB-T2 signal. The 9 TV channels that
are broadcast at the moment are produced by the national television:
TVR HD + 8 SD channels TVR1, TVR2, TVR3, TVR Cluj, TVR Craiova, TVR
Iasi, TVR Timisoara, TVR Tg Mures.
In September 2011, Russian governmental authorities have approved the
decision that since this date all newly built terrestrial digital
TV networks will use the
DVB-T2 standard. In some regions of Russia
DVB-T/MPEG-4 networks (mostly consisting of one multiplex) have
already been deployed before this decision was made.
On 1 March 2012 "Russian Television and Radio Broadcasting Network"
DVB-T2 broadcasting in Tatarstan. This is the first region
DVB-T2 is being used.
In January 2015, transition to
DVB-T2 used on the
whole territory of Russia.
In May 2009, the Serbian Ministry of Telecommunications and
Information Society officially announced that the
DVB-T2 standard will
be the national digital terrestrial broadcasting standard for both SD
Serbia has become one of the first countries to commit to the
DVB-T2 standard. First public test with
DVB-T2 signal in
during Telfor 2009 conference in Belgrade. Analog switch off has been
planned for 4 April 2012. But it was postponed to
2013. Now the final switch off is planned to finish on 1 May
2015. On 21 March 2012 JP ETV started trial
Serbia offering viewers a total of 10 SD channels and a HD
version of the public broadcaster’s channel RTS. On 14 November
2013 JP ETV has updated initial network for digital terrestrial
television, and now
DVB-T2 signal is available to over 90 percent of
the population of Serbia.
In June 2015, transition to
In December 2013, MediaCorp started the first phase of switchover to
digital broadcasting. Existing analogue TV signals will continue to be
broadcast simultaneously with digital TV signals until end-2017 to
facilitate consumers migration to digital TV equipment. MediaCorp
estimates that the switchover of all seven free-to-air channels to
digital broadcasting will be completed by the end of 2016.
SADC(Zimbabwe, South Africa, Zambia, Malawi, Tanzania, Namibia,
Mozambique, Lesotho, Swaziland)
On 14 January 2011, the South African Department of Communication
officially announced that the
DVB-T2 standard will be the national
digital terrestrial broadcasting standard. Analog switch off has been
planned for December 2013.
With the completion of construction of Colombo's Lotus Tower which
will be 350m tall broadcast and leisure tower, DVB T2 will be
implemented in Sri Lanka's
Colombo and other areas. Completion is set
for 3Q 2015.DVB T2 is already implemented from Kakavil Tx station by
Digital terrestrial television
Digital terrestrial television in Sweden
On 17 June 2010, the Swedish Radio and TV Authority and the Swedish
Government granted a total of nine licenses to broadcast channels in
HDTV spread over two multiplexes using DVB-T2.
Broadcasts started on 1 November 2010, with five channels available
initially: SVT1 HD, SVT2 HD, MTVN HD,
National Geographic HD
National Geographic HD and
Canal+ Sport HD. From this date a coverage of 70% of the
population is achieved, with 90% expected by mid-2011 and nationwide
coverage by 2012.
Digital television in Thailand
On 25 January 2013, The Royal Thai Army’s Radio and Television
station, Channel 5, has launch a trial
DVB-T2 service. The service
have 6 SD Channels plus 2 HD channel. It has successfully
completed Thailand’s first
DVB-T2 digital terrestrial TV trial with
the help of Harris and one of its Maxiva UAX air-cooled UHF
On 4 March 2013, Free Television Channel 3, 5, 5HD, 7, 9, NBT,
ThaiPBS, ThaiPBS HD get temporary permission to broadcast digital TV
DVB-T2 system until issue actual license that expect to be released
in the middle to end of 2013.
Ukraine's national terrestrial TV network (built and maintained by the
Zeonbud company) uses the
DVB-T2 standard for all four nationwide FTV
(cardless CAS "Irdeto Cloaked CA") multiplexes, for both SD and HD
broadcasts. Before settling for DVB-T2,
Ukraine was testing both
MPEG-2 and DVB-T/MPEG-4 options, and some experimental
transmitters operating in those standards are still live.
never had a full-fledged nationwide
DVB-T network, thus not having to
do a DVB-T-to-
Zeonbud's network consists of 167 transmitter sites, each carrying
DVB-T2 multiplexes, with transmitter power ranging from 2 kW
to 50 W (all in MFN mode). As of 2011 October 10, 150 of the 167
transmitter sites have officially gone live. The biggest problem of
DVB-T2 rollout for now is the acute shortage of inexpensive
The four multiplexes carry in total 28 nationwide channels (same for
all transmitter sites, distributed via satellite) and 4 local
channels. Up to 8 of those 28 nationwide channels can broadcast in HD
As of July 2017[update], there are 32 channels available on the
air, up from 4 channels in October 2012.
Main article: Freeview HD
On the terrestrial television system in most of the UK, there is only
one multiplex (the slot corresponding to one channel in analog
broadcasting and to many channels in digital broadcasting) assigned to
digital broadcasting in the
DVB-T2 standard. This multiplex is
controlled by the service company Freeview HD, which has offered to
host up to five
DVB-T2 HD channels on it.
Freeview HD started its "technical launch" on 2 December 2009, hosting
BBC HD, and ITV HD. On 30 March 2010,
Freeview HD had its official
launch, and added
Channel 4 HD to its broadcasts. The fourth
channel hosted is
BBC One HD, while the 5th slot is used for a
high-definition simulcast of C
BBC during the daytime and a
high-definition simulcast of
BBC Three during the evening.
The 5th HD stream on the
DVB-T2 multiplex was going to be used by
Channel 5 for their HD service, but they withdrew their application to
Ofcom for the slot in December 2011.
In June 2012, the
BBC launched a temporary stream in order to
broadcast a high-definition red button service for the 2012 Olympics
on Freeview, alongside
BBC One HD and
BBC HD. At the time, it was
still undecided as to the permanent use of the 5th stream after the
Northern Ireland however, a second
DVB-T2 multiplex was launched on
24 October 2012. This multiplex carries RTÉ One,
RTÉ Two and TG4.
All three channels on this multiplex are carried in SD rather than HD.
On 16 March 2013, the
BBC announced that it will launch
BBC News HD,
BBC Three HD,
BBC Four HD, CBeebies HD and C
BBC HD on all digital
television platforms which carry HD channels. On
Freeview HD (and
BBC Three HD and C
BBC HD will use capacity on the BBC’s
existing HD multiplex covering 98.5% of UK homes;
BBC News HD, BBC
Four HD and CBeebies HD will use new HD capacity which will cover part
of the UK and grow in coverage over time. These high-definition
simulcasts are available on the second multiplex, but the second
multiplex is only broadcast from selected transmitters, providing
around 70% coverage across the whole of the UK.
On 26 March 2013,
BBC HD was replaced by
BBC Two HD.
As of 11 November 2011, two
DVB-T2 SFN networks of the Audio Visual
Global JSC have been officially launched in both Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh
city. Later, the same service was offered in the Mekong Delta with
transmitter in Can Tho and other cities. Each network with three
multiplexes carry totally 40 SD, 05 HD and 05 audio channels
Western Asia and North Africa
Qatar, Saudi Arabia, UAE, Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Lebanon and Tunisia have
all adopted DVB-T2. Kuwait has also committed to install the second
generation standard. Iraq has already implemented its DVB-T2-based
system in parts of the country, while Bahrain, Oman and Yemen are
assessing the technology.
OFDM system comparison table
Spectral efficiency comparison table
^ a b
^ a b c Teracom information on
DVB-T2 transmissions Archived 9 October
2010 at the Wayback Machine. (in Swedish)
^ a b Boxers list of
DVB-T2 channels (in Swedish)
^ The Thai National Telecommunications and Broadcasting Committee (in
^ TM-T2. Second Generation DVB-T, DVB.org
^ DVB –
Digital Video Broadcasting
Digital Video Broadcasting –
DVB-T2 Archived 22 October
2008 at the Wayback Machine.
Freeview HD channels will start 2009 – ukfree.tv –
independent digital television and switchover advice, since 2002".
Retrieved 25 November 2007.
Ofcom Statement on DTT future, announced on April 3, 2008".
Retrieved 9 April 2008.
^ C3 + C4 and partners
^ EN 302 755
ETSI timetable for
DVB-T2 Archived 18 February 2012 at the Wayback
^ "Work Programme: Details of 'DEN/JTC-DVB-228' Work Item Schedule".
ETSI. Retrieved 16 April 2009.
^ a b Pace unveils
Freeview HD Box
^ nordig.org - Requirements to NorDig-T2 compliant IRDs..
^ PDF document on the CD3 system.
^ "2nd Generation Terrestrial: The World's Most Advanced Digital
Terrestrial TV System" (PDF). DVB Project. Retrieved 17 April
Digital Video Broadcasting
Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB); Frame structure channel coding
and modulation for a second generation digital terrestrial television
broadcasting system (DVB-T2)" (PDF). DVB consortium. February
^ Presentation given by Dr. Morello Archived 12 November 2008 at the
RAI research centre, Rome, 3 April 2008.
^ a b
^ Televisión digital en
Colombia - Noticias de Tecnología en
Colombia y el Mundo - ELTIEMPO.COM
^ Boxer lancerer HD TV
^ THE SWITCHOVER PROCESS TO DIGITAL BROADCASTING STARTS ON 1ST OF JULY
^ a b Srbija: Brža digitalizacija i jeftiniji internet
^ a b Digitalizacija televizije u prvom tromesečju 2013. godine -
^ DBT-2 signal u Srbiji! (Optibox Raptor HD) - YouTube
^ Четыре общенациональных цифровых
канала не успеют выйти в эфир до конца
года / Связь и коммуникации / proIT
^ "Digital TV standard for SADC declared". MyBroadband.co.za. 25
DVB-T2 take off in Serbia". Broadband TV News. 25 May 2009.
^ "Singapore's free-to-air TV channels to go fully digital by 2013".
MDA Singapore. 19 June 2012.
DVB-T2 tested in
Spain Rapid TV News
^ DVB -
Digital Video Broadcasting
Digital Video Broadcasting - Sri Lanka
^ Digital TV Labs’ consultancy service deploys
DVB-T2 trial package
^ Exclusive: FCC OKs Test of TV Transmission Standard
^ Skendy portal Digitalna televizija DVB-TDVB-T2MUX AMUX BMUX D
DVB-T2 starts in Czech Republic". Broadband TV News. 2 March 2017.
Retrieved 9 October 2017.
^ Brychta, Jan. "České Radiokomunikace spouští
síť ze Žižkova a Cukráku". DigiZone.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 9
^ Standar Penyiaran Televisi Digital (in Indonesian)
DVB-T2 Seminar by Ministry of Information & Communication
Technology at Hotel Borobudur, Jakarta on 26 June 2012
^ a b
DVB-T2 Advanced Television
^ DVB News/Russian Federation
^ DVB -
Digital Video Broadcasting
Digital Video Broadcasting - Serbia
DVB-T2 take off in Serbia
^ Telekom Srbija, Fox Televizija test
Serbia - Telecompaper
^ ETV Serbia: Trial network Archived 16 April 2012 at the Wayback
Serbia adds new
^ SA adopts
DVB-T2 standard for digital TV 14 January 2011
DVB-T2 Digital TV standard and white neo-colonialism 17 January 2011
^ Digital TV standards battle ends: Logic prevails
^ December 2013 cut-off for analogue TV TechCentral
^ Finally, SA is going digital ITWeb
Freeview HD channel line-up confirmed!". Electricpig. 30 March
ITV HD will relaunch for Freeview HD". What Satellite & Digital
TV. 7 August 2009. Archived from the original on 12 August 2009.
^ "C4 HD begins Freeview test transmissions". Digital Spy. 26 March
Freeview HD launches, gets Channel 4". Register Hardware. 30 March
^ "Channel 5 withdraws application for
Freeview HD slot". DTG.
Retrieved 18 June 2012.
^ "More HD Olympics for Freeview viewers". BBC. Retrieved 18 June
BBC to launch five new subscription-free HD channels". BBC.
Retrieved 2 October 2013.
BBC Two HD Channel to launch 26 March". BBC. Retrieved 2 October
DVB document A122, Frame structure channel coding and modulation for a
second generation digital terrestrial television broadcasting system
DVB document A133 Implementation guidelines for a second generation
digital terrestrial television broadcasting system (DVB-T2) and
DVB document A136 Modulator Interface (T2-MI) for a second generation
digital terrestrial television broadcasting system (DVB-T2) are
available at the dvb.org website.
DVB-T2 Fact Sheet, March 2010
Wikimedia Commons has media related to DVB-T2.
Website of the DVB Project
Wireless video and data distribution methods
Advanced Wireless Services
Digital terrestrial television
Digital terrestrial television (DTT or DTTV)
Multipoint Video Distribution System (
MVDS or DVB-MS)
Instructional Television Fixed Service (ITFS; now known as Educational
Broadband Service (EBS))
Local Multipoint Distribution Service (LMDS)
Mobile WiMAX (IEEE 802.16e)
Mobile broadband wireless access (IEEE 802.20)
Multichannel Multipoint Distribution Service
Multichannel Multipoint Distribution Service (MMDS; now known as
Business Radio Service (BRS))
Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Service (3G MMMS)
Satellite Internet access
UWB (IEEE 802.15.3)
Visual sensor network
Wi-Fi (IEEE 802.11)
WiMAX (IEEE 802.16)
WRAN (IEEE 802.22)
Wireless local loop (WLL)
3GPP Long Term Evolution
3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE)
Broadcast video formats
System L (SECAM-L)
MPEG-4 AVC standards
MPEG-1 Audio Layer II
Digital cinema (DCI)
Display motion blur
Moving image formats
MPEG transport stream
Reverse Standards Conversion
Video on demand