_Omaha Beach_: V Corps
_Utah Beach_: VII Corps
_Gold Beach_ XXX Corps
_Juno Beach_ I Corps
* 3rd Canadian
_Sword Beach_ I Corps
_South of Caen_
* 709th Static Division
_Gold, Juno, and Sword_
* 716th Static Division
156,000 50,350+ 170 coastal artillery guns. Includes guns from 100mm to 210mm, as well as 320mm rocket launchers.
CASUALTIES AND LOSSES
10,000+ casualties; 4,414 confirmed dead 4,000–9,000 casualties
* v * t * e
* _Fortitude_ * _Zeppelin_ * _Titanic_ * _Taxable_, _Glimmer_ ">Initial airborne assault
* British sector
* _Deadstick_ * Merville Battery
* American sector
* _Albany_ * _Boston_ * _Chicago_ * _Detroit_ * _Elmira_
* American sector
* Omaha * Utah * Pointe du Hoc
* Anglo-Canadian sector
* Sword * Juno * Gold * Port-en-Bessin
* Initial ground campaign
* American sector
* Brécourt Manor * Graignes * Hill 30
* Anglo-Canadian sector
* Villers- Bocage
* Le Mesnil-Patry * Douvres * _Martlet_ * _Epsom_
* _Windsor_ * _Charnwood_ * _Jupiter_ * 2nd Odon
* _Atlantic_ * _Goodwood_ * Verrières Ridge
* _Cobra_ * _Spring_ * _Bluecoat_ * _Totalize_
* _Lüttich_ * _Tractable_ * Hill 262 * Chambois
* Falaise * Brest * Paris
* Air and sea operations
* La Caine
* Supporting operations
* _Dingson_ * _Samwest_ * _Titanic_ * _Cooney_
* _Jedburgh_ * _Pluto_ * _Mulberry_ * _Dragoon_
The NORMANDY LANDINGS (codenamed OPERATION NEPTUNE) were the landing
operations on Tuesday, 6 June 1944 (termed D-DAY ) of the Allied
Planning for the operation began in 1943. In the months leading up to
the invasion, the Allies conducted a substantial military deception ,
Operation Bodyguard , to mislead the Germans as to the date
and location of the main Allied landings. The weather on
The amphibious landings were preceded by extensive aerial and naval bombardment and an airborne assault —the landing of 24,000 American , British, and Canadian airborne troops shortly after midnight . Allied infantry and armoured divisions began landing on the coast of France at 06:30. The target 50-mile (80 km) stretch of the Normandy coast was divided into five sectors: Utah , Omaha , Gold , Juno , and Sword . Strong winds blew the landing craft east of their intended positions, particularly at Utah and Omaha. The men landed under heavy fire from gun emplacements overlooking the beaches, and the shore was mined and covered with obstacles such as wooden stakes, metal tripods, and barbed wire, making the work of the beach-clearing teams difficult and dangerous. Casualties were heaviest at Omaha, with its high cliffs. At Gold, Juno, and Sword, several fortified towns were cleared in house-to-house fighting, and two major gun emplacements at Gold were disabled, using specialised tanks.
The Allies failed to achieve any of their goals on the first day.
St. Lô , and
Bayeux remained in German hands, and
Museums, memorials, and war cemeteries in the area now host many visitors each year.
* 1 Background * 2 Operations * 3 Deception plans * 4 Weather
* 5 German order of battle
* 6 Atlantic Wall * 7 Armoured reserves
* 8 Allied order of battle
* 8.1 American zones * 8.2 British and Canadian zones
* 9 Coordination with the French Resistance
* 10 Naval activity
* 10.1 Naval losses
* 11 Bombardment
* 12 Landings
* 12.1 Airborne operations
* 12.1.1 American airborne landings * 12.1.2 British and Canadian airborne landings
* 13 Aftermath * 14 War memorials and tourism
* 15 Depiction in media
* 15.1 Books * 15.2 Film and television * 15.3 Video games
* 16 See also
* 17 References
* 17.1 Notes * 17.2 Citations * 17.3 Bibliography
* 18 Further reading * 19 External links
Between 27 May and 4 June 1940, over 338,000 troops of the British
Expeditionary Force (BEF) and the
French Army , trapped along the
northern coast of France, were rescued in the
Dunkirk evacuation .
After the German Army invaded the
Instead of an immediate return to France, the Western Allies staged
offensives in the
Mediterranean Theatre of Operations , where British
troops were already stationed. By mid-1943 the campaign in North
Africa had been won. The Allies then launched the invasion of Sicily
in July 1943, and subsequently invaded Italy in September the same
year. By then, Soviet forces were on the offensive and had won a major
victory at the
Battle of Stalingrad . The decision to undertake a
cross-channel invasion within the next year was taken at the Trident
Conference in Washington in May 1943. Initial planning was
constrained by the number of available landing craft , most of which
were already committed in the Mediterranean and Pacific . At the
Four sites were considered for the landings:
The Allies planned to launch the invasion on 1 May 1944. The initial draft of the plan was accepted at the Quebec Conference in August 1943. General Dwight D. Eisenhower was appointed commander of Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force (SHAEF). General Bernard Montgomery was named as commander of the 21st Army Group , which comprised all of the land forces involved in the invasion. On 31 December 1943 Eisenhower and Montgomery first saw the plan, which proposed amphibious landings by three divisions with two more divisions in support. The two generals immediately insisted that the scale of the initial invasion be expanded to five divisions, with airborne descents by three additional divisions, to allow operations on a wider front and speed up the capture of Cherbourg. The need to acquire or produce extra landing craft for the expanded operation meant that the invasion had to be delayed to June. Eventually, thirty-nine Allied divisions would be committed to the Battle of Normandy: twenty-two American, twelve British, three Canadian, one Polish, and one French, totalling over a million troops all under overall British command.
Operation Overlord was the name assigned to the establishment of a large-scale lodgement on the Continent. The first phase, the amphibious invasion and establishment of a secure foothold, was codenamed Operation Neptune. To gain the air superiority needed to ensure a successful invasion, the Allies undertook a bombing campaign (codenamed Operation Pointblank ) that targeted German aircraft production, fuel supplies, and airfields. Elaborate deceptions, codenamed Operation Bodyguard , were undertaken in the months leading up to the invasion to prevent the Germans from learning the timing and location of the invasion.
The landings were to be preceded by airborne operations near
Shoulder patches were designed for units of the fictitious First
Under the overall umbrella of Operation Bodyguard, the Allies
conducted several subsidiary operations designed to mislead the
Germans as to the date and location of the Allied landings. Operation
Fortitude included Fortitude North, a misinformation campaign using
fake radio traffic to lead the Germans into expecting an attack on
Norway, and Fortitude South, a major deception involving the creation
of a fictitious First
Many of the German radar stations on the French coast were destroyed
in preparation for the landings. In addition, on the night before the
invasion, a small group of
Special Air Service
The invasion planners determined a set of conditions involving the phase of the moon, the tides, and the time of day that would be satisfactory on only a few days in each month. A full moon was desirable, as it would provide illumination for aircraft pilots and have the highest tides . The Allies wanted to schedule the landings for shortly before dawn, midway between low and high tide, with the tide coming in. This would improve the visibility of obstacles on the beach, while minimising the amount of time the men would be exposed in the open. Eisenhower had tentatively selected 5 June as the date for the assault. However, on 4 June, conditions were unsuitable for a landing: high winds and heavy seas made it impossible to launch landing craft, and low clouds would prevent aircraft from finding their targets. Surface weather analysis map showing weather fronts on 5 June
James Stagg of the
Royal Air Force
Allied control of the Atlantic meant German meteorologists had less information than the Allies on incoming weather patterns. As the _ Luftwaffe _ meteorological centre in Paris was predicting two weeks of stormy weather, many Wehrmacht commanders left their posts to attend war games in Rennes , and men in many units were given leave. Field Marshal Erwin Rommel returned to Germany for his wife's birthday and to meet with Hitler to try to obtain more Panzers .
GERMAN ORDER OF BATTLE
German Supreme commander: Adolf Hitler
* 7th Army : _Generaloberst _ Friedrich Dollmann
* LXXXIV Corps under _General der Artillerie _ Erich Marcks
Allied forces attacking Utah Beach faced the following German units stationed on the Cotentin Peninsula:
* _ 709th Static
* 729th Grenadier Regiment * 739th Grenadier Regiment * 919th Grenadier Regiment
_ German troops using captured French tanks (Beutepanzer_) in Normandy, 1944
Americans assaulting Omaha Beach faced the following troops:
Allied forces at Gold and Juno faced the following elements of the
* 914th Grenadier Regiment * 915th Grenadier Regiment * 916th Grenadier Regiment * 352nd Artillery Regiment
FORCES AROUND CAEN
Allied forces attacking Gold, Juno, and Sword Beaches faced the following German units:
* _ 716th Static
* _ 21st
Alarmed by the raids on St Nazaire and Dieppe in 1942, Hitler had
ordered the construction of fortifications all along the Atlantic
coast, from Spain to Norway, to protect against an expected Allied
invasion. He envisioned 15,000 emplacements manned by 300,000 troops,
but shortages, particularly of concrete and manpower, meant that most
of the strongpoints were never built. As it was expected to be the
site of the invasion, the
Pas de Calais was heavily defended. In the
Rommel believed that the
Rommel believed that Germany's best chance was to stop the invasion
at the shore. He requested that the mobile reserves, especially tanks,
be stationed as close to the coast as possible. Rundstedt, Geyr, and
other senior commanders objected. They believed that the invasion
could not be stopped on the beaches. Geyr argued for a conventional
doctrine: keeping the
ALLIED ORDER OF BATTLE
D-day assault routes into
Commander, SHAEF: General Dwight D. Eisenhower Commander, 21st Army Group: General Bernard Montgomery
Commander, First Army (United States): Lieutenant General Omar Bradley
The First Army contingent totalled approximately 73,000 men, including 15,600 from the airborne divisions. Utah Beach
* VII Corps , commanded by Major General J. Lawton Collins
* V Corps , commanded by Major General Leonard T. Gerow , making up 34,250 men
BRITISH AND CANADIAN ZONES
Commander, Second Army (Britain and Canada): Lieutenant General Sir Miles Dempsey
Overall, the Second Army contingent consisted of 83,115 men, 61,715
of them British. The nominally British air and naval support units
included a large number of personnel from Allied nations, including
several RAF squadrons manned almost exclusively by overseas air crew.
For example, the Australian contribution to the operation included a
Royal Australian Air Force
* XXX Corps , commanded by Lieutenant General Gerard Bucknall
* 50th (Northumbrian) Infantry Division : Major General D.A.H. Graham
* British I Corps , commanded by Lieutenant General John Crocker
* British I Corps, commanded by Lieutenant General John Crocker
COORDINATION WITH THE FRENCH RESISTANCE
Through the London-based _État-major des Forces Françaises de
French Forces of the Interior ), the British Special
Operations Executive orchestrated a massive campaign of sabotage to be
implemented by the
French Resistance . The Allies developed four plans
for the Resistance to execute on
* Plan _Vert_ was a 15-day operation to sabotage the rail system. * Plan _Bleu_ dealt with destroying electrical facilities. * Plan _Tortue_ was a delaying operation aimed at the enemy forces that would potentially reinforce Axis forces at Normandy. * Plan _Violet_ dealt with cutting underground telephone and teleprinter cables.
The resistance was alerted to carry out these tasks by _messages personnels_ transmitted by the BBC\'s French service from London. Several hundred of these messages, which might be snatches of poetry, quotations from literature, or random sentences, were regularly transmitted, masking the few that were actually significant. In the weeks preceding the landings, lists of messages and their meanings were distributed to resistance groups. An increase in radio activity on 5 June was correctly interpreted by German intelligence to mean that an invasion was imminent or underway. However, because of the barrage of previous false warnings and misinformation, most units ignored the warning.
A 1965 report from the Counter-insurgency Information Analysis Center
details the results of the French Resistance's sabotage efforts: "In
the southeast, 52 locomotives were destroyed on 6 June and the railway
line cut in more than 500 places.
Naval operations for the invasion were described by historian
Correlli Barnett as a "never surpassed masterpiece of planning". In
overall command was British Admiral Sir
Bertram Ramsay , who had
Flag officer at
The invasion fleet was drawn from eight different navies, comprising
6,939 vessels: 1,213 warships, 4,126 landing craft of various types,
736 ancillary craft, and 864 merchant vessels. The majority of the
fleet was supplied by the UK, which provided 892 warships and 3,261
landing craft. There were 195,700 naval personnel involved. The
invasion fleet was split into the
Western Naval Task Force (under
Alan G Kirk
At 05:10, four German torpedo boats reached the Eastern Task Force and launched fifteen torpedoes, sinking the Norwegian destroyer HNoMS _Svenner_ off Sword beach but missing the battleships HMS _Warspite_ and _Ramillies_ . After attacking, the German vessels turned away and fled east into a smoke screen that had been laid by the RAF to shield the fleet from the long-range battery at Le Havre. Allied losses to mines included USS _Corry_ off Utah and USS _PC-1261_ , a 173-foot patrol craft. In addition, many landing craft were lost.
Main article: Bombing of
Minesweepers began clearing channels for the invasion fleet shortly
after midnight and finished just after dawn without encountering the
enemy. The Western Task Force included the battleships _Arkansas_ ,
_Nevada_ , and _Texas_ , plus eight cruisers, 28 destroyers, and one
monitor. The Eastern Task Force included the battleships _Ramillies_
and _Warspite_ and the monitor _Roberts_ , twelve cruisers, and
thirty-seven destroyers. Naval bombardment of areas behind the beach
commenced at 05:45, while it was still dark, with the gunners
switching to pre-assigned targets on the beach as soon as it was light
enough to see, at 05:50. Since troops were scheduled to land at Utah
and Omaha starting at 06:30 (an hour earlier than the British
beaches), these areas received only about 40 minutes of naval
bombardment before the assault troops began to land on the shore.
Some of the landing craft had been modified to provide close support
fire, and self-propelled amphibious Duplex-Drive tanks (DD tanks ),
specially designed for the
The success of the amphibious landings depended on the establishment of a secure lodgement from which to expand the beachhead to allow the buildup of a well-supplied force capable of breaking out. The amphibious forces were especially vulnerable to strong enemy counter-attacks before the arrival of sufficient forces in the beachhead could be accomplished. To slow or eliminate the enemy's ability to organise and launch counter-attacks during this critical period, airborne operations were used to seize key objectives such as bridges, road crossings, and terrain features, particularly on the eastern and western flanks of the landing areas. The airborne landings some distance behind the beaches were also intended to ease the egress of the amphibious forces off the beaches, and in some cases to neutralise German coastal defence batteries and more quickly expand the area of the beachhead.
The US 82nd and 101st Airborne Divisions were assigned to objectives
west of Utah Beach, where they hoped to capture and control the few
narrow causeways through terrain that had been intentionally flooded
by the Germans. Reports from Allied intelligence in mid-May of the
arrival of the German 91st
Their faces were darkened with cocoa; sheathed knives were strapped to their ankles; tommy guns strapped to their waists; bandoliers and hand grenades, coils of rope, pick handles, spades, rubber dinghies hung around them, and a few personal oddments, like the lad who was taking a newspaper to read on the plane ... There was an easy familiar touch about the way they were getting ready, as though they had done it often before. Well, yes, they had kitted up and climbed aboard often just like this – twenty, thirty, forty times some of them, but it had never been quite like this before. This was the first combat jump for every one of them.
American Airborne Landings
The American airborne landings began with the arrival of pathfinders at 00:15. Navigation was difficult because of a bank of thick cloud, and as a result only one of the five paratrooper drop zones was accurately marked with radar signals and Aldis lamps . Paratroopers of the US 82nd and 101st Airborne Divisions, numbering over 13,000 men, were delivered by Douglas C-47 Skytrains of the IX Troop Carrier Command . To avoid flying over the invasion fleet, the planes arrived from the west over the Cotentin Peninsula and exited over Utah Beach.
Paratroops from 101st Airborne were dropped beginning around 01:30,
tasked with controlling the causeways behind
Utah Beach and destroying
road and rail bridges over the
Douve River. The C-47s could not fly
in a tight formation because of thick cloud cover, and many
paratroopers were dropped far from their intended landing zones. Many
planes came in so low that they were under fire from both flak and
machine gun fire. Some paratroopers were killed on impact when their
parachutes did not have time to open, and others drowned in the
flooded fields. Gathering together into fighting units was made
difficult by a shortage of radios and by the bocage terrain, with its
hedgerows , stone walls, and marshes. Some units did not arrive at
their targets until afternoon, by which time several of the causeways
had already been cleared by members of the 4th
Troops of the 82nd Airborne began arriving around 02:30, with the primary objective of capturing two bridges over the River Merderet and destroying two bridges over the Douve. On the east side of the river, 75 per cent of the paratroopers landed in or near their drop zone, and within two hours they captured the important crossroads at Sainte-Mère-Église (the first town liberated in the invasion ) and began working to protect the western flank. Because of the failure of the pathfinders to accurately mark their drop zone, the two regiments dropped on the west side of the Merderet were extremely scattered, with only four per cent landing in the target area. Many landed in nearby swamps, with much loss of life. Paratroopers consolidated into small groups, usually a combination of men of various ranks from different units, and attempted to concentrate on nearby objectives. They captured but failed to hold the Merderet River bridge at La Fière, and fighting for the crossing continued for several days.
Reinforcements arrived by glider around 04:00 ( Mission Chicago and Mission Detroit ), and 21:00 (Mission Keokuk and Mission Elmira ), bringing additional troops and heavy equipment. Like the paratroopers, many landed far from their drop zones. Even those that landed on target experienced difficulty, with heavy cargo such as Jeeps shifting during landing, crashing through the wooden fuselage, and in some cases crushing personnel on board.
After 24 hours, only 2,500 men of the 101st and 2,000 of the 82nd
Airborne were under the control of their divisions, approximately a
third of the force dropped. This wide dispersal had the effect of
confusing the Germans and fragmenting their response. The 7th Army
received notification of the parachute drops at 01:20, but Rundstedt
did not initially believe that a major invasion was underway. The
destruction of radar stations along the
British And Canadian Airborne Landings
The first Allied action of
Only 160 men out of the 600 members of the 9th Battalion tasked with eliminating the enemy battery at Merville arrived at the rendezvous point. Lieutenant Colonel Terence Otway , in charge of the operation, decided to proceed regardless, as the emplacement had to be destroyed by 06:00 to prevent it firing on the invasion fleet and the troops arriving on Sword Beach. In the Battle of Merville Gun Battery , Allied forces disabled the guns with plastic explosives at a cost of 75 casualties. The emplacement was found to contain 75 mm guns rather than the expected 150 mm heavy coastal artillery. Otway's remaining force withdrew with the assistance of a few members of the 1st Canadian Parachute Battalion .
With this action, the last of the
Utah Beach was in the area defended by two battalions of the 919th
Grenadier Regiment. Members of the 8th
The initial assault battalions were quickly followed by 28 DD tanks
and several waves of engineer and demolition teams to remove beach
obstacles and clear the area directly behind the beach of obstacles
and mines. Gaps were blown in the sea wall to allow quicker access for
troops and tanks. Combat teams began to exit the beach at around
09:00, with some infantry wading through the flooded fields rather
than travelling on the single road. They skirmished throughout the day
with elements of the 919th Grenadier Regiment, who were armed with
antitank guns and rifles. The main strongpoint in the area and another
1,300 yards (1.2 km) to the south were disabled by noon. The 4th
POINTE DU HOC
Pointe du Hoc , a prominent headland situated between Utah and Omaha,
was assigned to two hundred men of 2nd Ranger Battalion , commanded by
James Rudder . Their task was to scale the 30m
(100ft) cliffs with grappling hooks, ropes, and ladders to destroy the
coastal gun battery located at the top. The cliffs were defended by
the German 352nd
The now-isolated Rangers fended off numerous counter-attacks from the German 914th Grenadier Regiment . The men at the point became isolated and some were captured. By dawn on D+1, Rudder had only 90 men able to fight. Relief did not arrive until D+2, when members of the 743rd Tank Battalion and others arrived. By then, Rudder's men had run out of ammunition and were using captured German weapons. Several men were killed as a result, because the German weapons made a distinctive noise, and the men were mistaken for the enemy. By the end of the battle, the Rangers casualties were 135 dead and wounded, while German casualties were 50 killed and 40 captured. An unknown number of French collaborators were executed.
Omaha, the most heavily defended beach, was assigned to the 1st
Casualties were around 2,000, as the men were subjected to fire from
the cliffs above. Problems clearing the beach of obstructions led to
the beachmaster calling a halt to further landings of vehicles at
08:30. A group of destroyers arrived around this time to provide fire
support so landings could resume. Exit from the beach was possible
only via five heavily defended gullies, and by late morning barely 600
men had reached the higher ground. By noon, as the artillery fire
took its toll and the Germans started to run out of ammunition, the
Americans were able to clear some lanes on the beaches. They also
started clearing the gullies of enemy defences so that vehicles could
move off the beach. The tenuous beachhead was expanded over the
following days, and the
The first landings on Gold beach were set for 07:25 due to the differences in the tide between there and the American beaches. High winds made conditions difficult for the landing craft, and the amphibious DD tanks were released close to shore or directly on the beach instead of further out as planned. Three of the four guns in a large emplacement at the Longues-sur-Mer battery were disabled by direct hits from the cruisers _Ajax_ and _Argonaut_ at 06:20. The fourth gun resumed firing intermittently in the afternoon, and its garrison surrendered on 7 June. Aerial attacks had failed to hit the Le Hamel strongpoint, which had its embrasure facing east to provide enfilade fire along the beach and had a thick concrete wall on the seaward side. Its 75 mm gun continued to do damage until 16:00, when a modified Armoured Vehicle Royal Engineers (AVRE) tank fired a large petard charge into its rear entrance. A second casemated emplacement at La Rivière containing an 88 mm gun was neutralised by a tank at 07:30.
Meanwhile, infantry began clearing the heavily fortified houses along
the shore and advanced on targets further inland. The No. 47 (Royal
Marine) Commando moved toward the small port at
captured it the following day in the
Battle of Port-en-Bessin .
Company Sergeant Major
Stanley Hollis received the only Victoria Cross
The landing at Juno was delayed because of choppy seas, and the men arrived ahead of their supporting armour, suffering many casualties while disembarking. Most of the offshore bombardment had missed the German defences. Several exits from the beach were created, but not without difficulty. At Mike Beach on the western flank, a large crater was filled using an abandoned AVRE tank and several rolls of fascine , which were then covered by a temporary bridge. The tank remained in place until 1972, when it was removed and restored by members of the Royal Engineers . The beach and nearby streets were clogged with traffic for most of the day, making it difficult to move inland.
Major German strongpoints with 75 mm guns, machine-gun nests,
concrete fortifications, barbed wire, and mines were located at
Courseulles-sur-Mer , St Aubin-sur-Mer , and
Bernières-sur-Mer . The
towns themselves also had to be cleared in house-to-house fighting.
Soldiers on their way to
Bény-sur-Mer , 3 miles (5 km) inland,
discovered that the road was well covered by machine gun emplacements
that had to be outflanked before the advance could proceed. Elements
of the 9th Canadian
On Sword, 21 of 25 DD tanks of the first wave were successful in getting safely ashore to provide cover for the infantry, who began disembarking at 07:30. The beach was heavily mined and peppered with obstacles, making the work of the beach clearing teams difficult and dangerous. In the windy conditions, the tide came in more quickly than expected, so manoeuvring the armour was difficult. The beach quickly became congested. Brigadier Simon Fraser, 15th Lord Lovat and his 1st Special Service Brigade arrived in the second wave, piped ashore by Private Bill Millin , Lovat's personal piper. Members of No. 4 Commando moved through Ouistreham to attack from the rear a German gun battery on the shore. A concrete observation and control tower at this emplacement had to be bypassed and was not captured until several days later. French forces under Commander Philippe Kieffer (the first French soldiers to arrive in Normandy) attacked and cleared the heavily fortified strongpoint at the casino at Riva Bella, with the aid of one of the DD tanks.
The 'Morris' strongpoint near
Colleville-sur-Mer was captured after
about an hour of fighting. The nearby 'Hillman' strongpoint,
headquarters of the 736th
Supply landings at Omaha Beach, mid-June 1944 Situation map for 24:00, 6 June 1944
WAR MEMORIALS AND TOURISM
At Omaha Beach, parts of the
Mulberry harbour are still visible, and
a few of the beach obstacles remain. A memorial to the American
National Guard sits at the location of a former German strongpoint.
Pointe du Hoc is little changed from 1944, with the terrain covered
with bomb craters and most of the concrete bunkers still in place. The
Pegasus Bridge , a target of the British 6th Airborne, was the site
of some of the earliest action of the
DEPICTION IN MEDIA
* _The Longest Day _ (1959 book)
FILM AND TELEVISION
* _The Longest Day _ (1962 film) * _ Saving Private Ryan _ (1998 film) * _Band of Brothers _ (2001 miniseries)
* _Medal of Honor: Allied Assault _ (2002) * _Medal of Honor: Frontline _ (2002)
Commonwealth War Graves Commission
* ^ The official British history gives an estimated figure of 156,115 men landed on D-Day. This comprised 57,500 Americans and 75,215 British and Canadians from the sea and 15,500 Americans and 7,900 British from the air. Ellis, Allen -webkit-column-width: 20em; column-width: 20em; list-style-type: decimal;">
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Ford & Zaloga 2009 , p. 25.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Beevor 2009 , p. 76.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Williams 1988 , p. x.
* ^ Beevor 2009 , p. 492.
* ^ Wenande 2014 .
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Beevor 2009 , p. 82.
* ^ US Navy website .
* ^ Ford & Zaloga 2009 , p. 7.
* ^ Ford & Zaloga 2009 , p. 342.
* ^ Ford & Zaloga 2009 , pp. 60, 63, 118–120.
* ^ Zaloga & Johnson 2005 , p. 29.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ Portsmouth Museum Services .
* ^ Churchill 1949 , p. 115.
* ^ Ford & Zaloga 2009 , pp. 8–9.
* ^ Folliard 1942 .
* ^ Ford & Zaloga 2009 , p. 10.
* ^ Ford & Zaloga 2009 , pp. 10–11.
* ^ Wilmot 1997 , pp. 177–178, chart p. 180.
* ^ Churchill 1951 , p. 404.
* ^ Ford & Zaloga 2009 , pp. 13–14.
* ^ Beevor 2009 , pp. 33–34.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Wilmot 1997 , p. 170.
* ^ Ambrose 1994 , pp. 73–74.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Ford & Zaloga 2009 , p. 14.
* ^ Wilmot 1997 , p. 182.
* ^ Gilbert 1989 , p. 491.
* ^ Whitmarsh 2009 , pp. 12–13.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ Whitmarsh 2009 , p. 13.
* ^ Weinberg 1995 , p. 684.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Ellis, Allen & Warhurst 2004 , pp. 521–533.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Beevor 2009 , p. 3.
* ^ Churchill 1951 , pp. 592–593.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Beevor 2009 , Map, inside front cover.
* ^ Weinberg 1995 , p. 698.
* ^ Weinberg 1995 , p. 680.
* ^ Brown 2007 , p. 465.
* ^ Zuehlke 2004 , pp. 71–72.
* ^ Whitmarsh 2009 , p. 27.
* ^ Beevor 2009 , p. 282.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Whitmarsh 2009 , p. 34.
* ^ Bickers 1994 , pp. 19–21.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ Whitmarsh 2009 , p. 31.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Whitmarsh 2009 , p. 33.
* ^ Beevor 2009 , p. 21.
* ^ Wilmot 1997 , p. 224.
* ^ Wilmot 1997 , pp. 224–226.
* ^ Ford & Zaloga 2009 , p. 131.
* ^ Beevor 2009 , pp. 42–43.
* ^ Wilmot 1997 , p. 144.
* ^ Goldstein, Dillon & Wenger 1994 , pp. 16–19.
* ^ Ford & Zaloga 2009 , p. 37.
* ^ Ford & Zaloga 2009 , p. 118.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Ford & Zaloga 2009 , p. 122.
* ^ Ford & Zaloga 2009 , pp. 60, 63.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ Ford & Zaloga 2009 , p. 63.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ Ford & Zaloga 2009 , p. 275.
* ^ Ford & Zaloga 2009 , p. 60.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Ford & Zaloga 2009 , p. 206.
* ^ Whitmarsh 2009 , p. 73.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Ford & Zaloga 2009 , p. 30.
* ^ Beevor 2009 , p. 33.
* ^ Goldstein, Dillon & Wenger 1994 , p. 12.
* ^ Whitmarsh 2009 , p. 12.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Ford & Zaloga 2009 , pp. 54–56.
* ^ Murray 1983 , p. 263.
* ^ Murray 1983 , p. 280.
* ^ Hooton 1999 , p. 283.
* ^ Ford & Zaloga 2009 , p. 31.
* ^ Whitmarsh 2009 , p. 15.
* ^ Wilmot 1997 , p. 192.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Whitmarsh 2009 , Map, p. 12.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ Ford & Zaloga 2009 , p. 125.
* ^ Whitmarsh 2009 , p. 53.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Ford & Zaloga 2009 , p. 66.
* ^ Stanley 2004 .
* ^ _A_ _B_ Holland 2014 .
* ^ _A_ _B_ Ford & Zaloga 2009 , p. 271.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Ford & Zaloga 2009 , p. 270.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Ford & Zaloga 2009 , p. 200.
* ^ Ford & Zaloga 2009 , p. 201.
* ^ Douthit 1988 , p. 23.
* ^ Escott 2010 , p. 138.
* ^ Beevor 2009 , p. 43.
* ^ Wilmot 1997 , p. 229.
* Ambrose, Stephen (1994) . _
* US Department of the Navy, Naval History and Heritage Command.
* Whitmarsh, Andrew (2009). _
* Badsey, Stephen (1990). _