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CYMBOPOGON, better known as LEMONGRASS (UK : /ˈlɛmənˌɡrɑːs/ ; US : /ˈlɛmənˌɡræs/ ), is a genus of Asian , African , Australian , and tropical island plants in the grass family .

Some species (particularly Cymbopogon citratus ) are commonly cultivated as culinary and medicinal herbs because of their scent, resembling that of lemons ( Citrus
Citrus
limon). Common names include LEMON GRASS, LEMONGRASS, BARBED WIRE GRASS, SILKY HEADS, CITRONELLA GRASS, CHA DE DARTIGALONGUE, FEVER GRASS, TANGLAD, HIERBA LUISA, or GAVATI CHAHAPATI, amongst many others.

USES

Lemongrass is widely used as a culinary herb in Asian cuisines and also as medicinal herb in India. It has a subtle citrus flavor and can be dried and powdered, or used fresh. It is commonly used in teas , soups , and curries . It is also suitable for use with poultry, fish, beef, and seafood. It is often used as a tea in African countries such as Togo
Togo
and the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Democratic Republic of the Congo
and Latin American countries such as Mexico
Mexico
. Lemongrass oil is used as a pesticide and a preservative . Research shows that lemongrass oil has antifungal properties. Despite its ability to repel some insects, such as mosquitoes, its oil is commonly used as a "lure" to attract honey bees . "Lemongrass works conveniently as well as the pheromone created by the honeybee's Nasonov gland , also known as attractant pheromones . Because of this, lemongrass oil can be used as a lure when trapping swarms or attempting to draw the attention of hived bees." C. citratus from the Philippines
Philippines
, where it is locally known as tanglad

Citronella grass ( Cymbopogon nardus and Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
winterianus ) grow to about 2 m (6.6 ft) and have magenta-colored base stems. These species are used for the production of citronella oil , which is used in soaps, as an insect repellent (especially mosquitoes) in insect sprays and candles, and in aromatherapy. The principal chemical constituents of citronella, geraniol and citronellol , are antiseptics, hence their use in household disinfectants and soaps. Besides oil production, citronella grass is also used for culinary purposes, as a flavoring.

Citronella is usually planted in home gardens to ward off insects such as whitefly adults. Its cultivation enables growing some vegetables (e.g. tomatoes and broccoli) without applying pesticides . Intercropping
Intercropping
should include physical barriers, for citronella roots can take over the field.

Lemongrass oil, used as a pesticide and preservative, is put on the ancient palm-leaf manuscripts found in India
India
as a preservative. It is used at the Oriental Research Institute Mysore
Oriental Research Institute Mysore
, the French Institute of Pondicherry , the Association for the Preservation of the Saint Thomas Christian Heritage in Kerala
Kerala
, and many other manuscript collections in India. The oil also injects natural fluidity into the brittle palm leaves, and the hydrophobic nature of the oil keeps the manuscripts dry so the text is not lost to decay due to humidity.

East Indian lemon grass ( Cymbopogon flexuosus ), also called Cochin grass or Malabar grass, is native to Cambodia
Cambodia
, Vietnam
Vietnam
, Laos
Laos
, India , Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
, Burma
Burma
, and Thailand
Thailand
, while West Indian lemon grass ( Cymbopogon citratus ) is native to South Asia
Asia
and maritime Southeast Asia
Asia
. While both can be used interchangeably, C. citratus is more suitable for cooking. In India, C. citratus is used both as a medical herb and in perfumes. C. citratus is consumed as a tea for anxiety in Brazilian folk medicine, but a study in humans found no effect. The tea caused a recurrence of contact dermatitis in one case.

Lemon
Lemon
grass is also used as an addition to tea, and in preparations such as kadha, which is a traditional herbal brew used in Ayurvedic medicine .

IMAGES

*

Lemon
Lemon
grass at a market *

Prepared lemon grass

Species

* Cymbopogon ambiguus Australian lemon-scented grass - Australia, Timor * Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
annamensis - Yunnan, Laos, Vietnam, Thailand * Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
bhutanicus - Bhutan * Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
bombycinus silky oilgrass - Australia * Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
caesius - Sub-Saharan Africa, Indian Subcontinent, Yemen, Afghanistan, Madagascar, Comoros
Comoros
, Réunion
Réunion
* Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
calcicola - Thailand, Kedah
Kedah
* Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
calciphilus - Thailand * Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
cambogiensis - Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam * Cymbopogon citratus lemon grass (Chinese : 香茅草; pinyin : xiāng máo căo) - Sri Lanka, northeast and southern India, Southeast Asia * Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
clandestinus - Thailand, Myanmar, Andaman Islands
Andaman Islands
* Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
coloratus - Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
, Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
, Myanmar, Vietnam * Cymbopogon commutatus - Sahel
Sahel
, East Africa, Arabian Peninsula, Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan, India, Pakistan * Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
densiflorus - central + south-central Africa * Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
dependens - Australia * Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
dieterlenii - Lesotho
Lesotho
, Namibia, South Africa * Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
distans - Gansu
Gansu
, Guizhou
Guizhou
, Shaanxi
Shaanxi
, Sichuan
Sichuan
, Tibet, Yunnan, Nepal, northern Pakistan, Jammu & Kashmir * Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
exsertus - Nepal, Assam * Cymbopogon flexuosus East Indian lemon grass - Indian Subcontinent, Indochina * Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
gidarba - Indian Subcontinent, Myanmar, Yunnan * Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
giganteus - Africa, Madagascar * Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
globosus - Maluku , New Guinea, Queensland * Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
goeringii - China incl Taiwan, Korea, Japan incl Ryukyu Islands, Vietnam * Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
gratus - Queensland * Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
jwarancusa - Socotra
Socotra
, Turkey, Middle East, Arabian Peninsula, Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan, Indian Subcontinent, Tibet, Sichuan
Sichuan
, Yunnan
Yunnan
, Vietnam * Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
khasianus - Yunnan, Guangxi, Assam, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand * Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
liangshanensis - Sichuan * Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
mandalaiaensis - Myanmar * Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
marginatus - Cape Province
Cape Province
of South Africa * Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
martini palmarosa - Indian Subcontinent, Myanmar, Vietnam * Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
mekongensis - China, Indochina * Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
microstachys Indian Subcontinent, Myanmar, Thailand, Yunnan * Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
microthecus - Nepal, Bhutan, Assam, West Bengal, Bangladesh * Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
minor - Yunnan * Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
minutiflorus - Sulawesi * Cymbopogon nardus citronella grass (In Thai language ตะไคร้หอม (ta-khrai hom) - Indian Subcontinent, Indochina, central + southern Africa, Madagascar, Seychelles
Seychelles
* Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
nervatus - Myanmar, Thailand, central Africa * Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
obtectus Silky-heads - Australia * Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
osmastonii - India, Bangladesh * Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
pendulus - Yunnan, eastern Himalayas, Myanmar, Vietnam * Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
polyneuros - Tamil Nadu, Sri Lanka, Myanmar * Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
pospischilii - eastern + southern Africa, Oman, Yemen, Himalayas, Tibet, Yunnan * Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
procerus - Australia, New Guinea, Maluku , Lesser Sunda Islands , Sulawesi * Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
pruinosus - islands of Indian Ocean * Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
queenslandicus - Queensland * Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
quinhonensis - Vietnam * Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
rectus - Lesser Sunda Islands, Java * Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
refractus barbed wire grass - Australia
Australia
incl Norfolk Island * Cymbopogon schoenanthus camel hay or camel grass - Sahara, Sahel, eastern Africa, Arabian Peninsular, Iran * Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
tortilis - China incl Taiwan, Ryukyu + Bonin Is , Philippines, Vietnam, Maluku * Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
tungmaiensis - Sichuan, Tibet, Yunnan * Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
winterianus citronella grass - Borneo, Java, Sumatra * Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
xichangensis - Sichuan

Formerly included

Numerous species now regarded as better suited to other genera including Andropogon
Andropogon
, Exotheca , Hyparrhenia
Hyparrhenia
, Iseilema
Iseilema
, Schizachyrium , and Themeda .

REFERENCES

* ^ Sprengel, Curt (Kurt, Curtius) Polycarp Joachim 1815. Plantarum Minus Cognitarum Pugillus 2: 14 * ^ lectotype designated by N.L. Britton & P. Wilson, Bot. Porto Rico 1: 27 (1923) * ^ A B C Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families * ^ Tropicos, Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
Spreng. * ^ Soenarko, S. 1977. The genus Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
Sprengel (Gramineae). Reinwardtia 9(3): 225–375 * ^ Flora of China Vol. 22 Page 624 香茅属 XIANG MAO SHU CYMBOPOGON SPRENGEL, PL. MIN. COGN. PUG. 2: 14. 1815. * ^ Atlas of Living Australia, Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
Spreng., Lemon
Lemon
Grass * ^ Bor, N. L. 1960. Grass. Burma, Ceylon, India
India
& Pakistan i–767. Pergamon Press, Oxford * ^ Shadab, Q., Hanif, M. & Chaudhary, F.M. (1992) Antifungal activity by lemongrass essential oils. Pak. J. Sci. Ind. Res. 35, 246-249. * ^ Wikibooks:Beekeeping/Guide to Essential Oils * ^ Takeguma, Massahiro. "Gowing Citronella". Retrieved 12 June 2013. * ^ Blanco MM, Costa CA, Freire AO, Santos JG, Costa M (March 2009). "Neurobehavioral effect of essential oil of Cymbopogon
Cymbopogon
citratus in mice". Phytomedicine. 16 (2–3): 265–70. PMID 17561386 . doi :10.1016/j.phymed.2007.04.007 . * ^ Leite JR, Seabra Mde L, Maluf E, et al. (July 1986). "Pharmacology of lemongrass ( Cymbopogon citratus Stapf). III. Assessment of eventual toxic, hypnotic and anxiolytic effects on humans". J Ethnopharmacol. 17 (1): 75–83. PMID 2429120 . doi :10.1016/0378-8741(86)90074-7 . * ^ Bleasel N, Tate B, Rademaker M (August 2002). "Allergic contact dermatitis following exposure to essential oils". Australas. J. Dermatol. 43 (3): 211–3. PMID 12121401 . doi :10.1046/j.1440-0960.2002.00598.x .

* v * t * e

Culinary herbs and spices

HERBS

* Angelica

* Basil
Basil

* holy * Thai

* Bay leaf * Indian bay leaf (tejpat) * Boldo * Borage
Borage
* Chervil
Chervil

* Chives

* garlic / Chinese

* Cicely
Cicely

* Coriander
Coriander
leaf / Cilantro

* Bolivian * Vietnamese (rau răm)

* Culantro * Cress * Curry
Curry
leaf * Dill
Dill
* Epazote * Hemp
Hemp
* Hoja santa * Houttuynia cordata
Houttuynia cordata
(giấp cá) * Hyssop * Jimbu * Kinh gioi (Vietnamese balm) * Kkaennip * Lavender * Lemon
Lemon
balm * Lemon
Lemon
grass * Lemon
Lemon
myrtle * Lemon
Lemon
verbena * Limnophila aromatica (rice-paddy herb) * Lovage
Lovage
* Marjoram * Mint * Mugwort * Mitsuba * Oregano
Oregano
* Parsley * Perilla
Perilla
* Rosemary
Rosemary
* Rue * Sage * Savory * Sanshō leaf * Shiso * Sorrel
Sorrel
* Tarragon * Thyme
Thyme
* Woodruff

SPICES

* Aonori (ground seaweed) * Ajwain * Allspice * Amchoor (mango powder)

* Anise
Anise

* star

* Asafoetida * Camphor * Caraway
Caraway

* Cardamom
Cardamom

* black

* Cassia * Celery powder * Celery
Celery
seed * Charoli
Charoli
* Chenpi
Chenpi
* Cinnamon
Cinnamon
* Clove
Clove
* Coriander
Coriander
seed * Cubeb

* Cumin
Cumin

* Nigella sativa
Nigella sativa
* Bunium persicum

* Deulkkae * Dill /  Dill
Dill
seed * Fennel
Fennel

* Fenugreek
Fenugreek

* blue

* Fingerroot (krachai)

* Galangal
Galangal

* greater * lesser

* Garlic
Garlic
* Ginger
Ginger
* Aromatic ginger (kencur) * Golpar * Grains of Paradise * Grains of Selim * Horseradish
Horseradish
* Juniper berry * Kokum * Korarima * Dried lime * Liquorice * Litsea cubeba * Mace * Mango-ginger * Mastic * Mahleb

* Mustard

* black * brown * white

* Nigella (kalonji) * Njangsa * Nutmeg
Nutmeg
* Pomegranate
Pomegranate
seed (anardana) * Poppy seed
Poppy seed
* Radhuni * Rose * Saffron
Saffron
* Salt
Salt
* Sarsaparilla * Sassafras
Sassafras
* Sesame
Sesame
* Shiso seeds / berries * Sumac * Tamarind
Tamarind
* Tonka bean * Turmeric
Turmeric
* Uzazi * Vanilla
Vanilla
* Voatsiperifery * Wasabi * Yuzu zest * Zedoary * Zereshk * Zest

Peppers

* Alligator * Brazilian

* Chili

* Cayenne * Paprika

* Long * Peruvian * Sichuan
Sichuan
(huājiāo) * Japanese pricklyash * Tasmanian * Peppercorn (black / green / white)

MIXTURES

* Adjika * Advieh * Baharat * Beau monde seasoning * Berbere
Berbere
* Bouquet garni * Buknu * Chaat masala * Chaunk
Chaunk
* Chili powder
Chili powder
* Cinnamon
Cinnamon
sugar * Crab boil * Curry
Curry
powder * Doubanjiang
Doubanjiang
* Douchi * Duqqa * Fines herbes * Five-spice powder * Garam masala
Garam masala
* Garlic
Garlic
powder * Garlic
Garlic
salt * Gochujang
Gochujang
* Harissa
Harissa
* Hawaij
Hawaij
* Herbes de Provence * Idli podi * Jamaican jerk spice * Khmeli suneli * Lemon
Lemon
pepper * Mitmita * Mixed spice * Montreal steak seasoning * Mulling spices * Old Bay Seasoning
Old Bay Seasoning
* Onion powder * Panch phoron * Persillade * Powder-douce * Pumpkin pie spice
Pumpkin pie spice
* Qâlat daqqa * Quatre épices * Ras el hanout * Recado rojo * Sharena sol * Shichimi * Tabil * Tandoori masala
Tandoori masala
* Vadouvan * Yuzukoshō * Za\'atar

LISTS AND RELATED TOPICS

Lists of herbs and spices

* Culinary * Australian * Bangladeshi * Indian * Pakistani

Related topics

* Chinese herbology
Chinese herbology
* Herbal tea
Herbal tea
* Marination
Marination
* Spice
Spice
rub

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