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Cymbopogon, better known as lemongrass (UK: /ˈlɛmənˌɡrɑːs/; US: /ˈlɛmənˌɡræs/), is a genus of Asian, African, Australian, and tropical island plants in the grass family.[5][6][7][8] Some species (particularly Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
citratus) are commonly cultivated as culinary and medicinal herbs because of their scent, resembling that of lemons ( Citrus
Citrus
limon). Common names include lemon grass, lemongrass, barbed wire grass, silky heads, citronella grass, cha de Dartigalongue, fever grass, tanglad, hierba Luisa, or gavati chahapati, amongst many others. Uses[edit] Lemongrass is widely used as a culinary herb in Asian cuisines and also as medicinal herb in India. It has a subtle citrus flavor and can be dried and powdered, or used fresh. It is commonly used in teas, soups, and curries. It is also suitable for use with poultry, fish, beef, and seafood. It is often used as a tea in African countries such as Togo, south eastern Ghana
Ghana
Volta Region
Volta Region
and the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Latin American countries such as Mexico. Lemongrass oil is used as a pesticide and a preservative. Research shows that lemongrass oil has antifungal properties.[9] Despite its ability to repel some insects, such as mosquitoes, its oil is commonly used as a "lure" to attract honey bees. "Lemongrass works conveniently as well as the pheromone created by the honeybee's Nasonov gland, also known as attractant pheromones. Because of this, lemongrass oil can be used as a lure when trapping swarms or attempting to draw the attention of hived bees."[10]

C. citratus from the Philippines, where it is locally known as tanglad

Citronella grass ( Cymbopogon nardus
Cymbopogon nardus
and Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
winterianus) grow to about 2 m (6.6 ft) and have magenta-colored base stems. These species are used for the production of citronella oil, which is used in soaps, as an insect repellent (especially mosquitoes) in insect sprays and candles, and in aromatherapy. The principal chemical constituents of citronella, geraniol and citronellol, are antiseptics, hence their use in household disinfectants and soaps. Besides oil production, citronella grass is also used for culinary purposes, as a flavoring. Citronella is usually planted in home gardens to ward off insects such as whitefly adults. Its cultivation enables growing some vegetables (e.g. tomatoes and broccoli) without applying pesticides. Intercropping
Intercropping
should include physical barriers, for citronella roots can take over the field.[11] Lemongrass oil, used as a pesticide and preservative, is put on the ancient palm-leaf manuscripts found in India
India
as a preservative. It is used at the Oriental Research Institute Mysore, the French Institute of Pondicherry, the Association for the Preservation of the Saint Thomas Christian Heritage in Kerala, and many other manuscript collections in India. The oil also injects natural fluidity into the brittle palm leaves, and the hydrophobic nature of the oil keeps the manuscripts dry so the text is not lost to decay due to humidity.[citation needed] East Indian lemon grass ( Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
flexuosus), also called Cochin grass or Malabar grass, is native to Cambodia, Vietnam, Laos, India, Sri Lanka, Burma, and Thailand, while West Indian lemon grass ( Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
citratus) is native to South Asia
Asia
and maritime Southeast Asia. While both can be used interchangeably, C. citratus is more suitable for cooking. In India, C. citratus is used both as a medical herb and in perfumes. C. citratus is consumed as a tea for anxiety in Brazilian folk medicine,[12] but a study in humans found no effect.[13] The tea caused a recurrence of contact dermatitis in one case.[14] Lemon
Lemon
grass is also used as an addition to tea, and in preparations such as kadha, which is a traditional herbal brew used in Ayurvedic medicine.[citation needed] Images[edit]

Lemon
Lemon
grass at a market

Prepared lemon grass

Lemongrass ( Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
flexuosus) essential oil in clear glass vial

Species[3]

Cymbopogon ambiguus Australian lemon-scented grass - Australia, Timor Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
annamensis - Yunnan, Laos, Vietnam, Thailand Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
bhutanicus - Bhutan Cymbopogon bombycinus
Cymbopogon bombycinus
silky oilgrass - Australia Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
caesius - Sub-Saharan Africa, Indian Subcontinent, Yemen, Afghanistan, Madagascar, Comoros, Réunion Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
calcicola - Thailand, Kedah Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
calciphilus - Thailand Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
cambogiensis - Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam Cymbopogon citratus
Cymbopogon citratus
lemon grass (Chinese: 香茅草; pinyin: xiāng máo căo) - Sri Lanka, northeast and southern India, Southeast Asia Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
clandestinus - Thailand, Myanmar, Andaman Islands Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
coloratus - Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Myanmar, Vietnam Cymbopogon commutatus - Sahel, East Africa, Arabian Peninsula, Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan, India, Pakistan Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
densiflorus - central + south-central Africa Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
dependens - Australia Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
dieterlenii - Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
distans - Gansu, Guizhou, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Tibet, Yunnan, Nepal, northern Pakistan, Jammu & Kashmir Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
exsertus - Nepal, Assam Cymbopogon flexuosus East Indian lemon grass - Indian Subcontinent, Indochina Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
gidarba - Indian Subcontinent, Myanmar, Yunnan Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
giganteus - Africa, Madagascar Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
globosus - Maluku, New Guinea, Queensland Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
goeringii - China incl Taiwan, Korea, Japan incl Ryukyu Islands, Vietnam Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
gratus - Queensland Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
jwarancusa - Socotra, Turkey, Middle East, Arabian Peninsula, Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan, Indian Subcontinent, Tibet, Sichuan, Yunnan, Vietnam Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
khasianus - Yunnan, Guangxi, Assam, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
liangshanensis - Sichuan Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
mandalaiaensis - Myanmar Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
marginatus - Cape Province
Cape Province
of South Africa Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
martini palmarosa - Indian Subcontinent, Myanmar, Vietnam Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
mekongensis - China, Indochina Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
microstachys Indian Subcontinent, Myanmar, Thailand, Yunnan Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
microthecus - Nepal, Bhutan, Assam, West Bengal, Bangladesh Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
minor - Yunnan Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
minutiflorus - Sulawesi Cymbopogon nardus
Cymbopogon nardus
citronella grass (In Thai language ตะไคร้หอม (ta-khrai hom) - Indian Subcontinent, Indochina, central + southern Africa, Madagascar, Seychelles Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
nervatus - Myanmar, Thailand, central Africa Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
obtectus Silky-heads - Australia Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
osmastonii - India, Bangladesh Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
pendulus - Yunnan, eastern Himalayas, Myanmar, Vietnam Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
polyneuros - Tamil Nadu, Sri Lanka, Myanmar Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
pospischilii - eastern + southern Africa, Oman, Yemen, Himalayas, Tibet, Yunnan Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
procerus - Australia, New Guinea, Maluku, Lesser Sunda Islands, Sulawesi Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
pruinosus - islands of Indian Ocean Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
queenslandicus - Queensland Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
quinhonensis - Vietnam Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
rectus - Lesser Sunda Islands, Java Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
refractus barbed wire grass - Australia
Australia
incl Norfolk Island Cymbopogon schoenanthus camel hay or camel grass - Sahara, Sahel, eastern Africa, Arabian Peninsular, Iran Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
tortilis - China incl Taiwan, Ryukyu + Bonin Is, Philippines, Vietnam, Maluku Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
tungmaiensis - Sichuan, Tibet, Yunnan Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
winterianus citronella grass - Borneo, Java, Sumatra Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
xichangensis - Sichuan

Formerly included[3]

Numerous species now regarded as better suited to other genera including Andropogon, Exotheca, Hyparrhenia, Iseilema, Schizachyrium, and Themeda. References[edit]

^ Sprengel, Curt (Kurt, Curtius) Polycarp Joachim 1815. Plantarum Minus Cognitarum Pugillus 2: 14 ^ lectotype designated by N.L. Britton & P. Wilson, Bot. Porto Rico 1: 27 (1923) ^ a b c Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant
Plant
Families ^ Tropicos, Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
Spreng. ^ Soenarko, S. 1977. The genus Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
Sprengel (Gramineae). Reinwardtia 9(3): 225–375 ^ Flora of China
Flora of China
Vol. 22 Page 624 香茅属 xiang mao shu Cymbopogon Sprengel, Pl. Min. Cogn. Pug. 2: 14. 1815. ^ Atlas of Living Australia, Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
Spreng., Lemon
Lemon
Grass ^ Bor, N. L. 1960. Grass. Burma, Ceylon, India
India
& Pakistan i–767. Pergamon Press, Oxford ^ Shadab, Q., Hanif, M. & Chaudhary, F.M. (1992) Antifungal activity by lemongrass essential oils. Pak. J. Sci. Ind. Res. 35, 246-249. ^ Wikibooks:Beekeeping/Guide to Essential Oils ^ Takeguma, Massahiro. "Gowing Citronella". Retrieved 12 June 2013.  ^ Blanco MM, Costa CA, Freire AO, Santos JG, Costa M (March 2009). "Neurobehavioral effect of essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus
Cymbopogon citratus
in mice". Phytomedicine. 16 (2–3): 265–70. doi:10.1016/j.phymed.2007.04.007. PMID 17561386.  ^ Leite JR, Seabra Mde L, Maluf E, et al. (July 1986). "Pharmacology of lemongrass ( Cymbopogon citratus
Cymbopogon citratus
Stapf). III. Assessment of eventual toxic, hypnotic and anxiolytic effects on humans". J Ethnopharmacol. 17 (1): 75–83. doi:10.1016/0378-8741(86)90074-7. PMID 2429120.  ^ Bleasel N, Tate B, Rademaker M (August 2002). "Allergic contact dermatitis following exposure to essential oils". Australas. J. Dermatol. 43 (3): 211–3. doi:10.1046/j.1440-0960.2002.00598.x. PMID 12121401. 

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Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q5727732 APDB: 189896 EoL: 108131 EPPO: 1CYGG FloraBase: 20983 FoC: 108952 GBIF: 2705264 GrassBase: gen00162 GRIN: 3274 IPNI: 17833-1 ITIS: 41611 NCBI: 66013 PLANTS: CYMBO

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