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DNA
DNA
digital data storage refers to any process to store digital data in the base sequence of DNA
DNA
using commercially available oligonucleotide synthesis machines for storage and DNA
DNA
sequencing machines for retrieval.

Contents

1 History 2 See also 3 References 4 Further reading

History[edit]

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Among early examples of DNA
DNA
data storage, in 2007 a device was created at the University of Arizona using addressing molecules to encode mismatch sites within a DNA
DNA
strand. These mismatches were then able to be read out by performing a restriction digest, thereby recovering the data.[1] On August 16, 2012, the journal Science published research by George Church and colleagues at Harvard University, in which DNA
DNA
was encoded with digital information that included an HTML draft of a 53,400 word book written by the lead researcher, eleven JPG images and one JavaScript program. Multiple copies for redundancy were added and 5.5 petabits can be stored in each cubic millimeter of DNA.[2] The researchers used a simple code where bits were mapped one-to-one with bases, which had the shortcoming that it led to long runs of the same base, the sequencing of which is error-prone. This research result showed that besides its other functions, DNA
DNA
can also be another type of storage medium such as hard drives and magnetic tapes.[3] An improved system was reported in the journal Nature in January 2013, in an article led by researchers from the European Bioinformatics Institute (EBI) and submitted at around the same time as the paper of Church and colleagues. Over five million bits of data, appearing as a speck of dust to researchers, and consisting of text files and audio files, were successfully stored and then perfectly retrieved and reproduced. Encoded information consisted of all 154 of Shakespeare's sonnets, a twenty-six-second audio clip of the "I Have a Dream" speech by Martin Luther King, the well known paper on the structure of DNA
DNA
by James Watson
James Watson
and Francis Crick, a photograph of EBI headquarters in Hinxton, United Kingdom, and a file describing the methods behind converting the data. All the DNA
DNA
files reproduced the information between 99.99% and 100% accuracy.[4] The main innovations in this research were the use of an error-correcting encoding scheme to ensure the extremely low data-loss rate, as well as the idea of encoding the data in a series of overlapping short oligonucleotides identifiable through a sequence-based indexing scheme.[3] Also, the sequences of the individual strands of DNA
DNA
overlapped in such a way that each region of data was repeated four times to avoid errors. Two of these four strands were constructed backwards, also with the goal of eliminating errors.[4] The costs per megabyte were estimated at $12,400 to encode data and $220 for retrieval. However, it was noted that the exponential decrease in DNA
DNA
synthesis and sequencing costs, if it continues into the future, should make the technology cost-effective for long-term data storage within about ten years.[3] The long-term stability of data encoded in DNA
DNA
was reported in February 2015, in an article by researches from ETH Zurich. By adding redundancy via Reed–Solomon error correction coding and by encapsulating the DNA
DNA
within silica glass spheres via Sol-gel chemistry, the researchers predict error-free information recovery after up to 1 million years at -18 °C and 2000 years if stored at 10 °C.[5] Also, a group of researchers, led by Boise State University is working toward a better way to store digital information using nucleic acid memory (NAM). They suggest that the global flash memory market is predicted to reach $30.2 billion this year, potentially growing to $80.3 billion by 2025. They estimated that by 2040, the demand for global memory will exceed the projected supply of silicon (the raw material used to store flash memory), and that nucleic acid memory has a retention time far exceeding electronic memory. They have discussed the longevity of the DNA
DNA
materials through first principle theoretical calculations that is published as commentary research article.[6] In March 2017, Dr. Yaniv Erlich and Dina Zielinski of Columbia University and the New York Genome Center published a method known as DNA
DNA
Fountain which allows perfect retrieval of information from a density of 215 petabytes per gram of DNA. The technique approaches the Shannon capacity
Shannon capacity
of DNA
DNA
storage, achieving 85% of the theoretical limit. Using this method, they were also able to perfectly retrieve an operating system called KolibriOS, the French movie Arrival of a Train at La Ciotat, a $50 Amazon gift card, a computer virus, a Pioneer plaque and a study by Claude Shannon, all with a total of 2.14 megabytes. A process which allows 2.18 × 1015 retrievals using the original DNA
DNA
sample was also tested, being able to perfectly decode the data. The method is however not ready for large-scale use, as it costs $7000 to synthesize 2 megabytes of data and another $2000 to read it.[7][8][9] See also[edit]

DNA
DNA
computing DNA
DNA
nanotechnology Nanobiotechnology Natural computing Plant-based digital data storage

References[edit]

^ Skinner, Gary M.; Visscher, Koen; Mansuripur, Masud (2007-06-01). "Biocompatible Writing of Data into DNA". Journal of Bionanoscience. 1 (1): 17–21. doi:10.1166/jbns.2007.005.  ^ Church, G. M.; Gao, Y.; Kosuri, S. (2012). "Next-Generation Digital Information Storage in DNA". Science. 337 (6102): 1628. doi:10.1126/science.1226355. PMID 22903519.  ^ a b c Yong, E. (2013). "Synthetic double-helix faithfully stores Shakespeare's sonnets". Nature. doi:10.1038/nature.2013.12279.  ^ a b Goldman, N.; Bertone, P.; Chen, S.; Dessimoz, C.; Leproust, E. M.; Sipos, B.; Birney, E. (2013). "Towards practical, high-capacity, low-maintenance information storage in synthesized DNA". Nature. 494 (7435): 77–80. doi:10.1038/nature11875. PMC 3672958 . PMID 23354052.  ^ Grass, R. N.; Heckel, R.; Puddu, M.; Paunescu, D.; Stark, W. J. (2015). "Robust Chemical Preservation of Digital Information on DNA
DNA
in Silica with Error-Correcting Codes". Angewandte Chemie International Edition. 54 (8): 2552. doi:10.1002/anie.201411378. PMID 25650567.  ^ Zhirnov, V.; Zadegan, R. M.; Sandhu, G. S.; Church, G. M.; Hughes, W. L. (2016). "Nucleic acid memory". Nature Materials. 15 (4): 366–370. doi:10.1038/nmat4594.  ^ Yong, Ed. "This Speck of DNA
DNA
Contains a Movie, a Computer Virus, and an Amazon Gift Card". The Atlantic. Retrieved 3 March 2017.  ^ " DNA
DNA
could store all of the world's data in one room". Science Magazine. 2 March 2017. Retrieved 3 March 2017.  ^ Erlich, Yaniv; Zielinski, Dina (2 March 2017). " DNA
DNA
Fountain enables a robust and efficient storage architecture". Science. 355 (6328): 950–954. doi:10.1126/science.aaj2038. Retrieved 3 March 2017. 

Further reading[edit]

Mardis, E. R. (2008). "Next-Generation DNA
DNA
Sequencing Methods". Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics. 9: 387–402. doi:10.1146/annurev.genom.9.081307.164359. PMID 18576944.  Cole, Adam (January 24, 2013). "Shall I Encode Thee In DNA? Sonnets Stored On Double Helix?" (Download article and audio is available). National Public Radio.  Naik, Gautam (January 24, 2013). "Storing Digital Data in DNA". The Wall Street Journal. New York City: Dow Jones & Company. Retrieved 2012-01-25.  DNA
DNA
Sequencing Caught in Deluge of Data. The New York Times (NYTimes.com). Aron, Jacob (February 15, 2015). "Glassed-in DNA
DNA
makes the ultimate time capsule". New Scientist. Retrieved Februa

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