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DVB-T
DVB-T
is an abbreviation for " Digital Video Broadcasting
Digital Video Broadcasting
— Terrestrial"; it is the DVB European-based consortium standard for the broadcast transmission of digital terrestrial television that was first published in 1997[1] and first broadcast in the UK in 1998.[1] This system transmits compressed digital audio, digital video and other data in an MPEG transport stream, using coded orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing ( COFDM
COFDM
or OFDM) modulation. It is also the format widely used worldwide (including North America) for Electronic News Gathering for transmission of video and audio from a mobile newsgathering vehicle to a central receive point.

Contents

1 Basics 2 Technical description of a DVB-T
DVB-T
transmitter 3 Technical description of the receiver 4 Countries and territories using DVB-T
DVB-T
or DVB-T2

4.1 Americas 4.2 Europe 4.3 Oceania 4.4 Asia 4.5 Africa

5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 External links

Basics[edit] Rather than carrying one data carrier on a single radio frequency (RF) channel, COFDM
COFDM
works by splitting the digital data stream into a large number of slower digital streams, each of which digitally modulates a set of closely spaced adjacent sub-carrier frequencies. In the case of DVB-T, there are two choices for the number of carriers known as 2K-mode or 8K-mode. These are actually 1,705 or 6,817 sub-carriers that are approximately 4 kHz or 1 kHz apart. DVB-T
DVB-T
offers three different modulation schemes (QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM). DVB-T
DVB-T
has been adopted or proposed for digital television broadcasting by many countries (see map), using mainly VHF 7 MHz and UHF 8 MHz channels whereas Taiwan, Colombia, Panama
Panama
and Trinidad and Tobago use 6 MHz channels. Examples include the UK's Freeview. The DVB-T
DVB-T
Standard is published as EN 300 744, Framing structure, channel coding and modulation for digital terrestrial television. This is available from the ETSI
ETSI
website, as is ETSI
ETSI
TS 101 154, Specification for the use of Video
Video
and Audio Coding in Broadcasting Applications based on the MPEG-2
MPEG-2
Transport Stream, which gives details of the DVB use of source coding methods for MPEG-2
MPEG-2
and, more recently, H.264/MPEG-4 AVC
H.264/MPEG-4 AVC
as well as audio encoding systems. Many countries that have adopted DVB-T
DVB-T
have published standards for their implementation. These include the D-book in the UK, the Italian DGTVi,[2] the ETSI
ETSI
E-Book and the Nordic countries and Ireland NorDig. DVB-T
DVB-T
has been further developed into newer standards such as DVB-H (Handheld), which was a commercial failure and is no longer in operation, and DVB-T2, which was initially finalised in August 2011. DVB-T
DVB-T
as a digital transmission delivers data in a series of discrete blocks at the symbol rate. DVB-T
DVB-T
is a COFDM
COFDM
transmission technique which includes the use of a Guard Interval. It allows the receiver to cope with strong multipath situations. Within a geographical area, DVB-T
DVB-T
also allows single-frequency network (SFN) operation, where two or more transmitters carrying the same data operate on the same frequency. In such cases the signals from each transmitter in the SFN needs to be accurately time-aligned, which is done by sync information in the stream and timing at each transmitter referenced to GPS. The length of the Guard Interval can be chosen. It is a trade-off between data rate and SFN capability. The longer the guard interval the larger is the potential SFN area without creating intersymbol interference (ISI). It is possible to operate SFNs which do not fulfill the guard interval condition if the self-interference is properly planned and monitored. Technical description of a DVB-T
DVB-T
transmitter[edit]

Scheme of a DVB-T
DVB-T
transmission system

With reference to the figure, a short description of the signal processing blocks follows.

Source coding
Source coding
and MPEG-2
MPEG-2
multiplexing (MUX) Compressed video, compressed audio, and data streams are multiplexed into MPEG program streams (MPEG-PS's). One or more MPEG-PS's are joined together into an MPEG transport stream
MPEG transport stream
(MPEG-TS); this is the basic digital stream which is being transmitted and received by TV sets or home Set Top Boxes (STB). Allowed bitrates for the transported data depend on a number of coding and modulation parameters: it can range from about 5 to about 32 Mbit/s (see the bottom figure for a complete listing). Splitter Two different MPEG-TSs can be transmitted at the same time, using a technique called Hierarchical Transmission. It may be used to transmit, for example a standard definition SDTV
SDTV
signal and a high definition HDTV signal on the same carrier. Generally, the SDTV
SDTV
signal is more robust than the HDTV one. At the receiver, depending on the quality of the received signal, the STB may be able to decode the HDTV stream or, if signal strength lacks, it can switch to the SDTV
SDTV
one (in this way, all receivers that are in proximity of the transmission site can lock the HDTV signal, whereas all the other ones, even the farthest, may still be able to receive and decode an SDTV
SDTV
signal). MUX adaptation and energy dispersal The MPEG-TS is identified as a sequence of data packets, of fixed length (188 bytes). With a technique called energy dispersal, the byte sequence is decorrelated. External encoder A first level of error correction is applied to the transmitted data, using a non-binary block code, a Reed-Solomon RS (204, 188) code, allowing the correction of up to a maximum of 8 wrong bytes for each 188-byte packet. External interleaver Convolutional interleaving is used to rearrange the transmitted data sequence, in such a way that it becomes more rugged to long sequences of errors. Internal encoder A second level of error correction is given by a punctured convolutional code, which is often denoted in STBs menus as FEC (Forward error correction). There are five valid coding rates: 1/2, 2/3, 3/4, 5/6, and 7/8. Internal interleaver Data sequence is rearranged again, aiming to reduce the influence of burst errors. This time, a block interleaving technique is adopted, with a pseudo-random assignment scheme (this is really done by two separate interleaving processes, one operating on bits and another one operating on groups of bits). Mapper The digital bit sequence is mapped into a base band modulated sequence of complex symbols. There are three valid modulation schemes: QPSK, 16-QAM, 64-QAM. Frame adaptation the complex symbols are grouped in blocks of constant length (1512, 3024, or 6048 symbols per block). A frame is generated, 68 blocks long, and a superframe is built by 4 frames. Pilot and TPS signals In order to simplify the reception of the signal being transmitted on the terrestrial radio channel, additional signals are inserted in each block. Pilot signals are used during the synchronization and equalization phase, while TPS signals (Transmission Parameters Signalling) send the parameters of the transmitted signal and to unequivocally identify the transmission cell. The receiver must be able to synchronize, equalize, and decode the signal to gain access to the information held by the TPS pilots. Thus, the receiver must know this information beforehand, and the TPS data is only used in special cases, such as changes in the parameters, resynchronizations, etc.

Spectrum of a DVB-T
DVB-T
signal in 8k mode (note the flat-top characteristics)

OFDM Modulation The sequence of blocks is modulated according to the OFDM technique, using 1705 or 6817 carriers (2k or 8k mode, respectively). Increasing the number of carriers does not modify the payload bit rate, which remains constant. Guard interval insertion to decrease receiver complexity, every OFDM block is extended, copying in front of it its own end (cyclic prefix). The width of such guard interval can be 1/32, 1/16, 1/8, or 1/4 that of the original block length. Cyclic prefix is required to operate single frequency networks, where there may exist an ineliminable interference coming from several sites transmitting the same program on the same carrier frequency. DAC and front-end The digital signal is transformed into an analogue signal, with a digital-to-analog converter (DAC), and then modulated to radio frequency (VHF, UHF) by the RF front end. The occupied bandwidth is designed to accommodate each single DVB-T
DVB-T
signal into 5, 6, 7, or 8 MHz wide channels. The base band sample rate provided at the DAC input depends on the channel bandwidth: it is

f

s

=

8 7

B

displaystyle f_ s = frac 8 7 B

samples/s, where

B

displaystyle B

is the channel bandwidth expressed in Hz.

Available bit rates (Mbit/s) for a DVB-T
DVB-T
system in 8 MHz channels

Modulation Coding rate Guard interval

1/4 1/8 1/16 1/32

QPSK 1/2 4.976 5.529 5.855 6.032

2/3 6.635 7.373 7.806 8.043

3/4 7.465 8.294 8.782 9.048

5/6 8.294 9.216 9.758 10.053

7/8 8.709 9.676 10.246 10.556

16-QAM 1/2 9.953 11.059 11.709 12.064

2/3 13.271 14.745 15.612 16.086

3/4 14.929 16.588 17.564 18.096

5/6 16.588 18.431 19.516 20.107

7/8 17.418 19.353 20.491 21.112

64-QAM 1/2 14.929 16.588 17.564 18.096

2/3 19.906 22.118 23.419 24.128

3/4 22.394 24.882 26.346 27.144

5/6 24.882 27.647 29.273 30.160

7/8 26.126 29.029 30.737 31.668

Technical description of the receiver[edit] The receiving STB adopts techniques which are dual to those ones used in the transmission.

Front-end and ADC: the analogue RF signal is converted to base-band and transformed into a digital signal, using an analogue-to-digital converter (ADC). Time and frequency synchronization: the digital base band signal is searched to identify the beginning of frames and blocks. Any problems with the frequency of the components of the signal are corrected, too. The property that the guard interval at the end of the symbol is placed also at the beginning is exploited to find the beginning of a new OFDM symbol. On the other hand, continual pilots (whose value and position is determined in the standard and thus known by the receiver) determine the frequency offset suffered by the signal. This frequency offset might have been caused by Doppler effect, inaccuracies in either the transmitter or receiver clock, and so on. Generally, synchronization is done in two steps, either before or after the FFT, in such way to resolve both coarse and fine frequency/timing errors. Pre-FFT steps involve the use of sliding correlation on the received time signal, whereas Post-FFT steps use correlation between the frequency signal and the pilot carriers sequence. Guard interval disposal: the cyclic prefix is removed. OFDM demodulation: this is achieved with an FFT. Frequency equalization: the pilot signals are used to estimate the Channel Transfer Function (CTF) every three subcarriers. The CTF is derived in the remaining subcarriers via interpolation. The CTF is then used to equalize the received data in each subcarrier, generally using a Zero-Forcing method (multiplication by CTF inverse). The CTF is also used to weigh the reliability of the demapped data when they are provided to the Viterbi decoder. Demapping: since there are Gray-encoded QAM
QAM
constellations, demapping is done in a "soft" way using nonlinear laws that demap each bit in the received symbol to a more or less reliable fuzzy value between -1 and +1. Internal deinterleaving Internal decoding: uses the Viterbi algorithm, with a traceback length larger than that generally used for the basic 1/2 rate code, due to the presence of punctured ("erased") bits. External deinterleaving External decoding MUX adaptation MPEG-2
MPEG-2
demultiplexing and source decoding

Countries and territories using DVB-T
DVB-T
or DVB-T2[edit]

Digital terrestrial television
Digital terrestrial television
systems worldwide. Countries using DVB-T
DVB-T
or DVB-T2
DVB-T2
are shown in blue.[3]

Americas[edit]

  Belize
Belize
( ISDB-T
ISDB-T
on February 12 2018, first in Central America and Caribbean countries)   Bermuda
Bermuda
(decided on 10 July 2007)[4]   Colombia
Colombia
(decided on 28 August 2008) [5] (Uses DVB-T/H.264/ MPEG-4 for SD and HD. In 2011 is moving to DVB-T2/H.264/MPEG-4) [6]   Greenland
Greenland
(Nuuk TV)  French Guiana   Panama
Panama
(decided on 12 May 2009) [7] (uses DVB-T/ MPEG-2
MPEG-2
for SD and DVB-T/H.264/ MPEG-4 for HD transmissions.)  Haiti  Saint-Pierre and Miquelon  Trinidad and Tobago  Curacao (experimental DVB-T
DVB-T
MPEG2)[citation needed]   Suriname
Suriname
(experimental ISDB-T)[citation needed]   Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands
(In 2008 KTV Ltd. implemented DVB-T, 64QAM, 7/8, 1/32, MPEG2 for both SD and HD transmissions)[citation needed] [8]

Europe[edit]

  Albania
Albania
(uses MPEG-2
MPEG-2
for SD and H.264/MPEG-4 AVC
H.264/MPEG-4 AVC
for HD transmissions).  Andorra   Austria
Austria
(transition to DVB-T2)   Belgium
Belgium
(uses MPEG-2
MPEG-2
for SD transmissions)   Belarus
Belarus
(uses DVB-T
DVB-T
H.264/MPEG-4 AVC
H.264/MPEG-4 AVC
for SD transmission and DVB-T2
DVB-T2
for pay SD transmissions)   Bulgaria
Bulgaria
(H.264/ MPEG-4 AVC, FEC=2/3, guard interval - 1/4, 64 QAM. Official simulcast started in March 2013, full switch has been done on 30 September 2013.)[9][10]   Croatia
Croatia
(see DVB-T
DVB-T
in Croatia)   Czech Republic
Czech Republic
(MPEG-2, DVB-T2
DVB-T2
HEVC H.265 started in 2017)   Cyprus
Cyprus
( H.264/MPEG-4 AVC
H.264/MPEG-4 AVC
video)   Denmark
Denmark
(uses H.264/AVC
H.264/AVC
for SD and HD transmissions. See DVB-T in Denmark.)   Estonia
Estonia
(uses H.264/AVC
H.264/AVC
video)  Faroe Islands  Finland   France
France
(uses MPEG-2
MPEG-2
for free SD and H.264/AVC
H.264/AVC
for free HD, pay SD and pay HD transmissions.See Digital terrestrial television#France.)   Germany
Germany
(partly still DVB-T
DVB-T
MPEG-2, SD only; since 2016 transition to DVB-T2
DVB-T2
H.265/HEVC
H.265/HEVC
with HD 1080p50 - see Television in Germany)  Georgia   Greece
Greece
(ERT Digital and Digital Union use MPEG-2
MPEG-2
but will shift to H.264/ MPEG-4 AVC. Digea, ERT / ERT HD and Digital Union (in Region of Thessalia) use H.264/ MPEG-4 AVC)   Hungary
Hungary
(branded MinDigTV, uses H.264/MPEG-4 AVC
H.264/MPEG-4 AVC
video exclusively.)  Iceland[11]  Ireland (uses H.264/MPEG-4 AVC
H.264/MPEG-4 AVC
for HD and SD transmissions, see Saorview)   Italy
Italy
(uses MPEG-2
MPEG-2
for SD, H.264/MPEG-4 AVC
H.264/MPEG-4 AVC
for HD)   Latvia
Latvia
(uses H.264/ MPEG-4 AVC)   Lithuania
Lithuania
(uses H.264/ MPEG-4 AVC)  Luxembourg  Macedonia ( DVB-T
DVB-T
in Macedonia)  Malta   Moldova
Moldova
(uses MPEG-2. H.264/AVC
H.264/AVC
is being tested.)  Montenegro   Netherlands
Netherlands
( MPEG-2
MPEG-2
SD, operated by Digitenne)   Norway
Norway
(uses H.264/MPEG-4 AVC
H.264/MPEG-4 AVC
for SD and HD transmissions)   Poland
Poland
(uses H.264/AVC
H.264/AVC
video for SD and HD transmissions; see DVB-T
DVB-T
in Poland)   Portugal
Portugal
(uses H.264/AVC
H.264/AVC
video;)   Romania
Romania
DVB-T
DVB-T
was only used experimentally in two cities, and is being phased out. The official terrestrial broadcasting standard in Romania
Romania
is DVB-T2, and implementations started in 2015.   Russia
Russia
(uses DVB-T2
DVB-T2
H.264/AVC[12])   Serbia
Serbia
(uses DVB-T2
DVB-T2
H.264/AVC
H.264/AVC
[13])   Slovakia
Slovakia
(uses MPEG-2
MPEG-2
for SD and H.264/MPEG-4 AVC
H.264/MPEG-4 AVC
for HD, testing DVB-T2
DVB-T2
H.264/AVC)   Slovenia
Slovenia
(uses H.264/MPEG-4 AVC
H.264/MPEG-4 AVC
video since 2007. See DVB-T
DVB-T
in Slovenia)   Spain
Spain
(uses DVB-T
DVB-T
MPEG-2
MPEG-2
for SD and DVB-T
DVB-T
H.264/ MPEG-4 for HD transmissions.)   Sweden
Sweden
(uses MPEG-2
MPEG-2
and H.264/ MPEG-4 AVC) for SD, and DVB-T2 with H.264/AVC
H.264/AVC
for SD and HD transmissions. See DVB-T
DVB-T
in Sweden.)   Switzerland   Turkey
Turkey
(experimental)   United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(uses DVB-T
DVB-T
MPEG-2
MPEG-2
for SD and DVB-T2
DVB-T2
H.264/AVC for HD transmissions. See DVB-T
DVB-T
in United Kingdom.)   Ukraine
Ukraine
(uses DVB-T2
DVB-T2
H.264/AVC
H.264/AVC
for all nationwide broadcasts)

Oceania[edit]

  Australia
Australia
(mostly uses MPEG-2
MPEG-2
for SD transmissions and H.264/AVC for HD transmissions, refer to this list of digital television channels in Australia)   New Zealand
New Zealand
(uses MPEG-4/H.264 video; see Freeview New Zealand)

Asia[edit]

  Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(uses DVB-T2
DVB-T2
MPEG-4 launched April 2015 [14]   Bahrain
Bahrain
(in assessment)[15]   Bangladesh
Bangladesh
( ISDB-T
ISDB-T
on February 12 2018,)[16]   Bhutan
Bhutan
( ISDB-T
ISDB-T
on February 12 2018,)   Brunei
Brunei
Darussalam ( ISDB-T
ISDB-T
on February 14 2018,)   India
India
(uses MPEG-2
MPEG-2
for SD and MPEG-4 for HD transmissions)   Indonesia
Indonesia
(adopted DVB-T2
DVB-T2
H.264/AVC
H.264/AVC
[17] on 2 February 2012) [18]   Iran
Iran
(uses DVB-T
DVB-T
MPEG-4/H.264/AAC SD :720x576i HD :1920x1080i)   Iraq
Iraq
(started in Kurdistan region- Iraq
Iraq
by MIX Media 31 Dec 2011 uses MPEG-4)   Israel
Israel
(uses MPEG-4/H.264 video)  Jordan[15]   Kuwait
Kuwait
(will use DVB-T2)[19]   Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
(DVB-T2)[20]  Lebanon[15]   Malaysia
Malaysia
(uses DVB-T2
DVB-T2
nationwide, plans to abandon analog by 2018)   Mongolia
Mongolia
(uses DVB-T2)   Myanmar
Myanmar
( ISDB-T
ISDB-T
on February 12 2018)   Oman
Oman
(in assessment)[15]  Palestine (in assessment)[citation needed]  Qatar[21]   Singapore
Singapore
(4 DVB-T
DVB-T
Channels on 1 January 2007 and 7 DVB-T2 Channels on 13 December 2013)  Saudi Arabia[15]   Syria
Syria
(implement it using DVB-T, MPEG-2
MPEG-2
and MPEG-4.)[15]   Taiwan
Taiwan
(uses DVB-T/ MPEG-2
MPEG-2
for SD and DVB-T/H.264/ MPEG-4 for HD transmissions)   Tajikistan
Tajikistan
(DVB-T2) [22]   Thailand
Thailand
(uses DVB-T2/ MPEG-4 for both SD and HD transmissions launched in April 1, 2014)  Vietnam  United Arab Emirates[15]  Uzbekistan  Yemen[15]

Africa[edit]

 Angola  Algeria   Burkina Faso
Burkina Faso
( ISDB-T
ISDB-T
on February 12 2018, second in African countries)  Cameroon  Ghana  Cape Verde   Kenya
Kenya
(Will use DVB-T2MPEG-4)  Lesotho   Madagascar
Madagascar
(use DVB-T2
DVB-T2
on paid network)  Mauritius  Morocco   Mozambique
Mozambique
(use DVB-T2
DVB-T2
on paid network)  Namibia  Nigeria   Botswana
Botswana
( ISDB-T
ISDB-T
on February 26, 2013, first in African countries)   Rwanda
Rwanda
(is already using DVB-T1/ MPEG-4 and will soon migrate to DVB-T2)   South Africa
South Africa
(will use DVB-T2, after briefly considering ISDB-T)[23][24]   Tunisia
Tunisia
(experimental)

See also[edit]

ATSC (Advanced Television Systems Committee, North American Standard) Digital Audio Broadcasting
Digital Audio Broadcasting
(low bitrate video suitable for moving receivers) Digital Video Broadcasting
Digital Video Broadcasting
(technical standards underpinning DVB-T) DTV channel protection ratios DVB over IP DVB-T2 Digital terrestrial television DMB-T
DMB-T
- Digital Multimedia Broadcast-Terrestrial Interactive television ISDB
ISDB
- Integrated Services Digital Broadcasting

ISDB-T
ISDB-T
International

Multimedia Home Platform (standard to deliver interactive TV applications over DVB) OFDM system comparison table Personal video recorder Spectral efficiency comparison table Teletext

Notes[edit]

^ a b "What is DVB-T". Retrieved 2009-07-19.  ^ "DGTVi - Per la Televisione Digitale Terrestre".  ^ DVB.org, Official information taken from the DVB website ^ "About - DVB". Retrieved 26 June 2016.  ^ El Espectador, Colombia
Colombia
adopta el estándar europeo para la tv digital terrestre, 28 August 2008 ^ Evaluamos, TV Digital no ha llegado a toda Colombia
Colombia
y la CNTV ya piensa en modificar la norma, July 2011 ^ "News - DVB". Retrieved 26 June 2016.  ^ "KTV Ltd". Retrieved 26 June 2016.  ^ "Plan for the introduction of terrestrial digital television broadcasting(DVB-T) in the Republic of Bulgaria" (in Bulgarian). Ministry of Transportation, Information Technology and Communications. Retrieved 2012-12-17.  ^ "Digital Television". NURTS (TV tower operator). Retrieved 2012-12-17.  ^ "Digital Ísland" (in Icelandic). fjarskiptahandbokin.is. Retrieved 2009-10-27.  ^ " Russia
Russia
adopts DVB-T2".  ^ "ETV: trial DVB-T2
DVB-T2
network" (in Serbian). Archived from the original on 16 April 2012. Retrieved 22 March 2012.  ^ "100,000 likes – Oqaab reaches over 1 Mio TV Households". 31 March 2015. Retrieved 26 June 2016.  ^ a b c d e f g h "Samart eyes Middle East market for digital TV-enabled smartphone". Retrieved 26 June 2016.  ^ http://www.abu.org.my/Latest_News-@-Digital_TV_services_to_be_introduced_in_Bangladesh_by_2014__.aspx ^ "PERSYARATAN TEKNIS ALAT DAN PERANGKAT PENERIMA TELEVISI SIARAN DIGITAL BERBASIS STANDAR DIGITAL VIDEO BROADCASTING TERRESTRIAL – SECOND GENERATION" (PDF). Kominfo. Retrieved 1 April 2017.  ^ Standar Penyiaran Televisi Digital ^ Hawkes, Rebecca (26 February 2014). " Kuwait
Kuwait
TV opts for Harris DVB-T2
DVB-T2
technology". www.rapidtvnews.com/. Retrieved 2014-04-11.  ^ "Kyrgyztelecom launches DVB-T2
DVB-T2
& DVB-S2".  ^ " Qatar
Qatar
Goes DVB-T2". https://www.dvb.org. 11 December 2013.  External link in website= (help) ^ " Tajikistan
Tajikistan
Confirms DVB-T2
DVB-T2
Adoption".  ^ Mochiko, Thabiso (26 November 2010). "BusinessDay - State U-turn on Nyanda's digital-TV signal plan". BusinessDay.co.za. BDFM Publishers. Archived from the original on 30 November 2010. Retrieved 26 November 2010.  ^ " DVB-T2
DVB-T2
chosen as digital TV standard". Retrieved 2011-01-03. 

References[edit]

ETSI
ETSI
Standard: EN 300 744 V1.5.1, Digital Video Broadcasting
Digital Video Broadcasting
(DVB); Framing structure, channel coding and modulation for digital terrestrial television, available at ETSI
ETSI
Publications Download Area (This will open ETSI
ETSI
document search engine, to find the latest version of the document enter a search string; free registration is required to download PDF.)

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to DVB-T.

Website of the DVB Project DigiTAG website

v t e

Wireless video and data distribution methods

Advanced Wireless Services Amateur television Analog television Digital radio Digital television Digital terrestrial television
Digital terrestrial television
(DTT or DTTV) Digital Video
Video
Broadcasting

Terrestrial (DVB-T) Satellite (DVB-S2) Handheld (DVB-H)

Multipoint Video Distribution System ( MVDS or DVB-MS) HomeRF Instructional Television Fixed Service (ITFS; now known as Educational Broadband Service (EBS)) Ku band Local Multipoint Distribution Service (LMDS) Microwave Mobile broadband Mobile television Mobile WiMAX
Mobile WiMAX
(IEEE 802.16e) Mobile broadband
Mobile broadband
wireless access (IEEE 802.20) Multichannel Multipoint Distribution Service
Multichannel Multipoint Distribution Service
(MMDS; now known as Business Radio Service (BRS)) MVDS MVDDS Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Service (3G MMMS) Satellite Internet
Internet
access Satellite radio Satellite television UWB (IEEE 802.15.3) Visual sensor network Wi-Fi
Wi-Fi
(IEEE 802.11) WiMAX
WiMAX
(IEEE 802.16) WRAN (IEEE 802.22) Wireless local loop (WLL) Wireless broadband Wireless USB 3GPP Long Term Evolution
3GPP Long Term Evolution
(LTE) 4G

v t e

Broadcast video formats

Television

Analog

525 lines

System M NTSC NTSC-J PAL-M

625 lines

PAL

System B System D System G System H System I System K

PAL-N PALplus SECAM

System B System D System G System K System L (SECAM-L)

Audio

BTSC (MTS) EIAJ NICAM SAP Sound-in-Syncs Zweikanalton
Zweikanalton
(A2/IGR)

Hidden signals

Captioning CGMS-A EPG GCR PDC Teletext VBI VEIL VIT VITC WSS XDS

Historical

Pre-1940 Mechanical television 180-line 405-line

System A

441-line 819-line MAC MUSE

Digital

Interlaced

SDTV

480i 576i

HDTV

1080i

Progressive

LDTV

1seg 240p 288p

EDTV

480p 576p

HDTV

720p 1080p

UHDTV

2160p 4320p

MPEG-2
MPEG-2
standards

ATSC DVB ISDB DTMB DVB 3D-TV

MPEG-4 AVC standards

ATSC A/72 DMB DTMB DVB SBTVD 1seg

HEVC standards

ATSC 3.0

Audio

AC-3 (5.1) DTS MPEG-1 Audio Layer II MPEG Multichannel PCM LPCM AAC HE-AAC

Hidden signals

AFD Broadcast flag Captioning CPCM EPG Teletext

Technical issues

14:9 compromise Broadcast-safe Digital cinema
Digital cinema
(DCI) Display motion blur Moving image formats MPEG transport stream Reverse Standards Conversion Standards conversion Television transmitter Video
Video
on demand Video
Video
processing Widescreen signaling Templates (Analogue TV Topics)

v t e

Telecommunications

History

Beacon Broadcasting Cable protection system Cable TV Communications satellite Computer network Drums Electrical telegraph Fax Heliographs Hydraulic telegraph Internet Mass media Mobile phone Optical telecommunication Optical telegraphy Pager Photophone Prepay mobile phone Radio Radiotelephone Satellite communications Semaphore Smartphone Smoke signals Telecommunications history Telautograph Telegraphy Teleprinter
Teleprinter
(teletype) Telephone The Telephone Cases Television Timeline of communication technology Undersea telegraph line Videoconferencing Videophone Videotelephony Whistled language

Pioneers

Edwin Howard Armstrong John Logie Baird Paul Baran Alexander Graham Bell Tim Berners-Lee Jagadish Chandra Bose Vint Cerf Claude Chappe Donald Davies Lee de Forest Philo Farnsworth Reginald Fessenden Elisha Gray Erna Schneider Hoover Charles K. Kao Hedy Lamarr Innocenzo Manzetti Guglielmo Marconi Antonio Meucci Radia Perlman Alexander Stepanovich Popov Johann Philipp Reis Nikola Tesla Camille Tissot Alfred Vail Charles Wheatstone Vladimir K. Zworykin

Transmission media

Coaxial cable Fiber-optic communication

Optical fiber

Free-space optical communication Molecular communication Radio waves Transmission line

Network topology and switching

Links Nodes Terminal node Network switching (circuit packet) Telephone exchange

Multiplexing

Space-division Frequency-division Time-division Polarization-division Orbital angular-momentum Code-division

Networks

ARPANET BITNET Cellular network Computer CYCLADES Ethernet FidoNet Internet ISDN LAN Mobile NGN NPL network Public Switched Telephone Radio Telecommunications equipment Television Telex WAN Wireless World Wide Web

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