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Cyprus,[f] officially the Republic of Cyprus,[g] is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean. Cyprus
Cyprus
is located south of Turkey, west of Syria
Syria
and Lebanon, northwest of Israel, north of Egypt, and southeast of Greece. The earliest known human activity on the island dates to around the 10th millennium BC. Archaeological remains from this period include the well-preserved Neolithic
Neolithic
village of Khirokitia, and Cyprus
Cyprus
is home to some of the oldest water wells in the world.[9] Cyprus
Cyprus
was settled by Mycenaean Greeks in two waves in the 2nd millennium BC. As a strategic location in the Middle East, it was subsequently occupied by several major powers, including the empires of the Assyrians, Egyptians and Persians, from whom the island was seized in 333 BC by Alexander the Great. Subsequent rule by Ptolemaic Egypt, the Classical and Eastern Roman Empire, Arab caliphates for a short period, the French Lusignan dynasty
Lusignan dynasty
and the Venetians, was followed by over three centuries of Ottoman rule between 1571 and 1878 (de jure until 1914).[10] Cyprus
Cyprus
was placed under British administration based on the Cyprus Convention in 1878 and was formally annexed by Britain in 1914. While Turkish Cypriots
Turkish Cypriots
made up 18% of the population, the partition of Cyprus
Cyprus
and creation of a Turkish state in the north became a policy of Turkish Cypriot
Turkish Cypriot
leaders and Turkey
Turkey
in the 1950s. Turkish leaders for a period advocated the annexation of Cyprus
Cyprus
to Turkey
Turkey
as Cyprus
Cyprus
was considered an "extension of Anatolia" by them; while, since the 19th century,[11][12] the majority Greek Cypriot
Greek Cypriot
population and its Orthodox church had been pursuing union with Greece, which became a Greek national policy in the 1950s.[13] Following nationalist violence in the 1950s, Cyprus
Cyprus
was granted independence in 1960.[14] In 1963, the 11-year intercommunal violence between Greek Cypriots
Greek Cypriots
and Turkish Cypriots started, which displaced more than 25,000 Turkish Cypriots[15][16] and brought the end of Turkish Cypriot
Turkish Cypriot
representation in the republic. On 15 July 1974, a coup d'état was staged by Greek Cypriot nationalists[17][18] and elements of the Greek military junta[19] in an attempt at enosis, the incorporation of Cyprus
Cyprus
into Greece. This action precipitated the Turkish invasion of Cyprus
Turkish invasion of Cyprus
on 20 July,[20] which led to the capture of the present-day territory of Northern Cyprus
Northern Cyprus
in the following month, after a ceasefire collapsed, and the displacement of over 150,000 Greek Cypriots[21][22] and 50,000 Turkish Cypriots.[23] A separate Turkish Cypriot
Turkish Cypriot
state in the north was established by unilateral declaration in 1983; the move was widely condemned by the international community, with Turkey
Turkey
alone recognizing the new state. These events and the resulting political situation are matters of a continuing dispute. The Republic of Cyprus
Republic of Cyprus
has de jure sovereignty over the entire island, including its territorial waters and exclusive economic zone, with the exception of the Sovereign Base Areas
Sovereign Base Areas
of Akrotiri and Dhekelia, which remain under British control according to the London and Zürich Agreements. However, the Republic of Cyprus
Republic of Cyprus
is de facto partitioned into two main parts: the area under the effective control of the Republic, located in the south and west, and comprising about 59% of the island's area; and the north,[24] administered by the self-declared Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, covering about 36% of the island's area. Another nearly 4% of the island's area is covered by the UN buffer zone. The international community considers the northern part of the island as territory of the Republic of Cyprus occupied by Turkish forces.[25][26][27][28][29] The occupation is viewed as illegal under international law, amounting to illegal occupation of EU territory since Cyprus
Cyprus
became a member of the European Union.[30] Cyprus
Cyprus
is a major tourist destination in the Mediterranean.[31][32][33] With an advanced,[34] high-income economy and a very high Human Development Index,[35][36] the Republic of Cyprus
Cyprus
has been a member of the Commonwealth since 1961 and was a founding member of the Non-Aligned Movement
Non-Aligned Movement
until it joined the European Union
European Union
on 1 May 2004.[37] On 1 January 2008, the Republic of Cyprus
Cyprus
joined the eurozone.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Prehistoric and Ancient Cyprus 2.2 Middle Ages 2.3 Cyprus
Cyprus
under the Ottoman Empire

2.3.1 Numeracy

2.4 Cyprus
Cyprus
under the British Empire 2.5 Independence and inter-communal violence 2.6 1974 coup, Turkish invasion and division 2.7 Post-division

3 Geography

3.1 Climate 3.2 Water supply

4 Politics

4.1 Administrative divisions 4.2 Exclaves and enclaves 4.3 Foreign relations 4.4 Law, justice and human rights 4.5 Armed forces

5 Economy

5.1 Transport 5.2 Communications

6 Demographics

6.1 Functional urban areas 6.2 Religion 6.3 Languages 6.4 Education

7 Culture

7.1 Arts 7.2 Music 7.3 Literature 7.4 Mass media 7.5 Cinema 7.6 Cuisine 7.7 Sports

8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links

Etymology

A copper mine in Cyprus. In antiquity, Cyprus
Cyprus
was a major source of copper.

The earliest attested reference to Cyprus
Cyprus
is the 15th century BC Mycenaean Greek
Mycenaean Greek
𐀓𐀠𐀪𐀍, ku-pi-ri-jo,[38] meaning "Cypriot" (Greek: Κύπριος), written in Linear B
Linear B
syllabic script.[39] The classical Greek form of the name is Κύπρος (Kýpros). The etymology of the name is unknown. Suggestions include:

the Greek word for the Mediterranean cypress tree (Cupressus sempervirens), κυπάρισσος (kypárissos) the Greek name of the henna plant (Lawsonia alba), κύπρος (kýpros) an Eteocypriot
Eteocypriot
word for copper. It has been suggested, for example, that it has roots in the Sumerian word for copper (zubar) or for bronze (kubar), from the large deposits of copper ore found on the island.[40]

Through overseas trade, the island has given its name to the Classical Latin word for copper through the phrase aes Cyprium, "metal of Cyprus", later shortened to Cuprum.[40][41] The standard demonym relating to Cyprus
Cyprus
or its people or culture is Cypriot. The terms Cypriote and Cyprian are also used, though less frequently. History Main articles: History of Cyprus
History of Cyprus
and Timeline of Cypriot history

Early Greek colonization of Cyprus

Prehistoric and Ancient Cyprus Main articles: Prehistoric Cyprus
Prehistoric Cyprus
and Ancient history of Cyprus

Archeologic site of Choirokoitia with early remains of human habitation during Aceramic Neolithic
Neolithic
period (reconstruction)

The earliest confirmed site of human activity on Cyprus
Cyprus
is Aetokremnos, situated on the south coast, indicating that hunter-gatherers were active on the island from around 10,000 BC,[42] with settled village communities dating from 8200 BC. The arrival of the first humans correlates with the extinction of the dwarf hippos and dwarf elephants.[43] Water wells discovered by archaeologists in western Cyprus
Cyprus
are believed to be among the oldest in the world, dated at 9,000 to 10,500 years old.[9] Remains of an 8-month-old cat were discovered buried with a human body at a separate Neolithic
Neolithic
site in Cyprus.[44] The grave is estimated to be 9,500 years old (7500 BC), predating ancient Egyptian civilisation and pushing back the earliest known feline-human association significantly.[45] The remarkably well-preserved Neolithic village of Khirokitia
Khirokitia
is a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
dating to approximately 6800 BC.[46]

Sanctuary of Apollo Hylates, Kourion

During the late Bronze
Bronze
Age the island experienced two waves of Greek settlement.[47] The first wave consisted of Mycenaean Greek
Mycenaean Greek
traders who started visiting Cyprus
Cyprus
around 1400 BC.[48][49] A major wave of Greek settlement is believed to have taken place following the Bronze Age collapse of Mycenaean Greece
Greece
from 1100 to 1050 BC, with the island's predominantly Greek character dating from this period.[49][50] Cyprus
Cyprus
occupies an important role in Greek mythology being the birthplace of Aphrodite
Aphrodite
and Adonis, and home to King Cinyras, Teucer
Teucer
and Pygmalion.[51] Beginning in the 8th century BC Phoenician colonies were founded on the south coast of Cyprus, near present-day Larnaca
Larnaca
and Salamis.[49] Cyprus
Cyprus
is at a strategic location in the Middle East.[52][53][54] It was ruled by Assyria for a century starting in 708 BC, before a brief spell under Egyptian rule and eventually Persian rule in 545 BC.[49] The Cypriots, led by Onesilus, king of Salamis, joined their fellow Greeks in the Ionian cities during the unsuccessful Ionian Revolt
Ionian Revolt
in 499 BC against the Achaemenid Empire. The revolt was suppressed, but Cyprus
Cyprus
managed to maintain a high degree of autonomy and remained oriented towards the Greek world.[49] The island was conquered by Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
in 333 BC. Following his death and the subsequent division of his empire and wars among his successors, Cyprus
Cyprus
became part of the Hellenistic empire of Ptolemaic Egypt. It was during this period that the island was fully Hellenized. In 58 BC Cyprus
Cyprus
was acquired by the Roman Republic.[49] Middle Ages Main articles: Cyprus in the Middle Ages
Cyprus in the Middle Ages
and Kingdom of Cyprus

The Walls of Nicosia
Nicosia
were built by the Venetians to defend the city in case of an Ottoman attack

Kyrenia Castle
Kyrenia Castle
was originally built by the Byzantines and enlarged by the Venetians

When the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
was divided into Eastern and Western parts in 395, Cyprus
Cyprus
became part of the East Roman, or Byzantine
Byzantine
Empire, and would remain so until the Crusades
Crusades
some 800 years later. Under Byzantine
Byzantine
rule, the Greek orientation that had been prominent since antiquity developed the strong Hellenistic-Christian character that continues to be a hallmark of the Greek Cypriot
Greek Cypriot
community.[49] Beginning in 649, Cyprus
Cyprus
suffered from devastating raids launched by Muslim armies from the Levant, which continued for the next 300 years.[49] Many were quick piratical raids, but others were large-scale attacks in which many Cypriots were slaughtered and great wealth carried off or destroyed.[49] There are no Byzantine
Byzantine
churches which survive from this period; thousands of people were killed, and many cities – such as Salamis – were destroyed and never rebuilt.[49] Byzantine
Byzantine
rule was restored in 965, when Emperor Nikephoros II Phokas
Nikephoros II Phokas
scored decisive victories on land and sea.[49] In 1191, during the Third Crusade, Richard I of England
Richard I of England
captured the island from Isaac Komnenos of Cyprus[55] He used it as a major supply base that was relatively safe from the Saracens. A year later Richard sold the island to the Knights Templar, who, following a bloody revolt, in turn sold it to Guy of Lusignan. His brother and successor Aimery was recognised as King of Cyprus
Cyprus
by Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor.[49] Following the death in 1473 of James II, the last Lusignan king, the Republic of Venice
Republic of Venice
assumed control of the island, while the late king's Venetian widow, Queen Catherine Cornaro, reigned as figurehead. Venice formally annexed the Kingdom of Cyprus
Kingdom of Cyprus
in 1489, following the abdication of Catherine.[49] The Venetians fortified Nicosia
Nicosia
by building the Walls of Nicosia, and used it as an important commercial hub. Throughout Venetian rule, the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
frequently raided Cyprus. In 1539 the Ottomans destroyed Limassol
Limassol
and so fearing the worst, the Venetians also fortified Famagusta
Famagusta
and Kyrenia.[49] Although the Lusignan French aristocracy remained the dominant social class in Cyprus
Cyprus
throughout the medieval period, the former assumption that Greeks were treated only as serfs on the island[49] is no longer considered by academics to be accurate. It is now accepted that the medieval period saw increasing numbers of Greek Cypriots
Greek Cypriots
elevated to the upper classes, a growing Greek middle ranks,[56] and the Lusignan royal household even marrying Greeks. This included King John II of Cyprus
Cyprus
who married Helena Palaiologina.[57] Cyprus
Cyprus
under the Ottoman Empire Main article: Ottoman Cyprus In 1570, a full-scale Ottoman assault with 60,000 troops brought the island under Ottoman control, despite stiff resistance by the inhabitants of Nicosia
Nicosia
and Famagusta. Ottoman forces capturing Cyprus massacred many Greek and Armenian Christian inhabitants.[58] The previous Latin elite were destroyed and the first significant demographic change since antiquity took place with the formation of a Muslim community.[59] Soldiers who fought in the conquest settled on the island and Turkish peasants and craftsmen were brought to the island from Anatolia.[60] This new community also included banished Anatolian tribes, "undesirable" persons and members of various "troublesome" Muslim sects, as well as a number of new converts on the island.[61]

Historical map of Cyprus
Cyprus
by Piri Reis

The Ottomans abolished the feudal system previously in place and applied the millet system to Cyprus, under which non-Muslim peoples were governed by their own religious authorities. In a reversal from the days of Latin rule, the head of the Church of Cyprus
Church of Cyprus
was invested as leader of the Greek Cypriot
Greek Cypriot
population and acted as mediator between Christian Greek Cypriots
Greek Cypriots
and the Ottoman authorities. This status ensured that the Church of Cyprus
Church of Cyprus
was in a position to end the constant encroachments of the Roman Catholic Church.[62] Ottoman rule of Cyprus
Cyprus
was at times indifferent, at times oppressive, depending on the temperaments of the sultans and local officials, and the island began over 250 years of economic decline.[63] The ratio of Muslims to Christians fluctuated throughout the period of Ottoman domination. In 1777–78, 47,000 Muslims constituted a majority over the island's 37,000 Christians.[64] By 1872, the population of the island had risen to 144,000, comprising 44,000 Muslims and 100,000 Christians.[65] The Muslim population included numerous crypto-Christians,[66] including the Linobambaki, a crypto-Catholic community that arose due to religious persecution of the Catholic community by the Ottoman authorities;[66][67] this community would assimilate into the Turkish Cypriot
Turkish Cypriot
community during British rule.[68] As soon as the Greek War of Independence
Greek War of Independence
broke out in 1821, several Greek Cypriots
Greek Cypriots
left for Greece
Greece
to join the Greek forces. In response, the Ottoman governor of Cyprus
Cyprus
arrested and executed 486 prominent Greek Cypriots, including the Archbishop
Archbishop
of Cyprus, Kyprianos, and four other bishops.[69] In 1828, modern Greece's first president Ioannis Kapodistrias
Ioannis Kapodistrias
called for union of Cyprus
Cyprus
with Greece, and numerous minor uprisings took place.[70] Reaction to Ottoman misrule led to uprisings by both Greek and Turkish Cypriots, although none were successful. After centuries of neglect by the Turks, the unrelenting poverty of most of the people, and the ever-present tax collectors fuelled Greek nationalism, and by the 20th century idea of enosis, or union, with newly independent Greece
Greece
was firmly rooted among Greek Cypriots.[63] Numeracy Under the Ottoman rule, numeracy, school enrollment and literacy rates were all low. In some countries, these low levels of human capital level persisted sometime after Ottoman rule ended. Greece
Greece
and Cyprus were no exception, they faced the same issue of paths taken under Ottoman educational policies. In these two countries ( Greece
Greece
and Cyprus), numeracy increased rapidly during the twentieth century.[71] Cyprus
Cyprus
under the British Empire Main article: Modern history of Cyprus

Hoisting the British flag at Nicosia

In the aftermath of the Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878)
Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878)
and the Congress of Berlin, Cyprus
Cyprus
was leased to the British Empire
British Empire
which de facto took over its administration in 1878 (though, in terms of sovereignty, Cyprus
Cyprus
remained a de jure Ottoman territory until 5 November 1914, together with Egypt
Egypt
and Sudan)[10] in exchange for guarantees that Britain would use the island as a base to protect the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
against possible Russian aggression.[49]

Greek Cypriot
Greek Cypriot
demonstrations for Enosis
Enosis
(union with Greece) in 1930

The island would serve Britain as a key military base for its colonial routes. By 1906, when the Famagusta
Famagusta
harbour was completed, Cyprus
Cyprus
was a strategic naval outpost overlooking the Suez Canal, the crucial main route to India
India
which was then Britain's most important overseas possession. Following the outbreak of the First World War
First World War
and the decision of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
to join the war on the side of the Central Powers, on 5 November 1914 the British Empire
British Empire
formally annexed Cyprus
Cyprus
and declared the Ottoman Khedivate of Egypt
Egypt
and Sudan a Sultanate and British protectorate.[10][49] In 1915, Britain offered Cyprus
Cyprus
to Greece, ruled by King Constantine I of Greece, on condition that Greece
Greece
join the war on the side of the British. The offer was declined. In 1923, under the Treaty of Lausanne, the nascent Turkish republic relinquished any claim to Cyprus,[72] and in 1925 it was declared a British crown colony.[49] Many Greek and Turkish Cypriots
Turkish Cypriots
fought in the British Army
British Army
during both world wars.[73][not in citation given] During the Second World War, many enlisted in the Cyprus
Cyprus
Regiment. The Greek Cypriot
Greek Cypriot
population, meanwhile, had become hopeful that the British administration would lead to enosis. The idea of enosis was historically part of the Megali Idea, a greater political ambition of a Greek state encompassing the territories with Greek inhabitants in the former Ottoman Empire, including Cyprus
Cyprus
and Asia Minor
Asia Minor
with a capital in Constantinople, and was actively pursued by the Cypriot Orthodox Church, which had its members educated in Greece. These religious officials, together with Greek military officers and professionals, some of whom still pursued the Megali Idea, would later found the guerrilla organisation Ethniki Organosis Kyprion Agoniston or National Organisation of Cypriot Fighters (EOKA).[74][75] The Greek Cypriots viewed the island as historically Greek and believed that union with Greece
Greece
was a natural right.[76] In the 1950s, the pursuit of enosis became a part of the Greek national policy,[77]

Βritish soldier taking aim at Greek Cypriot
Greek Cypriot
demonstrators in Nicosia, 1956

Initially, the Turkish Cypriots
Turkish Cypriots
favoured the continuation of the British rule.[78] However, they were alarmed by the Greek Cypriot calls for enosis as they saw the union of Crete with Greece, which led to the exodus of Cretan Turks, as a precedent to be avoided,[79][80] and they took a pro-partition stance in response to the militant activity of EOKA.[81] The Turkish Cypriots
Turkish Cypriots
also viewed themselves as a distinct ethnic group of the island and believed in their having a separate right to self-determination from Greek Cypriots.[76] Meanwhile, in the 1950s, Turkish leader Menderes considered Cyprus
Cyprus
an "extension of Anatolia", rejected the partition of Cyprus
Cyprus
along ethnic lines and favoured the annexation of the whole island to Turkey. Nationalistic slogans centred on the idea that " Cyprus
Cyprus
is Turkish" and the ruling party declared Cyprus
Cyprus
to be a part of the Turkish homeland that was vital to its security. Upon realising the fact that the Turkish Cypriot
Turkish Cypriot
population was only 20% of the islanders made annexation unfeasible, the national policy was changed to favour partition. The slogan "Partition or Death" was frequently used in Turkish Cypriot
Turkish Cypriot
and Turkish protests starting in the late 1950s and continuing throughout the 1960s. Although after the Zürich and London conferences Turkey
Turkey
seemed to accept the existence of the Cypriot state and to distance itself from its policy of favouring the partition of the island, the goal of the Turkish and Turkish Cypriot
Turkish Cypriot
leaders remained that of creating an independent Turkish state in the northern part of the island.[82][83] In January 1950, the Church of Cyprus
Church of Cyprus
organised a referendum under the supervision of clerics and with no Turkish Cypriot
Turkish Cypriot
participation,[84] where 96% of the participating Greek Cypriots
Greek Cypriots
voted in favour of enosis,[85][86][87] The Greeks were 80.2% of the total island' s population at the time (census 1946). Restricted autonomy under a constitution was proposed by the British administration but eventually rejected. In 1955 the EOKA
EOKA
organisation was founded, seeking union with Greece
Greece
through armed struggle. At the same time the Turkish Resistance Organisation (TMT), calling for Taksim, or partition, was established by the Turkish Cypriots
Turkish Cypriots
as a counterweight.[88] The British had also adopted at the time a policy of "divide and rule". Woodhouse[who?], a British official in Cyprus, revealed that then British Foreign Secretary Harold Macmillan
Harold Macmillan
"urged the Britons in Cyprus
Cyprus
to stir up the Turks in order to neutralise Greek agitation".[citation needed] British officials also tolerated the creation of the Turkish underground organisation T.M.T. The Secretary of State for the Colonies in a letter dated 15 July 1958 had advised the Governor of Cyprus
Cyprus
not to act against T.M.T despite its illegal actions so as not to harm British relations with the Turkish government.[83] Independence and inter-communal violence Main article: Cypriot intercommunal violence

The first president of Cyprus, Makarios III

On 16 August 1960, Cyprus
Cyprus
attained independence after the Zürich and London Agreement between the United Kingdom, Greece
Greece
and Turkey. Cyprus had a total population of 573,566; of whom 442,138 (77.1%) were Greeks, 104,320 (18.2%) Turks, and 27,108 (4.7%) others.[89] The UK retained the two Sovereign Base Areas
Sovereign Base Areas
of Akrotiri and Dhekelia, while government posts and public offices were allocated by ethnic quotas, giving the minority Turkish Cypriots
Turkish Cypriots
a permanent veto, 30% in parliament and administration, and granting the three mother-states guarantor rights. However, the division of power as foreseen by the constitution soon resulted in legal impasses and discontent on both sides, and nationalist militants started training again, with the military support of Greece
Greece
and Turkey
Turkey
respectively. The Greek Cypriot leadership believed that the rights given to Turkish Cypriots
Turkish Cypriots
under the 1960 constitution were too extensive and designed the Akritas plan, which was aimed at reforming the constitution in favour of Greek Cypriots, persuading the international community about the correctness of the changes and violently subjugating Turkish Cypriots
Turkish Cypriots
in a few days should they not accept the plan.[90] Tensions were heightened when Cypriot President Archbishop
Archbishop
Makarios III
Makarios III
called for constitutional changes, which were rejected by Turkey[15] and opposed by Turkish Cypriots.[90] Intercommunal violence erupted on 21 December 1963, when two Turkish Cypriots were killed at an incident involving the Greek Cypriot police. The violence resulted in the death of 364 Turkish and 174 Greek Cypriots,[91] destruction of 109 Turkish Cypriot
Turkish Cypriot
or mixed villages and displacement of 25,000–30,000 Turkish Cypriots. The crisis resulted in the end of the Turkish Cypriot
Turkish Cypriot
involvement in the administration and their claiming that it had lost its legitimacy;[15] the nature of this event is still controversial. In some areas, Greek Cypriots prevented Turkish Cypriots
Turkish Cypriots
from travelling and entering government buildings, while some Turkish Cypriots
Turkish Cypriots
willingly withdrew due to the calls of the Turkish Cypriot
Turkish Cypriot
administration.[92] Turkish Cypriots started living in enclaves; the republic's structure was changed, unilaterally, by Makarios and Nicosia
Nicosia
was divided by the Green Line, with the deployment of UNFICYP
UNFICYP
troops.[15] In 1964, Turkey
Turkey
threatened to invade Cyprus[93] in response to the continuing Cypriot intercommunal violence, but this was stopped by a strongly worded telegram from the US President Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
on 5 June, warning that the US would not stand beside Turkey
Turkey
in case of a consequential Soviet invasion of Turkish territory.[94] Meanwhile, by 1964, enosis was a Greek policy that could not be abandoned; Makarios and the Greek prime minister Georgios Papandreou
Georgios Papandreou
agreed that enosis should be the ultimate aim and King Constantine wished Cyprus
Cyprus
"a speedy union with the mother country". Greece
Greece
dispatched 10,000 troops to Cyprus
Cyprus
to counter a possible Turkish invasion.[95] 1974 coup, Turkish invasion and division Main articles: 1974 Cypriot coup d'état
1974 Cypriot coup d'état
and Turkish invasion of Cyprus On 15 July 1974, the Greek military junta under Dimitrios Ioannides carried out a coup d'état in Cyprus, to unite the island with Greece.[96][97][98] The coup ousted president Makarios III
Makarios III
and replaced him with pro-enosis nationalist Nikos Sampson.[99] In response to the coup,[100][101][102][103][104] five days later, on 20 July 1974, the Turkish army invaded the island, citing a right to intervene to restore the constitutional order from the 1960 Treaty of Guarantee. This justification has been rejected by the United Nations and the international community.[105] The Turkish air force began bombing Greek positions in Cyprus, and hundreds of paratroopers were dropped in the area between Nicosia
Nicosia
and Kyrenia, where well-armed Turkish Cypriot
Turkish Cypriot
enclaves had been long-established; while off the Kyrenia
Kyrenia
coast, Turkish troop ships landed 6,000 men as well as tanks, trucks and armoured vehicles.[106][107] Three days later, when a ceasefire had been agreed,[108] Turkey
Turkey
had landed 30,000 troops on the island and captured Kyrenia, the corridor linking Kyrenia
Kyrenia
to Nicosia, and the Turkish Cypriot
Turkish Cypriot
quarter of Nicosia itself.[108] The junta in Athens, and then the Sampson regime in Cyprus
Cyprus
fell from power. In Nicosia, Glafkos Clerides
Glafkos Clerides
assumed the presidency and constitutional order was restored, removing the pretext for the Turkish invasion.[108] But after the peace negotiations in Geneva, the Turkish government reinforced their Kyrenia
Kyrenia
bridgehead and started a second invasion on 14 August.[109] The invasion resulted in the seizure of Morphou, Karpass, Famagusta
Famagusta
and the Mesaoria. International pressure led to a ceasefire, and by then 36% of the island had been taken over by the Turks and 180,000 Greek Cypriots
Greek Cypriots
had been evicted from their homes in the north.[110] At the same time, around 50,000 Turkish Cypriots
Turkish Cypriots
moved to the areas under the control of the Turkish Forces and settled in the properties of the displaced Greek Cypriots. Among a variety of sanctions against Turkey, in mid-1975 the US Congress imposed an arms embargo on Turkey
Turkey
for using American-supplied equipment during the Turkish invasion of Cyprus
Turkish invasion of Cyprus
in 1974.[111] There are 1,534 Greek Cypriots[112] and 502 Turkish Cypriots[113] missing as a result of the fighting. Post-division

A map showing the division of Cyprus

After the restoration of constitutional order and the return of Archbishop
Archbishop
Makarios III
Makarios III
to Cyprus
Cyprus
in December 1974, Turkish troops remained, occupying the northeastern portion of the island. In 1983, the Turkish Cypriot
Turkish Cypriot
leader proclaimed the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
Cyprus
(TRNC), which is recognised only by Turkey. The events of the summer of 1974 dominate the politics on the island, as well as Greco-Turkish relations. Around 150,000 settlers from Turkey
Turkey
are believed to be living in the north—many of whom were forced from Turkey
Turkey
by the Turkish government—in violation of the Geneva
Geneva
Convention and various UN resolutions.[114][115]

Foreign Ministers of the European Union
European Union
countries in Limassol
Limassol
during Cyprus
Cyprus
Presidency of the EU in 2012

The Turkish invasion, the ensuing occupation and the declaration of independence by the TRNC have been condemned by United Nations resolutions, which are reaffirmed by the Security Council every year.[116] The last major effort to settle the Cyprus dispute
Cyprus dispute
was the Annan Plan
Annan Plan
in 2004, drafted by the then Secretary General, Kofi Annan. The plan was put to a referendum in both Northern Cyprus
Northern Cyprus
and the Republic of Cyprus. 65% of Turkish Cypriots
Turkish Cypriots
voted in support of the plan and 74% Greek Cypriots
Greek Cypriots
voted against the plan, claiming that it disproportionately favoured the Turkish side.[117] In total, 66.7% of the voters rejected the Annan Plan
Annan Plan
V. On 1 May 2004 Cyprus
Cyprus
joined the European Union, together with nine other countries.[118] Cyprus
Cyprus
was accepted into the EU as a whole, although the EU legislation is suspended in Northern Cyprus
Northern Cyprus
until a final settlement of the Cyprus problem. In July 2006, the island served as a haven for people fleeing Lebanon, due to the conflict between Israel
Israel
and Hezbollah
Hezbollah
(also called "The July War").[119] Efforts have been made to enhance freedom of movement between the two sides. In April 2003, Northern Cyprus
Northern Cyprus
unilaterally eased border restrictions, permitting Cypriots to cross between the two sides for the first time in 30 years.[120] In March 2008, a wall that had stood for decades at the boundary between the Republic of Cyprus
Republic of Cyprus
and the UN buffer zone was demolished.[121] The wall had cut across Ledra Street in the heart of Nicosia
Nicosia
and was seen as a strong symbol of the island's 32-year division. On 3 April 2008, Ledra Street
Ledra Street
was reopened in the presence of Greek and Turkish Cypriot
Turkish Cypriot
officials.[122] North and South relaunched reunification talks on 15 May 2015.[123] Geography Main article: Geography of Cyprus

Avakas Gorge in Akamas

Cyprus
Cyprus
is the third largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after the Italian islands of Sicily
Sicily
and Sardinia
Sardinia
(both in terms of area and population). It is also the world's 80th largest by area and world's 51st largest by population. It measures 240 kilometres (149 mi) long from end to end and 100 kilometres (62 mi) wide at its widest point, with Turkey
Turkey
75 kilometres (47 mi) to the north. It lies between latitudes 34° and 36° N, and longitudes 32° and 35° E.

Petra tou Romiou
Petra tou Romiou
("Rock of the Greek").

Other neighbouring territories include Syria
Syria
and Lebanon
Lebanon
to the east (105 and 108 kilometres (65 and 67 mi), respectively), Israel
Israel
200 kilometres (124 mi) to the southeast, Egypt
Egypt
380 kilometres (236 mi) to the south, and Greece
Greece
to the northwest: 280 kilometres (174 mi) to the small Dodecanesian island of Kastellorizo
Kastellorizo
(Megisti), 400 kilometres (249 mi) to Rhodes
Rhodes
and 800 kilometres (497 mi) to the Greek mainland. Sources alternatively place Cyprus
Cyprus
in Europe,[124][125][126] or Western Asia
Asia
and the Middle East.[127][128] The physical relief of the island is dominated by two mountain ranges, the Troodos Mountains
Troodos Mountains
and the smaller Kyrenia
Kyrenia
Range, and the central plain they encompass, the Mesaoria. The Mesaoria
Mesaoria
plain is drained by the Pedieos River, the longest on the island. The Troodos Mountains cover most of the southern and western portions of the island and account for roughly half its area. The highest point on Cyprus
Cyprus
is Mount Olympus at 1,952 m (6,404 ft), located in the centre of the Troodos range. The narrow Kyrenia
Kyrenia
Range, extending along the northern coastline, occupies substantially less area, and elevations are lower, reaching a maximum of 1,024 m (3,360 ft). The island lies within the Anatolian Plate.[129] Geopolitically, the island is subdivided into four main segments. The Republic of Cyprus
Republic of Cyprus
occupies the southern two-thirds of the island (59.74%). The Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
Northern Cyprus
occupies the northern third (34.85%), and the United Nations-controlled Green Line provides a buffer zone that separates the two and covers 2.67% of the island. Lastly, two bases under British sovereignty are located on the island: Akrotiri and Dhekelia, covering the remaining 2.74%.

Climate Main article: Climate of Cyprus

The sandy beaches are often used as habitats for green turtles. In the photo Nissi beach

Cyprus
Cyprus
has a subtropical climate – Mediterranean and semi-arid type (in the north-eastern part of the island) – Köppen climate classifications Csa and BSh,[130][131] with very mild winters (on the coast) and warm to hot summers. Snow is possible only in the Troodos Mountains in the central part of island. Rain occurs mainly in winter, with summer being generally dry. Cyprus
Cyprus
has one of the warmest climates in the Mediterranean part of the European Union.[citation needed] The average annual temperature on the coast is around 24 °C (75 °F) during the day and 14 °C (57 °F) at night. Generally, summers last about eight months, beginning in April with average temperatures of 21–23 °C (70–73 °F) during the day and 11–13 °C (52–55 °F) at night, and ending in November with average temperatures of 22–23 °C (72–73 °F) during the day and 12–14 °C (54–57 °F) at night, although in the remaining four months temperatures sometimes exceed 20 °C (68 °F).[132] Among all cities in the Mediterranean part of the European Union, Limassol
Limassol
has one of the warmest winters, in the period January – February average temperature is 17–18 °C (63–64 °F) during the day and 7–8 °C (45–46 °F) at night, in other coastal locations in Cyprus
Cyprus
is generally 16–17 °C (61–63 °F) during the day and 6–8 °C (43–46 °F) at night. During March, Limassol
Limassol
has average temperatures of 19–20 °C (66–68 °F) during the day and 9–11 °C (48–52 °F) at night, in other coastal locations in Cyprus
Cyprus
is generally 17–19 °C (63–66 °F) during the day and 8–10 °C (46–50 °F) at night.[132]

The Troodos Mountains
Troodos Mountains
experience heavy snowfall in winter

The middle of summer is hot – in July and August on the coast the average temperature is usually around 33 °C (91 °F) during the day and around 22 °C (72 °F) at night (inland, in the highlands average temperature exceeds 35 °C (95 °F)) while in the June and September on the coast the average temperature is usually around 30 °C (86 °F) during the day and around 20 °C (68 °F) at night in Limassol, while is usually around 28 °C (82 °F) during the day and around 18 °C (64 °F) at night in Paphos. Large fluctuations in temperature are rare. Inland temperatures are more extreme, with colder winters and hotter summers compared with the coast of the island.[132] Average annual temperature of sea is 21–22 °C (70–72 °F), from 17 °C (63 °F) in February to 27–28 °C (81–82 °F) in August (depending on the location). In total 7 months – from May to November – the average sea temperature exceeds 20 °C (68 °F).[133] Sunshine hours on the coast are around 3,200 per year, from an average of 5–6 hours of sunshine per day in December to an average of 12–13 hours in July.[133] This is about double that of cities in the northern half of Europe; for comparison, London receives about 1,540 per year.[134] In December, London receives about 50 hours of sunshine[134] while coastal locations in Cyprus
Cyprus
about 180 hours (almost as much as in May in London). Water supply

The Kaledonia Falls in the Troodos Mountains

Kouris Dam
Kouris Dam
overflow in April 2012

Cyprus
Cyprus
suffers from a chronic shortage of water. The country relies heavily on rain to provide household water, but in the past 30 years average yearly precipitation has decreased.[135] Between 2001 and 2004, exceptionally heavy annual rainfall pushed water reserves up, with supply exceeding demand, allowing total storage in the island's reservoirs to rise to an all-time high by the start of 2005. However, since then demand has increased annually – a result of local population growth, foreigners moving to Cyprus
Cyprus
and the number of visiting tourists – while supply has fallen as a result of more frequent droughts.[135] Dams remain the principal source of water both for domestic and agricultural use; Cyprus
Cyprus
has a total of 107 dams (plus one currently under construction) and reservoirs, with a total water storage capacity of about 330,000,000 m3 (1.2×1010 cu ft).[136] Water desalination plants are gradually being constructed to deal with recent years of prolonged drought. The Government has invested heavily in the creation of water desalination plants which have supplied almost 50 per cent of domestic water since 2001. Efforts have also been made to raise public awareness of the situation and to encourage domestic water users to take more responsibility for the conservation of this increasingly scarce commodity. Turkey
Turkey
is building a water pipeline under the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
from Anamur
Anamur
on its southern coast to the northern coast of Cyprus, to supply Northern Cyprus
Northern Cyprus
with potable and irrigation water (see Northern Cyprus
Cyprus
Water Supply Project). Politics Main articles: Politics of Cyprus
Politics of Cyprus
and House of Representatives (Cyprus)

Presidential Palace, Nicosia

Nicos Anastasiades, President of Cyprus
President of Cyprus
since 2013.

Cyprus
Cyprus
is a presidential republic. The head of state and of the government is elected by a process of universal suffrage for a five-year term. Executive power is exercised by the government with legislative power vested in the House of Representatives whilst the Judiciary is independent of both the executive and the legislature. The 1960 Constitution provided for a presidential system of government with independent executive, legislative and judicial branches as well as a complex system of checks and balances including a weighted power-sharing ratio designed to protect the interests of the Turkish Cypriots. The executive was led by a Greek Cypriot
Greek Cypriot
president and a Turkish Cypriot
Turkish Cypriot
vice-president elected by their respective communities for five-year terms and each possessing a right of veto over certain types of legislation and executive decisions. Legislative power rested on the House of Representatives who were also elected on the basis of separate voters' rolls. Since 1965, following clashes between the two communities, the Turkish Cypriot seats in the House remain vacant. In 1974 Cyprus
Cyprus
was divided de facto when the Turkish army occupied the northern third of the island. The Turkish Cypriots
Turkish Cypriots
subsequently declared independence in 1983 as the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
Northern Cyprus
but were recognised only by Turkey. In 1985 the TRNC adopted a constitution and held its first elections. The United Nations
United Nations
recognises the sovereignty of the Republic of Cyprus
Republic of Cyprus
over the entire island of Cyprus. The House of Representatives currently has 59 members elected for a five-year term, 56 members by proportional representation and 3 observer members representing the Armenian, Latin and Maronite minorities. 24 seats are allocated to the Turkish community but remain vacant since 1964. The political environment is dominated by the communist AKEL, the liberal conservative Democratic Rally, the centrist[137] Democratic Party, the social-democratic EDEK and the centrist EURO.KO. In 2008, Dimitris Christofias
Dimitris Christofias
became the country's first Communist head of state. Due to his involvement in the 2012–13 Cypriot financial crisis, Christofias did not run for re-election in 2013. The Presidential election in 2013 resulted in Democratic Rally candidate Nicos Anastasiades
Nicos Anastasiades
winning 57.48% of the vote. As a result, Anastasiades was sworn in on and has been President since 28 February 2013. Anastasiades was re-elected with 56% of the vote in the 2018 presidential election.[138] Administrative divisions Main articles: Districts of Cyprus
Districts of Cyprus
and List of cities, towns and villages in Cyprus The Republic of Cyprus
Republic of Cyprus
is divided into six districts: Nicosia, Famagusta, Kyrenia, Larnaca, Limassol
Limassol
and Paphos.[139]

Nicosia Limassol Larnaca Paphos Famagusta Kyrenia

Exclaves and enclaves

Dhekelia Power Station

Cyprus
Cyprus
has four exclaves, all in territory that belongs to the British Sovereign Base Area of Dhekelia. The first two are the villages of Ormidhia
Ormidhia
and Xylotymvou. The third is the Dhekelia Power Station, which is divided by a British road into two parts. The northern part is the EAC refugee settlement. The southern part, even though located by the sea, is also an exclave because it has no territorial waters of its own, those being U.K. waters.[140] The UN buffer zone runs up against Dhekelia and picks up again from its east side off Ayios Nikolaos and is connected to the rest of Dhekelia by a thin land corridor. In that sense the buffer zone turns the Paralimni
Paralimni
area on the southeast corner of the island into a de facto, though not de jure, exclave. Foreign relations Main article: Foreign relations of Cyprus The Republic of Cyprus
Republic of Cyprus
is a member of the following international groups: Australia
Australia
Group, CN, CE, CFSP, EBRD, EIB, EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ITUC, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ITU, MIGA, NAM, NSG, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO.[141][142] Law, justice and human rights

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Main articles: Cyprus Police
Cyprus Police
and Human rights in Cyprus

Supreme Court of Justice

The Cyprus Police
Cyprus Police
(Greek: Αστυνομία Κύπρου, Turkish: Kıbrıs Polisi) is the only National Police
Police
Service of the Republic of Cyprus
Cyprus
and is under the Ministry of Justice and Public Order since 1993.[143] In "Freedom in the World 2011", Freedom House
Freedom House
rated Cyprus
Cyprus
as "free".[144] In January 2011, the Report of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights on the question of Human Rights in Cyprus
Cyprus
noted that the ongoing division of Cyprus
Cyprus
continues to affect human rights throughout the island "... including freedom of movement, human rights pertaining to the question of missing persons, discrimination, the right to life, freedom of religion, and economic, social and cultural rights."[145] The constant focus on the division of the island can sometimes mask other human rights issues.[citation needed] In 2014, Turkey
Turkey
was ordered by the European Court of Human Rights
European Court of Human Rights
to pay well over $100m in compensation to Cyprus
Cyprus
for the invasion;[146] Ankara
Ankara
announced that it would ignore the judgment.[147] In 2014, a group of Cypriot refugees
Cypriot refugees
and a European parliamentarian, later joined by the Cypriot government, filed a complaint to the International Court of Justice, accusing Turkey
Turkey
of violating the Geneva
Geneva
Conventions by directly or indirectly transferring its civilian population into occupied territory.[148] Over the preceding ten years, civilian transfer by Turkey
Turkey
had "reached new heights", in the words of one US ambassador.[h][149] Other violations of the Geneva
Geneva
and the Hague Conventions—both ratified by Turkey—amount to what archaeologist Sophocles Hadjisavvas called "the organized destruction of Greek and Christian heritage in the north".[150] These violations include looting of cultural treasures, deliberate destruction of churches, neglect of works of art, and altering the names of important historical sites, which was condemned by the International Council on Monuments and Sites. Hadjisavvas has asserted that these actions are motivated by a Turkish policy of erasing the Greek presence in Northern Cyprus
Northern Cyprus
within a framework of ethnic cleansing, as well as by greed and profit-seeking on the part of the individuals involved.[150] Armed forces

Welcoming ceremony by soldiers of the Cypriot National Guard

Main article: Cypriot National Guard The Cypriot National Guard
Cypriot National Guard
is the main military institution of the Republic of Cyprus. It is a combined arms force, with land, air and naval elements. Historically all men were required to spend 24 months serving in the National Guard after their 17th birthday, but in 2016 this period of compulsory service was reduced to 14 months. The land forces of the Cypriot National Guard
Cypriot National Guard
comprise the following units:

First Infantry Division (Iη Μεραρχία ΠΖ) Second Infantry Division (IIα Μεραρχία ΠΖ) Fourth Infantry Brigade (IVη Ταξιαρχία ΠΖ) Twentieth Armoured Brigade (XXη ΤΘ Ταξιαρχία) Third Support Brigade (IIIη Ταξιαρχία ΥΠ) Eighth Support Brigade (VIIIη Ταξιαρχία ΥΠ)

The air force includes the 449th Helicopter Gunship Squadron (449 ΜΑΕ) – operating Aérospatiale SA-342L and Bell 206
Bell 206
and the 450th Helicopter Gunship Squadron (450 ME/P) – operating Mi-35P helicopters and the Britten-Norman BN-2B and Pilatus PC-9
Pilatus PC-9
fixed-wing aircraft. Current senior officers include Supreme Commander, Cypriot National Guard, Lt. General Stylianos Nasis,[151] and Chief of Staff, Cypriot National Guard: Maj. General Michalis Flerianos.[citation needed] The Evangelos Florakis Naval Base explosion, which occurred on 11 July 2011, was the most deadly military accident ever recorded in Cyprus. Economy Main article: Economy of Cyprus

Central Bank of Cyprus

In the early 21st century the Cypriot economy has diversified and become prosperous.[152] However, in 2012 it became affected by the Eurozone
Eurozone
financial and banking crisis. In June 2012, the Cypriot government announced it would need €1.8 billion in foreign aid to support the Cyprus
Cyprus
Popular Bank, and this was followed by Fitch downgrading Cyprus's credit rating to junk status.[153] Fitch said Cyprus
Cyprus
would need an additional €4 billion to support its banks and the downgrade was mainly due to the exposure of Bank of Cyprus, Cyprus Popular Bank and Hellenic Bank, Cyprus's three largest banks, to the Greek financial crisis.[153]

Cyprus
Cyprus
is part of a monetary union, the eurozone (dark blue) and of the EU single market.

The 2012–2013 Cypriot financial crisis
2012–2013 Cypriot financial crisis
led to an agreement with the Eurogroup
Eurogroup
in March 2013 to split the country's second largest bank, the Cyprus Popular Bank
Cyprus Popular Bank
(also known as Laiki Bank), into a "bad" bank which would be wound down over time and a "good" bank which would be absorbed by the Bank of Cyprus. In return for a €10 billion bailout from the European Commission, the European Central Bank
European Central Bank
and the International Monetary Fund, often referred to as the "troika", the Cypriot government was required to impose a significant haircut on uninsured deposits, a large proportion of which were held by wealthy Russians
Russians
who used Cyprus
Cyprus
as a tax haven. Insured deposits of €100,000 or less were not affected.[154][155][156]

Limassol
Limassol
General Hospital

According to the 2017 International Monetary Fund
International Monetary Fund
estimates, its per capita GDP (adjusted for purchasing power) at $36,442 is below the average of the European Union.[157][158] Cyprus
Cyprus
has been sought as a base for several offshore businesses for its low tax rates. Tourism, financial services and shipping are significant parts of the economy. Economic policy of the Cyprus
Cyprus
government has focused on meeting the criteria for admission to the European Union. The Cypriot government adopted the euro as the national currency on 1 January 2008.[152] Cyprus
Cyprus
is last EU member fully isolated from energy interconnections and it is expected that will be connected to European network via Euro Asia
Asia
Interconnector, 2000 MW HVDC undersea power cable.[159] EuroAsia Interconnector
EuroAsia Interconnector
will connect Greek, Cypriot, and Israeli power grids. It is a leading Project of Common Interest of the European Union and also priority Electricity Highway Interconnector Project.[160][161] In recent years significant quantities of offshore natural gas have been discovered in the area known as Aphrodite
Aphrodite
(at the exploratory drilling block 12) in Cyprus' exclusive economic zone (EEZ),[162] about 175 kilometres (109 miles) south of Limassol
Limassol
at 33°5′40″N and 32°59′0″E.[163] However, Turkey's offshore drilling companies have accessed both natural gas and oil resources since 2013.[164] Cyprus
Cyprus
demarcated its maritime border with Egypt
Egypt
in 2003, and with Lebanon
Lebanon
in 2007.[165] Cyprus
Cyprus
and Israel
Israel
demarcated their maritime border in 2010,[166] and in August 2011, the US-based firm Noble Energy entered into a production-sharing agreement with the Cypriot government regarding the block's commercial development.[167] Turkey, which does not recognise the border agreements of Cyprus
Cyprus
with its neighbours,[168] threatened to mobilise its naval forces if Cyprus proceeded with plans to begin drilling at Block 12.[169] Cyprus' drilling efforts have the support of the US, EU, and UN, and on 19 September 2011 drilling in Block 12
Block 12
began without any incidents being reported.[170] Because of the heavy influx of tourists and foreign investors, the property rental market in Cyprus
Cyprus
has grown in recent years.[when?][171] In late 2013, the Cyprus
Cyprus
Town Planning Department announced a series of incentives to stimulate the property market and increase the number of property developments in the country's town centres.[172] This followed earlier measures to quickly give immigration permits to third country nationals investing in Cyprus property.[173] Transport Main articles: Transport in Cyprus
Transport in Cyprus
and Roads and motorways in Cyprus

The port of Limassol, the busiest in Cyprus

A1 Motorway between Agios Athanasios junction and Mesa Ghetonia junction in Limassol

Available modes of transport are by road, sea and air. Of the 10,663 km (6,626 mi) of roads in the Republic of Cyprus
Republic of Cyprus
in 1998, 6,249 km (3,883 mi) were paved, and 4,414 km (2,743 mi) were unpaved. In 1996 the Turkish-occupied area had a similar ratio of paved to unpaved, with approximately 1,370 km (850 mi) of paved road and 980 km (610 mi) unpaved.[citation needed] Cyprus
Cyprus
is one of only four EU nations in which vehicles drive on the left-hand side of the road, a remnant of British colonisation (the others being Ireland, Malta
Malta
and the United Kingdom). A series of motorways runs along the coast from Paphos
Paphos
east to Ayia Napa, with two motorways running inland to Nicosia, one from Limassol
Limassol
and one from Larnaca. Per capita private car ownership is the 29th-highest in the world.[174] There were approximately 344,000 privately owned vehicles, and a total of 517,000 registered motor vehicles in the Republic of Cyprus
Cyprus
in 2006.[175] In 2006, plans were announced to improve and expand bus services and other public transport throughout Cyprus, with the financial backing of the European Union
European Union
Development Bank. In 2010 the new bus network was implemented.[176] Cyprus
Cyprus
has several heliports and two international airports: Larnaca International Airport and Paphos
Paphos
International Airport. A third airport, Ercan International Airport, operates in the Turkish Cypriot administered area with direct flights only to Turkey
Turkey
(Turkish Cypriot ports are closed to international traffic apart from Turkey). Nicosia International Airport has been closed since 1974. The main harbours of the island are Limassol
Limassol
and Larnaca, which service cargo, passenger and cruise ships. Communications Main article: Communications in Cyprus Cyta, the state-owned telecommunications company, manages most telecommunications and Internet connections on the island. However, following deregulation of the sector, a few private telecommunications companies emerged, including MTN, Cablenet, OTEnet Telecom, Omega Telecom and PrimeTel. In the Turkish-controlled area of Cyprus, three different companies are present: Turkcell, KKTC Telsim and Turk Telekom. Demographics Main article: Demographics of Cyprus

Population growth, 1961–2003 (numbers for the entire island, excluding Turkish settlers residing in Northern Cyprus).

2010 population by age and gender

According to the CIA World Factbook, in 2001 Greek Cypriots
Greek Cypriots
comprised 77%, Turkish Cypriots
Turkish Cypriots
18%, and others 5% of the Cypriot population.[177] At the time of the 2011 government census, there were 10,520 people of Russian origin living in Cyprus.[178][179][180][181] According to the first population census after the declaration of independence, carried out in December 1960 and covering the entire island, Cyprus
Cyprus
had a total population of 573,566; of whom 442,138 (77.1%) were Greeks, 104,320 (18.2%) Turkish, and 27,108 (4.7%) others.[89][182] Due to the inter-communal ethnic tensions between 1963 and 1974, an island-wide census was regarded as impossible. Nevertheless, the Cypriot government conducted one in 1973, without the Turkish Cypriot populace.[183] According to this census, the Greek Cypriot
Greek Cypriot
population was 482,000. One year later, in 1974, the Cypriot government's Department of Statistics and Research estimated the total population of Cyprus
Cyprus
at 641,000; of whom 506,000 (78.9%) were Greeks, and 118,000 (18.4%) Turkish.[184] After the partition of the island in 1974, the government of Cyprus
Cyprus
conducted four more censuses: in 1976, 1982, 1992 and 2001; these excluded the Turkish population which was resident in the northern part of the island.[182] According to the Republic of Cyprus's latest estimate, in 2005, the number of Cypriot citizens currently living in the Republic of Cyprus is around 871,036. In addition to this, the Republic of Cyprus
Republic of Cyprus
is home to 110,200 foreign permanent residents[185] and an estimated 10,000–30,000 undocumented illegal immigrants currently living in the south of the island.[186]

Largest groups of foreign residents

Nationality Population (2011)

 Greece 29,321

 United Kingdom 24,046

 Romania 23,706

 Bulgaria 18,536

 Philippines 9,413

 Russia 8,164

 Sri Lanka 7,269

 Vietnam 7,028

 Syria 3,054

 India 2,933

According to the 2006 census carried out by Northern Cyprus, there were 256,644 (de jure) people living in Northern Cyprus. 178,031 were citizens of Northern Cyprus, of whom 147,405 were born in Cyprus (112,534 from the north; 32,538 from the south; 371 did not indicate what part of Cyprus
Cyprus
they were from); 27,333 born in Turkey; 2,482 born in the UK and 913 born in Bulgaria. Of the 147,405 citizens born in Cyprus, 120,031 say both parents were born in Cyprus; 16,824 say both parents born in Turkey; 10,361 have one parent born in Turkey
Turkey
and one parent born in Cyprus.[187] In 2010, the International Crisis Group
International Crisis Group
estimated that the total population of Cyprus
Cyprus
was 1.1 million,[188] of which there was an estimated 300,000 residents in the north, perhaps half of whom were either born in Turkey
Turkey
or are children of such settlers.[189] The villages of Potamia ( Nicosia
Nicosia
district) and Pyla
Pyla
in the Larnaca District are the only settlements in the Republic of Cyprus
Republic of Cyprus
with a mixed Greek and Turkish Cypriot
Turkish Cypriot
population.[citation needed] Y-Dna haplogroups are found at the following frequencies in Cyprus: J (43.07% including 6.20% J1), E1b1b (20.00%), R1 (12.30% including 9.2% R1b), F (9.20%), I (7.70%), K (4.60%), A (3.10%).[190] J, K, F and E1b1b haplogroups consist of lineages with differential distribution within Middle East, North Africa and Europe
Europe
while R1 and I are typical in West European populations. Outside Cyprus
Cyprus
there is a significant and thriving Greek Cypriot diaspora and Turkish Cypriot
Turkish Cypriot
diaspora in the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, the United States, Greece
Greece
and Turkey.

 

v t e

Largest municipalities in Cyprus CYstat – Population — Place of Residence, 2011 (Cyprus Census 2011) (sheet C1); DPÖ – Northern Cyprus
Northern Cyprus
2011 Population and Housing Census

Rank Name District Pop.

Nicosia
Nicosia
(north and south)

Limassol 1 Nicosia
Nicosia
(north and south) Nicosia 200,452

Strovolos

Larnaca

2 Limassol Limassol 154,000

3 Strovolos Nicosia 67,904

4 Larnaca Larnaca 51,468

5 Famagusta Famagusta 42,526

6 Lakatamia Nicosia 38,435

7 Kyrenia Kyrenia 33,207

8 Paphos Paphos 32,892

9 Kato Polemidhia Limassol 22,369

10 Aglandjia Nicosia 20,783

Functional urban areas

Functional urban areas Population (2016)[191]

Nicosia 330,000

Limassol 237,000

Religion Main article: Religion in Cyprus

Kykkos Monastery
Kykkos Monastery
in Pedoulas
Pedoulas
(left) and Hala Sultan Tekke
Hala Sultan Tekke
near Larnaca Salt Lake (right).

Religion in Cyprus
Religion in Cyprus
(Pew Research)[192][193]

religion

percent

Eastern Orthodoxy

78%

Islam

20%

Other

1%

None

1%

The majority of Greek Cypriots
Greek Cypriots
identify as Greek Orthodox,[193][194][195] whereas most Turkish Cypriots
Turkish Cypriots
are adherents of Sunni Islam. According to Eurobarometer 2005,[196] Cyprus
Cyprus
was the second most religious state in the European Union
European Union
at that time, after Malta
Malta
(although in 2005 Romania
Romania
wasn't in the European Union; currently Romania
Romania
is the most religious state in the European Union) (see Religion in the European Union). The first President of Cyprus, Makarios III, was an archbishop. The current leader of the Greek Orthodox Church of Cyprus
Church of Cyprus
is Archbishop
Archbishop
Chrysostomos II. Hala Sultan Tekke, situated near the Larnaca
Larnaca
Salt Lake, is considered by some secular orientalists as the third holiest site in Sunni Islam[197][198] and an object of pilgrimage for both Muslims[199] and Christians.[200] According to the 2001 census carried out in the Government-controlled area,[201] 94.8% of the population are Eastern Orthodox, 0.9% Armenians and Maronites, 1.5% Roman Catholics, 1.0% Church of England, and 0.6% Muslims. There is also a Jewish community on Cyprus. The remaining 1.3% adhere to other religious denominations or did not state their religion. Languages Main article: Languages of Cyprus

The Armenian Alphabet at the Melkonian Educational Institute. Armenian is recognised as a minority language in Cyprus.

Cyprus
Cyprus
road signs in Greek and English. An estimate of 87% of the Cypriot population speaks English.

Cyprus
Cyprus
has two official languages, Greek and Turkish.[202] Armenian and Cypriot Maronite Arabic
Cypriot Maronite Arabic
are recognised as minority languages.[203][204] Although without official status, English is widely spoken and it features widely on road signs, public notices, and in advertisements, etc.[205] English was the sole official language during British colonial rule and the lingua franca until 1960, and continued to be used (de facto) in courts of law until 1989 and in legislation until 1996.[206] 80.4% of Cypriots are proficient in the English language as a second language.[207] Russian is widely spoken among the country's minorities, residents and citizens of post-Soviet countries, and Pontic Greeks. Russian, after English and Greek, is the third language used on many signs of shops and restaurants, particularly in Limassol
Limassol
and Paphos. In addition to these languages, 12% speak French and 5% speak German.[208] The everyday spoken language of Greek Cypriots
Greek Cypriots
is Cypriot Greek
Cypriot Greek
and that of Turkish Cypriots
Turkish Cypriots
is Cypriot Turkish.[206] These vernaculars both differ from their standard registers significantly.[206] Education Main article: Education in Cyprus

Faneromeni School
Faneromeni School
is the oldest all-girl primary school in Cyprus.

Cyprus
Cyprus
has a highly developed system of primary and secondary education offering both public and private education. The high quality of instruction can be attributed in part to the fact that nearly 7% of the GDP is spent on education which makes Cyprus
Cyprus
one of the top three spenders of education in the EU along with Denmark
Denmark
and Sweden.[209] State schools are generally seen as equivalent in quality of education to private-sector institutions. However, the value of a state high-school diploma is limited by the fact that the grades obtained account for only around 25% of the final grade for each topic, with the remaining 75% assigned by the teacher during the semester, in a minimally transparent way. Cypriot universities (like universities in Greece) ignore high school grades almost entirely for admissions purposes. While a high-school diploma is mandatory for university attendance, admissions are decided almost exclusively on the basis of scores at centrally administered university entrance examinations that all university candidates are required to take. The majority of Cypriots receive their higher education at Greek, British, Turkish, other European and North American universities. It is noteworthy that Cyprus
Cyprus
currently has the highest percentage of citizens of working age who have higher-level education in the EU at 30% which is ahead of Finland's 29.5%. In addition, 47% of its population aged 25–34 have tertiary education, which is the highest in the EU. The body of Cypriot students is highly mobile, with 78.7% studying in a university outside Cyprus. Culture

The entrance of the historic Pancyprian Gymnasium

Greek Cypriots
Greek Cypriots
and Turkish Cypriots
Turkish Cypriots
share a lot in common in their culture but also have differences. Several traditional food (such as souvla and halloumi) and beverages are similar, as well as expressions and ways of life. Hospitality and buying or offering food and drinks for guests or others are common among both. In both communities, music, dance and art are integral parts of social life and many artistic, verbal and nonverbal expressions, traditional dances such as tsifteteli, similarities in dance costumes and importance placed on social activities are shared between the communities.[210] However, the two communities have distinct religions and religious cultures, with the Greek Cypriots
Greek Cypriots
traditionally being Greek Orthodox and Turkish Cypriots traditionally being Sunni Muslims, which has partly hindered cultural exchange.[211] Greek Cypriots
Greek Cypriots
have influences from Greece
Greece
and Christianity, while Turkish Cypriots
Turkish Cypriots
have influences from Turkey
Turkey
and Islam. The Limassol
Limassol
Carnival
Carnival
Festival is an annual carnival which is held at Limassol, in Cyprus. The event which is very popular in Cyprus
Cyprus
was introduced in the 20th century.[212] Arts

Typical Cypriot architecture in old part of Nicosia, Cyprus

The art history of Cyprus
Cyprus
can be said to stretch back up to 10,000 years, following the discovery of a series of Chalcolithic
Chalcolithic
period carved figures in the villages of Khoirokoitia
Khoirokoitia
and Lempa.[213] The island is the home to numerous examples of high quality religious icon painting from the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
as well as many painted churches. Cypriot architecture was heavily influenced by French Gothic and Italian renaissance introduced in the island during the era of Latin domination (1191–1571). In modern times Cypriot art history begins with the painter Vassilis Vryonides (1883–1958) who studied at the Academy of Fine Arts in Venice.[214] Arguably the two founding fathers of modern Cypriot art were Adamantios Diamantis (1900–1994) who studied at London's Royal College of Art and Christopheros Savva (1924–1968) who also studied in London, at Saint Martin's School of Art.[215] In many ways these two artists set the template for subsequent Cypriot art and both their artistic styles and the patterns of their education remain influential to this day. In particular the majority of Cypriot artists still train in England[216] while others train at art schools in Greece
Greece
and local art institutions such as the Cyprus
Cyprus
College of Art, University of Nicosia
Nicosia
and the Frederick Institute of Technology. One of the features of Cypriot art is a tendency towards figurative painting although conceptual art is being rigorously promoted by a number of art "institutions" and most notably the Nicosia
Nicosia
Municipal Art Centre. Municipal art galleries exist in all the main towns and there is a large and lively commercial art scene. Cyprus
Cyprus
was due to host the international art festival Manifesta
Manifesta
in 2006 but this was cancelled at the last minute following a dispute between the Dutch organizers of Manifesta
Manifesta
and the Cyprus
Cyprus
Ministry of Education and Culture over the location of some of the Manifesta
Manifesta
events in the Turkish sector of the capital Nicosia.[217][218] Other notable Greek Cypriot
Greek Cypriot
artists include Helene Black, Kalopedis family, Panayiotis Kalorkoti, Nicos Nicolaides, Stass Paraskos, Arestís Stasí, Telemachos Kanthos, Konstantia Sofokleous and Chris Achilleos, and Turkish Cypriot
Turkish Cypriot
artists include İsmet Güney, Ruzen Atakan and Mutlu Çerkez. Music Main article: Music of Cyprus

Prominent Cypriot pop singer Michalis Hatzigiannis

Laouto, dominant instrument of the Cypriot traditional music.

The traditional folk music of Cyprus
Cyprus
has several common elements with Greek, Turkish, and Arabic Music
Arabic Music
including Greek Cypriot
Greek Cypriot
and Turkish Cypriot dances such as the sousta, syrtos, zeibekikos, tatsia, and karsilamas as well as the Middle Eastern-inspired tsifteteli and arapies. There is also a form of musical poetry known as chattista which is often performed at traditional feasts and celebrations. The instruments commonly associated with Cyprus
Cyprus
folk music are the violin ("fkiolin"), lute ("laouto"), accordion, Cyprus
Cyprus
flute (pithkiavlin), oud ("outi") and percussions (including the "toumperleki"). Composers associated with traditional Cypriot music include Solon Michaelides, Marios Tokas, Evagoras Karageorgis and Savvas Salides. Among musicians is also the acclaimed pianist Cyprien Katsaris
Cyprien Katsaris
and composer and artistic director of the European Capital of Culture initiative Marios Joannou Elia. Popular music
Popular music
in Cyprus
Cyprus
is generally influenced by the Greek Laïka scene; artists who play in this genre include international platinum star Anna Vissi,[219][220][221][222] Evridiki, and Sarbel. Hip Hop, R&B and reggae have been supported by the emergence of Cypriot rap and the urban music scene at Ayia Napa. Cypriot rock music and Éntekhno
Éntekhno
rock is often associated with artists such as Michalis Hatzigiannis and Alkinoos Ioannidis. Metal also has a small following in Cyprus
Cyprus
represented by bands such as Armageddon (rev.16:16), Blynd, Winter's Verge, Methysos
Methysos
and Quadraphonic. Literature Main article: Cypriot literature

Zeno of Citium, founder of the Stoic school of philosophy.

Literary production of the antiquity includes the Cypria, an epic poem, probably composed in the late 7th century BC and attributed to Stasinus. The Cypria is one of the very first specimens of Greek and European poetry.[223] The Cypriot Zeno of Citium
Zeno of Citium
was the founder of the Stoic School of Philosophy.

Ioannis Kigalas
Ioannis Kigalas
(c. 1622–1687) was a Nicosia
Nicosia
born Greek Cypriot scholar and professor of Philosophy who was largely active in the 17th century.[224]

Epic poetry, notably the "acritic songs", flourished during Middle Ages. Two chronicles, one written by Leontios Machairas and the other by Georgios Voustronios, cover the entire Middle Ages
Middle Ages
until the end of Frankish rule (4th century–1489). Poèmes d'amour written in medieval Greek Cypriot
Greek Cypriot
date back from the 16th century. Some of them are actual translations of poems written by Petrarch, Bembo, Ariosto and G. Sannazzaro.[225] Many Cypriot scholars fled Cyprus
Cyprus
at troubled times such as Ioannis Kigalas
Ioannis Kigalas
(c. 1622–1687) who migrated from Cyprus
Cyprus
to Italy
Italy
in the 17th century, several of his works have survived in books of other scholars.[226] Hasan Hilmi Efendi, a Turkish Cypriot
Turkish Cypriot
poet, was rewarded by the Ottoman sultan Mahmud II
Mahmud II
and said to be the "sultan of the poems".[227] Modern Greek Cypriot
Greek Cypriot
literary figures include the poet and writer Kostas Montis, poet Kyriakos Charalambides, poet Michalis Pasiardis, writer Nicos Nicolaides, Stylianos Atteshlis, Altheides, Loukis Akritas[228] and Demetris Th. Gotsis. Dimitris Lipertis, Vasilis Michaelides and Pavlos Liasides are folk poets who wrote poems mainly in the Cypriot-Greek dialect.[229][230] Among leading Turkish Cypriot writers are Osman Türkay, twice nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature,[231] Özker Yaşın, Neriman Cahit, Urkiye Mine Balman, Mehmet Yaşın and Neşe Yaşın. There is an increasingly strong presence of both temporary and permanent emigre Cypriot writers in world literature, as well as writings by second and third -generation Cypriot writers born or raised abroad, often writing in English. This includes writers such as Stephen Laughton, Michael Paraskos, Stel Pavlou and Stephanos Stephanides.[232] Examples of Cyprus
Cyprus
in foreign literature include the works of Shakespeare, with most of the play Othello
Othello
by William Shakespeare
William Shakespeare
set on the island of Cyprus. British writer Lawrence Durrell
Lawrence Durrell
lived in Cyprus
Cyprus
from 1952 until 1956, during his time working for the British colonial government on the island, and wrote the book Bitter Lemons about his time in Cyprus
Cyprus
which won the second Duff Cooper Prize in 1957. More recently British writer Victoria Hislop
Victoria Hislop
used Cyprus
Cyprus
as the setting for her 2014 novel The Sunrise. Mass media Main article: Media of Cyprus Main articles: Television in Cyprus, Radio in Cyprus, and Cinema of Cyprus In the 2015 Freedom of the Press report of Freedom House, the Republic of Cyprus
Cyprus
and Northern Cyprus
Northern Cyprus
were ranked "free". The Republic of Cyprus
Cyprus
scored 25/100 in press freedom, 5/30 in Legal Environment, 11/40 in Political Environment, and 9/30 in Economic Environment (the lower scores the better).[233] Reporters Without Borders
Reporters Without Borders
rank the Republic of Cyprus
Republic of Cyprus
24th out of 180 countries in the 2015 World Press Freedom Index, with a score of 15.62[234] The law provides for freedom of speech and press, and the government generally respects these rights in practice. An independent press, an effective judiciary, and a functioning democratic political system combine to ensure freedom of speech and of the press. The law prohibits arbitrary interference with privacy, family, home, or correspondence, and the government generally respects these prohibitions in practice.[235] Local television companies in Cyprus
Cyprus
include the state owned Cyprus Broadcasting Corporation which runs two television channels. In addition on the Greek side of the island there are the private channels ANT1 Cyprus, Plus TV, Mega Channel, Sigma TV, Nimonia TV (NTV) and New Extra. In Northern Cyprus, the local channels are BRT, the Turkish Cypriot
Turkish Cypriot
equivalent to the Cyprus
Cyprus
Broadcasting Corporation, and a number of private channels. The majority of local arts and cultural programming is produced by the Cyprus
Cyprus
Broadcasting Corporation and BRT, with local arts documentaries, review programmes and filmed drama series. Cinema Main article: Cinema of Cyprus The most worldwide known Cypriot director, to have worked abroad, is Michael Cacoyannis. Cypriot cinema was born much later than that of other countries. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, George Filis produced and directed Gregoris Afxentiou, Etsi Prodothike i Kypros ( Cyprus
Cyprus
Betrayal), and The Mega Document. In 1994, cinematographic production received a boost with the establishment of the Cinema Advisory Committee. As of the year 2000, the annual amount set aside in the national budget stands at Cy Pounds 500,000 (about 850,000 Euros). In addition to government grants, Cypriot co-productions are eligible for funding from the Council of Europe's Eurimages Fund, which finances European film co-productions. To date, four feature-length films in which a Cypriot was executive producer have received funding from Eurimages. The first was I Sphagi tou Kokora (1992), completed in 1996, Hellados (And the Trains Fly to the Sky, 1995), which is currently in post-production, and Costas Demetriou's O Dromos gia tin Ithaki (The Road to Ithaka, 1997) which premiered in March 2000. The theme song to The Road to Ithaka was composed by Costas Cacoyannis and sung by Alexia Vassiliou. In September 1999, To Tama (The Promise) by Andreas Pantzis also received funding from the Eurimages Fund.[236] In 2009 the Greek director, writer and producer Vassilis Mazomenos
Vassilis Mazomenos
filmed in Cyprus
Cyprus
Guilt. The film was awarded in 2012 with the Best Screenwriting and Best Photography award in London Greek Film Festival (UK) and was official selection in Montreal World Film Festival, Cairo International Film Festival, India
India
International Film Festival, Tallinn Black Nights Film Festival, Fantasporto
Fantasporto
and opening film in the Panorama of European Cinema in Athens. In 2010 the film was Nominated for the best film from the Hellenic Film Academy. Only a small number of foreign films have been made in Cyprus. This includes Incense for the Damned, filmed in 1969 and starring Patrick Macnee, Patrick Mower and Peter Cushing. In 1970 The Beloved, starring Raquel Welch
Raquel Welch
was also filmed in Cyprus, as was the 1973 British comedy movie Ghost in the Noonday Sun, directed by Peter Medak, starring Peter Sellers, Anthony Franciosa
Anthony Franciosa
and Spike Milligan.[237] Parts of the 1962 film The Longest Day, starring John Wayne
John Wayne
were also filmed on Cyprus. Cuisine Main article: Cypriot cuisine

Cypriot meze

Halloumi
Halloumi
cheese originated in Cyprus[238][239] and was initially made during the Medieval Byzantine
Byzantine
period.[240] Halloumi
Halloumi
(Hellim) is commonly served sliced, either fresh or grilled, as an appetiser.

Cypriot Halloumi

Cypriot style café in an arcade in Nicosia

Seafood and fish dishes include squid, octopus, red mullet, and sea bass. Cucumber and tomato are used widely in salads. Common vegetable preparations include potatoes in olive oil and parsley, pickled cauliflower and beets, asparagus and taro. Other traditional delicacies of are meat marinated in dried coriander seeds and wine, and eventually dried and smoked, such as lountza (smoked pork loin), charcoal-grilled lamb, souvlaki (pork and chicken cooked over charcoal), and sheftalia (minced meat wrapped in mesentery). Pourgouri (bulgur, cracked wheat) is the traditional source of carbohydrate other than bread, and is used to make the delicacy koubes. Fresh vegetables and fruits are common ingredients. Frequently used vegetables include courgettes, green peppers, okra, green beans, artichokes, carrots, tomatoes, cucumbers, lettuce and grape leaves, and pulses such as beans, broad beans, peas, black-eyed beans, chick-peas and lentils. The most common fruits and nuts are pears, apples, grapes, oranges, mandarines, nectarines, medlar, blackberries, cherry, strawberries, figs, watermelon, melon, avocado, lemon, pistachio, almond, chestnut, walnut, and hazelnut. Cyprus
Cyprus
is also well known for its desserts, including lokum (also known as Turkish Delight) and Soutzoukos.[241] This island has protected geographical indication (PGI) for its lokum produced in the village of Geroskipou.[242][243] Sports

Spyros Kyprianou Athletic Center
Spyros Kyprianou Athletic Center
in Limassol

Sport governing bodies include the Cyprus
Cyprus
Football Association, Cyprus Basketball Federation, Cyprus
Cyprus
Volleyball Federation, Cyprus
Cyprus
Automobile Association, Cyprus
Cyprus
Badminton Federation,[244] Cyprus
Cyprus
Cricket Association, Cyprus Rugby Federation
Cyprus Rugby Federation
and the Cyprus
Cyprus
Pool Association. Notable teams in the Cyprus
Cyprus
League include APOEL FC, Anorthosis Famagusta
Famagusta
FC, AC Omonia, AEL Lemesos, Apollon FC, Nea Salamis Famagusta
Famagusta
FC and AEK Larnaca
Larnaca
FC. Stadiums or sports venues include the GSP Stadium
GSP Stadium
(the largest in the Republic of Cyprus-controlled areas), Tsirion Stadium
Tsirion Stadium
(second largest), Neo GSZ Stadium, Antonis Papadopoulos Stadium, Ammochostos Stadium
Ammochostos Stadium
and Makario Stadium. In the 2008–09 season, Anorthosis Famagusta
Famagusta
FC was the first Cypriot team to qualify for the UEFA Champions League
UEFA Champions League
Group stage. Next season, APOEL FC
APOEL FC
qualified for the UEFA Champions League
UEFA Champions League
group stage, and reached the last 8 of the 2011-12 UEFA Champions League
UEFA Champions League
after finishing top of its group and beating French Olympique Lyonnais
Olympique Lyonnais
in the Round of 16. The Cyprus national rugby union team
Cyprus national rugby union team
known as The Moufflons currently holds the record for most consecutive international wins, which is especially notable as the Cyprus Rugby Federation
Cyprus Rugby Federation
was only formed in 2006. Tennis player Marcos Baghdatis
Marcos Baghdatis
was ranked 8th in the world, was a finalist at the Australian Open, and reached the Wimbledon semi-final, all in 2006. High jumper Kyriakos Ioannou
Kyriakos Ioannou
achieved a jump of 2.35 m at the 11th IAAF World Championships in Athletics
IAAF World Championships in Athletics
in Osaka, Japan, in 2007, winning the bronze medal. He has been ranked third in the world. In motorsports, Tio Ellinas
Tio Ellinas
is a successful race car driver, currently racing in the GP3 Series
GP3 Series
for Marussia Manor Motorsport. There is also mixed martial artist Costas Philippou, who competes in the Ultimate Fighting Championship
Ultimate Fighting Championship
promotion's middleweight division. Costas holds a 6–3 record in UFC bouts, and recently defeated "The Monsoon" Lorenz Larkin by a knockout in the first round. Also notable for a Mediterranean island, the siblings Christopher and Sophia Papamichalopoulou qualified for the 2010 Winter Olympics
2010 Winter Olympics
in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. They were the only athletes who managed to qualify and thus represented Cyprus
Cyprus
at the 2010 Winter Olympics. The country's first ever Olympic medal, a silver medal, was won by the sailor Pavlos Kontides, at the 2012 Summer Olympics
2012 Summer Olympics
in the Men's Laser class. See also

Ancient regions of Anatolia Index of Cyprus-related articles Outline of Cyprus

Notes

^ The Greek national anthem was adopted in 1966 by a decision of the Council of Ministers.[1] ^ The vice presidency is reserved for a Turkish Cypriot. However the post has been vacant since the Turkish invasion in 1974. ^ a b c Including Northern Cyprus, the UN buffer zone and Akrotiri and Dhekelia. ^ Excluding Northern Cyprus. ^ The .eu
.eu
domain is also used, shared with other European Union
European Union
member states. ^ English: /ˈsaɪprəs/ ( listen); Greek: Κύπρος, translit. Kýpros IPA: [ˈcipros]; Turkish: Kıbrıs IPA: [ˈkɯbɾɯs] ^ Greek: Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία, translit. Kypriakí Demokratía; Turkish: Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti ^ see demographics

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– OTTOMAN RULE, U.S. Library of Congress ^ Hatay, Mete (2007), Is the Turkish Cypriot
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Music category with clips by the Gipsy Kings and Anna Vissi, a huge star for Sony Greece
Greece
"We also have ..  ^ "An indication that at least the main contents of the Cypria were known around 650 BC is provided by the representation of the Judgment of Paris on the Chigi vase" (Burkert 1992:103). On the proto-Corinthian ewer of c. 640 BC known as the Chigi "vase"[permanent dead link], Paris is identified as Alexandros, as he was apparently called in Cypria.[dead link] ^ Serena, Sebastiano; Barbarigo, Gregorio (1963). S. Gregorio Barbarigo e la vita spirituale e cultuale nel suo Seminario di Padova; lettre e saggi editi dagli amici in memoria. Editrice Antenore. p. 495. OCLC 6706000. Giovanni Cicala, greco di Cipro, prof. di Filosofia nella Università ... Al qual fine permetteva tutta la confidenza con il Cigala e con il Papadopoli, ambedue greci nativi e Lettori pubblici nell'Universita di Padova, coi quail si tratteneva, in frequenti discorsi sopra questa material, le mezze giornate intiere ...  ^ Th. Siapkaras- Pitsillidés, Le Pétrarchisme en Cypre. Poèmes d' amour en dialecte Chypriote d' après un manuscript du XVIe siècle, Athènes 1975 (2ème édition) ^ Deutsche Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin. Institut für Griechisch-Römische Altertumskunde, Deutsche Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin. Zentralinstitut für Alte Geschichte und Archäologie (1956). Berliner byzantinistische Arbeiten, Volume 40. Akademie-Verlag. pp. 209–210. John Cigala (born at Nicosia 1622). He studied at the College of Saint Athanasios, Rome (1635–1642), which he graduated as Doctor of Philosophy and Theology and at which he taught Greek successfully for eight years (1642–1650) ... What has survived of his work as a number of epigrams published in books of other scholars.  ^ Gazioğlu, Ahmet C. (1990). The Turks in Cyprus: a province of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
(1571–1878), 293–295, K. Rüstem. ^ " Cyprus
Cyprus
Stamp Issue: Loukis Akritas".  ^ " Cyprus
Cyprus
Stamp Issue: Cyprus
Cyprus
Poets".  ^ " Cyprus
Cyprus
Stamp Issue: Centenary Birthday Anniversary of Poet Pavlos Liasides".  ^ Kozmik şiirin yazarı (Hürriyet). Retrieved 31 December 2014. ^ Alexander Davidian, 'A literary resilience' in The Cyprus
Cyprus
Weekly ( Cyprus
Cyprus
newspaper), 10 January 2016 ^ Freedom House, 2015 report Cyprus ^ RSF Archived 19 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine., Cyprus ^ "Cyprus", Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2012, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor, U.S. Department of State, 22 March 2013. Retrieved 7 January 2014. ^ "Film Birth – History of Cinema – Cyprus
Cyprus
Archived 24 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine.". ^ Roger Lewis, The Life and Death of Peter Sellers
Peter Sellers
(London: Arrow, 1995) p.130 ^ Robinson, R. K.; Tamime, A. Y. (1991). Feta and Related Cheeses. Woodhead Publishing. p. 144. ISBN 1-85573-278-5. Halloumi
Halloumi
is a semi-hard to hard, unripened cheese that traditionally is made from either sheep's or goat's milk or a mixture. Although the cheese has its origins in Cyprus, it is widely popular throughout the Middle East, and hence many countries have now become involved with its manufacture.  ^ Murdoch Books Pty Limited (2005). Essential Mediterranean. Murdoch Books. p. 21. ISBN 1-74045-539-8. HALOUMl Originating in Cyprus, this salty, semi-hard sheep's milk cheese is a popular table cheese  ^ Goldstein, Darra; Merkle, Kathrin; Parasecoli, Fabio; Mennell, Stephen; Council of Europe
Council of Europe
(2005). Culinary cultures of Europe: identity, diversity and dialogue. Council of Europe. p. 121. ISBN 92-871-5744-8. Most culinary innovations in the Cypriot cuisine occurred during the Byzantine
Byzantine
era ... Experimentation with dairy products resulted in the now-famous halloumi and feta cheese.  ^ " Cyprus
Cyprus
villagers make giant sweet", BBC News, 18 October 2004 ^ "Turks riled as Cyprus
Cyprus
set to win EU trademark on Turkish Delight". International Herald Tribune. Associated Press. 13 December 2007. Archived from the original on 2 December 2008. Retrieved 14 December 2007.  ^ Andreou, Evie (4 July 2016). "Agros rose preserve included in protected geographical indication list". Cyprus
Cyprus
Mail. Retrieved 19 January 2018.  ^ " Cyprus
Cyprus
Badminton Federation". Cyprusbadminton.com. Archived from the original on 3 April 2009. Retrieved 27 March 2009. 

Further reading

Anastasiou, Harry (2008). Broken Olive Branch: Nationalism Ethnic Conflict and the Quest for Peace in Cyprus. Syracuse University Press. ISBN 0-8156-3196-0.  Brewin, Christopher (2000). European Union
European Union
and Cyprus. Eothen Press. ISBN 0-906719-24-0.  Dods, Clement (ed.) (1999). Cyprus: The Need for New Perspectives. The Eothen Press. ISBN 0-906719-23-2. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Durrell, Lawrence (1957). Bitter Lemons. Faber and Faber. ISBN 0-571-20155-5.  Faustmann, Hubert; Nicos Peristianis (2006). Britain and Cyprus: Colonialism and Post-Colonialism, 1878–2006. Bibliopolis. ISBN 978-3-933925-36-7.  Gibbons, Harry Scott (1997). The Genocide Files. Charles Bravos Publishers. ISBN 0-9514464-2-8.  Hannay, David (2005). Cyprus: The Search for a Solution. I.B.Tauris. ISBN 1-85043-665-7.  Hitchens, Christopher (1997). Hostage to History: Cyprus
Cyprus
from the Ottomans to Kissinger. Verso. ISBN 1-85984-189-9.  Ker-Lindsay, James (2005). EU Accession and UN Peacemaking in Cyprus. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 1-4039-9690-3.  Ker-Lindsay, James; Hubert Faustmann (2009). The Government and Politics of Cyprus. Peter Lang. ISBN 978-3-03911-096-4.  Mallinson, William (2005). Cyprus
Cyprus
a Modern History. I.B.Tauris. ISBN 1-85043-580-4.  Merin, Jennifer; Burdick, Elizabeth B. (1 November 1979). International directory of theatre, dance, and folklore festivals: a project of the International Theatre Institute of the United States, inc. Greenwood Press. ISBN 978-0-313-20993-2.  Mirbagheri, Farid (1989). Cyprus
Cyprus
and International Peacemaking. Hurst. ISBN 1-85065-354-2.  Nicolet, Claude (2001). United States Policy Towards Cyprus, 1954–1974. Bibliopolis. ISBN 3-933925-20-7.  Oberling, Pierre (1982). The Road to Bellapais. Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-88033-000-7.  O'Malley, Brendan; Ian Craig (1999). The Cyprus
Cyprus
Conspiracy. I.B.Tauris. ISBN 1-86064-737-5.  Palley, Claire (2005). An International Relations Debacle: The UN Secretary-General's Mission of Good Offices in Cyprus, 1999–2004. Hart Publishing. ISBN 1-84113-578-X.  Papadakis, Yiannis (2005). Echoes from the Dead Zone: Across the Cyprus
Cyprus
Divide. I.B.Tauris. ISBN 1-85043-428-X.  Plumer, Aytug (2003). Cyprus, 1963–64: The Fateful Years. Cyrep (Lefkosa). ISBN 975-6912-18-9.  Richmond, Oliver (1998). Mediating in Cyprus. Frank Cass. ISBN 0-7146-4431-5.  Richmond, Oliver and James Ker-Lindsay (eds.) (2001). The Work of the UN in Cyprus: Promoting Peace and Development. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 0-333-91271-3. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Richter, Heinz (2010). A Concise History of Modern Cyprus
Cyprus
1878–2009. Rutzen. ISBN 978-3-447-06212-1.  Sacopoulo, Marina (1966). Chypre d'aujourd'hui. Paris: G.-P. Maisonneuve et Larose. 406 p., ill. with b&w photos. and fold. maps. Tocci, Nathalie (2004). EU Accession Dynamics and Conflict Resolution: Catalysing Peace or Consolidating Partition in Cyprus?. Ashgate. ISBN 0-7546-4310-7.  Yiorghos, Leventis, (2002). Cyprus: The Struggle for Self-Determination in the 1940s. Peter Lang. ISBN 0-8204-5428-1. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Yiorghos, Leventis; Murata Sawayanagi Nanako; Hazama Yasushi (2008). Crossing Over Cyprus. Research Institute for Languages and Cultures of Asia
Asia
and Africa (ILCAA) Tokyo University of Foreign Studies (TUFS). ISBN 978-4-86337-003-6. 

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