The Info List - DECnet

DECnet is a suite of network protocols created by Digital Equipment Corporation. Originally released in 1975 in order to connect two PDP-11
minicomputers, it evolved into one of the first peer-to-peer network architectures, thus transforming DEC into a networking powerhouse in the 1980s. Initially built with three layers, it later (1982) evolved into a seven-layer OSI-compliant networking protocol. DECnet was built right into the DEC flagship operating system VMS since its inception. Later Digital ported it to Ultrix, as well as Apple Macintosh
Apple Macintosh
and IBM PC
running variants of DOS
and Microsoft Windows
under the name DEC Pathworks, allowing these systems to connect to DECnet networks of VAX
machines as terminal nodes. An open-source version was developed for Linux.[1] DECnet code in the Linux
kernel was marked as orphaned on February 18, 2010.[2]


1 Evolution 2 Availability 3 References 4 External links

4.1 Inter-campus DECnet 4.2 Hobbyist DECnet networks

Evolution[edit] DECnet refers to a specific set of hardware and software networking products which implement the DIGITAL Network Architecture (DNA). The DIGITAL Network Architecture has a set of documents which define the network architecture in general, state the specifications for each layer of the architecture, and describe the protocols which operate within each layer. Although network protocol analyzer tools tend to categorize all protocols from DIGITAL as "DECnet", strictly speaking, non-routed DIGITAL protocols such as LAT, SCS, AMDS, LAST/LAD are not DECnet protocols and are not part of the DIGITAL Network Architecture. To trace the evolution of DECnet is to trace the development of DNA. The beginnings of DNA were in the early 1970s. DIGITAL published its first DNA specification at about the same time that IBM
announced its Systems Network Architecture (SNA). Since that time, development of DNA has evolved through the following phases: Phase I (1974) Support limited to two PDP-11s running the RSX-11 operating system only, with communication over point-to-point (DDCMP) links between nodes. Phase II (1975)[3] Support for networks of up to 32 nodes with multiple, different implementations which could inter-operate with each other. Implementations expanded to include RSTS, TOPS-10 and TOPS-20
with communications between processors still limited to point-to-point links only. Introduction of downline loading (MOP), and file transfer using File Access Listener (FAL), remote file access using Data Access Protocol (DAP), task-to-task programming interfaces and network management features. Phase III (1980). Support for networks of up to 255 nodes over point-to point and multi-drop links. Introduction of adaptive routing capability, record access, a network management architecture, and gateways to other types of networks including IBM’s SNA and CCITT Recommendation X.25.

DECnet Phase IV protocol suite

Application DAP: Data Access Protocol CTERM: Command Terminal

Network Management NICE: Network Information (and) Control Exchange MOP: Maintenance Operation Protocol

Session SCP: Session Control Protocol

Transport NSP: Network Service Protocol

Network DRP: DECnet Routing Protocol

Data link DDCMP: Digital Data Communications Message Protocol Ethernet, Token ring, HDLC, FDDI, ...

Physical Ethernet, Token ring, FDDI, ...

Phase IV and Phase IV+ (1982). Phase IV was released initially to RSX-11
and VMS systems, later TOPS-20, TOPS-10, ULTRIX, VAXELN, and RSTS/E
gained support. Support for networks of up to 64,449 nodes (63 areas of 1023 nodes), datalink capabilities expanded beyond DDCMP to include Ethernet
local area network support as the datalink of choice, expanded adaptive routing capability to include hierarchical routing (areas, level 1 and level 2 routers), VMScluster support (cluster alias) and host services (CTERM). CTERM allowed a user on one computer to log into another computer remotely, performing the same function that Telnet does in the TCP/IP
protocol stack. Digital also released a product called the PATHWORKS client, and more commonly known as the PATHWORKS 32 client, that implemented much of DECnet Phase IV for DOS, and 16 and 32 bit Microsoft
platforms (all the way through to Windows
Server 2003). Phase IV implemented an 8 layer architecture similar to the OSI (7 layer) model especially at the lower levels. Since the OSI standards were not yet fully developed at the time, many of the Phase IV protocols remained proprietary. The Ethernet
implementation was unusual in that the software changed the physical address of the Ethernet
interface on the network to AA-00-04-00-xx-yy where xx-yy reflected the DECnet network address of the host. This allowed ARP-less LAN operation because the LAN address could be deduced from the DECnet address. This precluded connecting two NICs from the same DECnet node onto the same LAN segment, however. The initial implementations released were for VMS and RSX-11, later this expanded to virtually every operating system DIGITAL ever shipped with the notable exception of RT-11. DECnet stacks are found on Linux, SunOS and other platforms, and Cisco and other network vendors offer products that can cooperate with and operate within DECnet networks. Full DECnet Phase IV specifications are available. At the same time that DECnet Phase IV was released, the company also released a proprietary protocol called LAT for serial terminal access via Terminal servers. LAT shared the OSI physical and datalink layers with DECnet and LAT terminal servers used MOP for the server image download and related bootstrap processing. Enhancements made to DECnet Phase IV eventually became known as DECnet Phase IV+, although systems running this protocol remained completely interoperable with DECnet Phase IV systems. Phase V and Phase V+ (1987). Support for very large (architecturally unlimited) networks, a new network management model, local or distributed name service, improved performance over Phase IV. Move from a proprietary network to an Open Systems Interconnection
Open Systems Interconnection
(OSI) by integration of ISO standards to provide multi-vendor connectivity and compatibility with DNA Phase IV, the last two features resulted in a hybrid network architecture (DNA and OSI) with separate “towers” sharing an integrated transport layer. Transparent transport level links to TCP/IP
were added via the IETF RFC 1006 (OSI over IP) and RFC 1859 (NSP over IP) standards (see diagram). It was later renamed DECnet/OSI to emphasize its OSI interconnectibility, and subsequently DECnet-Plus as TCP/IP
protocols were incorporated. Availability[edit] The DECnet protocols were designed entirely by Digital Equipment Corporation. However, DECnet Phase II (and later) were open standards with published specifications, and several implementations were developed outside DEC, including ones for FreeBSD
and Linux. References[edit]

^ [1] ^ Linux
Kernel Changelog, 2010-02-18. Christine Caulfield, Orphan DECnet "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-08-11. Retrieved 2016-07-25.  ^ "Digital Equipment Corporation, 1957 to the present", 1978, page 53

Carl Malamud, Analyzing DECnet/OSI Phase V. Van Hostrand Reinhold, 1991. ISBN 0-442-00375-7. James Martin, Joe Leben, DECnet Phase V: An OSI Implementation. Digital Press, 1992. ISBN 1-55580-769-0. DECnet-Plus manuals for OpenVMS
are available at http://www.hp.com/go/openvms/doc/ DECnet Phase IV OpenVMS
manuals for DECnet Phase IV; these Phase IV manuals are archived on OpenVMS
Freeware V5.0 distribution, at http://www.hp.com/go/openvms/freeware and other sites. DECnet Phase IV architecture manuals (including DDCMP, MOP, NICE, NSP, DAP, CTERM, routing); at http://h71000.www7.hp.com/wizard/decnet/ (the originals are mirrored at DECnet for Linux).

External links[edit]

Cisco documentation of DECNet

Inter-campus DECnet[edit]

CCNET (Computer Center Network, 1980s; more info here)

Hobbyist DECnet networks[edit]

HECnet Italian