CYBERPUNK is a subgenre of science fiction in a future setting that
tends to focus on society as "high tech low life" featuring advanced
technological and scientific achievements, such as information
technology and cybernetics , juxtaposed with a degree of breakdown or
radical change in the social order .
Cyberpunk plots often center on conflict among artificial
intelligences , hackers , and megacorporations , and tend to be set in
Earth , rather than in the far-future settings or
galactic vistas found in novels such as
Isaac Asimov 's Foundation or
Frank Herbert 's Dune . The settings are usually post-industrial
dystopias but tend to feature extraordinary cultural ferment and the
use of technology in ways never anticipated by its original inventors
("the street finds its own uses for things"). Much of the genre's
atmosphere echoes film noir , and written works in the genre often use
techniques from detective fiction .
Classic cyberpunk characters were marginalized, alienated loners who
lived on the edge of society in generally dystopic futures where daily
life was impacted by rapid technological change, an ubiquitous
datasphere of computerized information, and invasive modification of
the human body. —
* 1 History and origins
* 2 Style and ethos
* 2.1 Setting
* 2.2 Protagonists
* 2.3 Society and government
* 3 Media
* 3.1 Literature
* 3.1.1 Reception and impact
* 3.2 Film and television
Anime and manga
* 3.4 Games
* 3.5 Music
* 4 Social impact
* 4.1 Art and architecture
* 4.2 Society and counterculture
* 4.3 Related genres
* 5 Trademark
* 6 See also
* 7 References
* 8 External links
HISTORY AND ORIGINS
The origins of cyberpunk are rooted in the New Wave science fiction
movement of the 1960s and 70s, where New Worlds , under the editorship
Michael Moorcock , began inviting and encouraging stories that
examined new writing styles, techniques, and archetypes . Replacing
the celebration of conformity to norms intrinsic in conventional
storytelling, New Wave authors attempted to present a world where
society coped with a constant upheaval of new technology and culture,
generally with dystopian outcomes. Writers like
Roger Zelazny , J.G.
Philip Jose Farmer , and
Harlan Ellison often examined the
impact of drug culture, technology, and sexual revolution with an
avant-garde style influenced by the
Beat Generation (especially
William S. Burroughs ' own SF), dadaism , and their own rhetorical
ideas. Ballard attacked the idea that stories should follow the story
models popular since the time of Ancient Greece, that they would
somehow be the same ones that would call to modern readers, as Joseph
Campbell argued in
The Hero with a Thousand Faces . Instead, Ballard
wanted to write a new myth for the modern reader, a style with "more
psycho-literary ideas, more meta-biological and meta-chemical
concepts, private time systems, synthetic psychologies and
space-times, more of the sombre half-worlds one glimpses in the
paintings of schizophrenics."
This had a profound influence on a new generation of writers, some of
whom would come to call themselves "Cyberpunk". One,
Bruce Sterling ,
In the circle of American science fiction writers of my generation
— cyberpunks and humanists and so forth — was a towering figure.
We used to have bitter struggles over who was more Ballardian than
whom. We knew we were not fit to polish the man’s boots, and we were
scarcely able to understand how we could get to a position to do work
which he might respect or stand, but at least we were able to see the
peak of achievement that he had reached.
Ballard, Zelazny, and the rest of New Wave was seen by the subsequent
generation as delivering more "realism" to science fiction, and they
attempted to build on this.
Similarly influential, and generally cited as proto-cyberpunk, is the
Phillip K. Dick novel
Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep , first
published in 1968. Presenting precisely the general feeling of
dystopian post-economic-apocalyptic future as Gibson and Sterling
later deliver, it examines ethical and moral problems with cybernetic,
artificial intelligence in a way more "realist" than, say the Isaac
Asimov Robot series that laid its philosophical foundation. This novel
was made into the seminal movie
Blade Runner , released in 1982, one
year after another story, "
Johnny Mnemonic " helped move
proto-cyberpunk concepts into the mainstream. This story, which also
became a film years later, involves another dystopian future, where
human couriers deliver computer data, stored cybernetically in their
In 1983 a short story written by
Bruce Bethke , called
was published in
Amazing Stories . The term was picked up by Gardner
Dozois , editor of Isaac Asimov\'s Science Fiction Magazine and
popularized in his editorials. Bethke says he was made two lists of
words, one for technology, one for troublemakers, and experimented
with combining them variously into compound words, consciously
attempting to coin a term that encompassed both punk attitudes and
He described the idea thus:
The kids who trashed my computer; their kids were going to be Holy
Terrors, combining the ethical vacuity of teenagers with a technical
fluency we adults could only guess at. Further, the parents and other
adult authority figures of the early 21st Century were going to be
terribly ill-equipped to deal with the first generation of teenagers
who grew up truly “speaking computer.”
Afterward, Dozois began using this term in his own writing, most
notably in a Washington Post article where he said "About the closest
thing here to a self-willed esthetic “school” would be the
purveyors of bizarre hard-edged, high-tech stuff, who have on occasion
been referred to as “cyberpunks” — Sterling, Gibson, Shiner,
About that time, William Gibson's novel
Neuromancer was published,
delivering the glimpse of a future encompassed by what became an
Cyberpunk "virtual reality", with the human mind being
fed light-based worldscapes through a computer interface. Some,
perhaps ironically including Bethke himself, argued at the time that
the writers whose style Gibson's books epitomized should be called
"Neuromantics", a pun on the name of the novel plus "New Romantics ",
a term used for a New Wave pop music movement that had just occurred
in Britain, but this term did not catch on. Bethke later paraphrased
Michael Swanwick 's argument for the term: "the movement writers
should properly be termed neuromantics, since so much of what they
were doing was clearly Imitation Neuromancer".
Sterling was another writer who played a central role, often
consciously, in the cyberpunk genre, variously seen as keeping it on
track, or distorting its natural path into a stagnant formula. In
1986 he edited a volume of cyberpunk stories called Mirrorshades: The
Cyberpunk Anthology , an attempt to establish what cyberpunk was, from
In the subsequent decade, the archetypes so perfectly framed in
Neuromancer became increasingly used as tropes in the genre,
climaxing in the satirical extremes of
Neal Stephenson 's Snow Crash
Cyberpunk era, Bethke himself published a novel in
Headcrash : like
Snow Crash a satirical attack on the
genre's excesses. It won the key cyberpunk honor named after its
spiritual founder, the
Philip K. Dick Award .
It satirized the genre in this way:
...full of young guys with no social lives, no sex lives and no
hope of ever moving out of their mothers' basements ... They're total
wankers and losers who indulge in Messianic fantasies about someday
getting even with the world through almost-magical computer skills,
but whose actual use of the Net amounts to dialing up the scatophilia
forum and downloading a few disgusting pictures. You know,
The impact of Cyberpunk, though, has been long-lasting. Elements of
both the setting and storytelling have become normal in science
fiction in general, and a slew of sub-genres now have -punk tacked
onto their names, most obviously
Steampunk , but also a host of other
Cyberpunk derivatives .
STYLE AND ETHOS
Primary exponents of the cyberpunk field include
William Gibson ,
Neal Stephenson ,
Bruce Sterling ,
Bruce Bethke ,
Pat Cadigan , Rudy
John Shirley and
Philip K. Dick
Philip K. Dick (author of Do Androids Dream
of Electric Sheep? , from which the film
Blade Runner was adapted).
Blade Runner can be seen as a quintessential example of the cyberpunk
style and theme. Video games , board games , and tabletop
role-playing games , such as
Cyberpunk 2020 and
Shadowrun , often
feature storylines that are heavily influenced by cyberpunk writing
and movies. Beginning in the early 1990s, some trends in fashion and
music were also labeled as cyberpunk.
Cyberpunk is also featured
prominently in anime and manga : Akira ,
Ghost in the Shell ,
Cowboy Bebop ,
Serial Experiments Lain ,
Dennou Coil ,
Ergo Proxy and
Psycho Pass being among the most notable.
Shibuya, Tokyo . Of Japan's influence on the genre, William
Gibson said, "modern
Japan simply was cyberpunk."
Cyberpunk writers tend to use elements from hardboiled detective
fiction , film noir , and postmodernist prose to describe an often
nihilistic underground side of an electronic society. The genre's
vision of a troubled future is often called the antithesis of the
generally utopian visions of the future popular in the 1940s and
1950s. Gibson defined cyberpunk's antipathy towards utopian SF in his
1981 short story "
The Gernsback Continuum ," which pokes fun at and,
to a certain extent, condemns utopian science fiction.
In some cyberpunk writing, much of the action takes place online , in
cyberspace , blurring the line between actual and virtual reality . A
typical trope in such work is a direct connection between the human
brain and computer systems.
Cyberpunk settings are dystopias with
corruption, computers and internet connectivity. Giant, multinational
corporations have for the most part replaced governments as centers of
political, economic, and even military power.
The economic and technological state of
Japan is a regular theme in
Cyberpunk literature of the '80s. Of Japan's influence on the
William Gibson said, "Modern
Japan simply was cyberpunk."
Cyberpunk is often set in urbanized, artificial landscapes, and "city
lights, receding" was used by Gibson as one of the genre's first
metaphors for cyberspace and virtual reality. The cityscapes of Hong
Shanghai have had major influences in the urban
backgrounds, ambiance and settings in many cyberpunk works such as
Blade Runner and
Ridley Scott envisioned the landscape of
Los Angeles in
Blade Runner to be "
Hong Kong on a very bad
day". The streetscapes of
Ghost in the Shell were based on Hong Kong.
Mamoru Oshii felt that Hong Kong's strange and chaotic
streets where "old and new exist in confusing relationships", fit the
theme of the film well. Hong Kong's
Kowloon Walled City is
particularly notable for its disorganized hyper-urbanization and
breakdown in traditional urban planning to be an inspiration to
One of the cyberpunk genre's prototype characters is Case, from
Neuromancer . Case is a "console cowboy," a brilliant hacker
who has betrayed his organized criminal partners. Robbed of his talent
through a crippling injury inflicted by the vengeful partners, Case
unexpectedly receives a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to be healed by
expert medical care but only if he participates in another criminal
enterprise with a new crew.
Like Case, many cyberpunk protagonists are manipulated, placed in
situations where they have little or no choice, and although they
might see things through, they do not necessarily come out any further
ahead than they previously were. These anti-heroes —"criminals,
outcasts, visionaries, dissenters and misfits" —call to mind the
private eye of detective fiction. This emphasis on the misfits and the
malcontents is the "punk " component of cyberpunk.
SOCIETY AND GOVERNMENT
Cyberpunk can be intended to disquiet readers and call them to
action. It often expresses a sense of rebellion, suggesting that one
could describe it as a type of culture revolution in science fiction.
In the words of author and critic
David Brin :
...a closer look reveals that they nearly always portray future
societies in which governments have become wimpy and pathetic
...Popular science fiction tales by Gibson, Williams, Cadigan and
others do depict
Orwellian accumulations of power in the next century,
but nearly always clutched in the secretive hands of a wealthy or
corporate elite .
Cyberpunk stories have also been seen as fictional forecasts of the
evolution of the
Internet . The earliest descriptions of a global
communications network came long before the
World Wide Web entered
popular awareness, though not before traditional science-fiction
writers such as
Arthur C. Clarke
Arthur C. Clarke and some social commentators such as
James Burke began predicting that such networks would eventually form.
List of cyberpunk works § Print media , and Cyborgs in
Bruce Bethke coined the term in 1980 for his short
story "Cyberpunk," which was published in the November 1983 issue of
Amazing Science Fiction Stories . The term was quickly appropriated
as a label to be applied to the works of
William Gibson , Bruce
Pat Cadigan and others. Of these, Sterling became the
movement's chief ideologue, thanks to his fanzine
Cheap Truth . John
Shirley wrote articles on Sterling and Rucker's significance. John
Brunner 's 1975 novel
The Shockwave Rider is considered by many to be
the first cyberpunk novel with many of the tropes commonly associated
with the genre, some five years before the term was popularized by
William Gibson with his novel
Neuromancer (1984) is likely the most
famous writer connected with the term cyberpunk. He emphasized style,
a fascination with surfaces, and atmosphere over traditional
science-fiction tropes. Regarded as ground-breaking and sometimes as
"the archetypal cyberpunk work,"
Neuromancer was awarded the Hugo ,
Nebula , and
Philip K. Dick
Philip K. Dick Awards.
Count Zero (1986) and Mona Lisa
Overdrive (1988) followed after Gibson's popular debut novel.
According to the Jargon
File , "Gibson's near-total ignorance of
computers and the present-day hacker culture enabled him to speculate
about the role of computers and hackers in the future in ways hackers
have since found both irritatingly naïve and tremendously
Early on, cyberpunk was hailed as a radical departure from
science-fiction standards and a new manifestation of vitality.
Shortly thereafter, however, some critics arose to challenge its
status as a revolutionary movement. These critics said that the SF New
Wave of the 1960s was much more innovative as far as narrative
techniques and styles were concerned. Furthermore, while
Neuromancer's narrator may have had an unusual "voice" for science
fiction, much older examples can be found: Gibson's narrative voice,
for example, resembles that of an updated
Raymond Chandler , as in his
The Big Sleep
The Big Sleep (1939). Others noted that almost all traits
claimed to be uniquely cyberpunk could in fact be found in older
writers' works—often citing
J. G. Ballard ,
Philip K. Dick
Philip K. Dick , Harlan
Stanisław Lem ,
Samuel R. Delany
Samuel R. Delany , and even William S.
Burroughs . For example, Philip K. Dick's works contain recurring
themes of social decay, artificial intelligence, paranoia, and blurred
lines between objective and subjective realities. The influential
Blade Runner (1982) is based on his book, Do Androids
Dream of Electric Sheep? . Humans linked to machines are found in
Pohl and Kornbluth's Wolfbane (1959) and
Roger Zelazny 's Creatures of
Light and Darkness (1968).
In 1994, scholar Brian Stonehill suggested that
Thomas Pynchon 's
1973 novel Gravity\'s Rainbow "not only curses but precurses what we
now glibly dub cyberspace." Other important predecessors include
Alfred Bester 's two most celebrated novels,
The Demolished Man and
The Stars My Destination , as well as
Vernor Vinge 's novella True
Reception And Impact
David Brin describes cyberpunk as "the finest
free promotion campaign ever waged on behalf of science fiction." It
may not have attracted the "real punks," but it did ensnare many new
readers, and it provided the sort of movement that postmodern literary
critics found alluring.
Cyberpunk made science fiction more attractive
to academics, argues Brin; in addition, it made science fiction more
profitable to Hollywood and to the visual arts generally. Although the
"self-important rhetoric and whines of persecution" on the part of
cyberpunk fans were irritating at worst and humorous at best, Brin
declares that the "rebels did shake things up. We owe them a debt."
Fredric Jameson considers cyberpunk the "supreme literary expression
if not of postmodernism , then of late capitalism itself".
Cyberpunk further inspired many professional writers who were not
among the "original" cyberpunks to incorporate cyberpunk ideas into
their own works, such as
George Alec Effinger 's
When Gravity Fails
When Gravity Fails .
Wired magazine, created by Louis Rossetto and Jane Metcalfe, mixes new
technology, art, literature, and current topics in order to interest
today's cyberpunk fans, which Paula Yoo claims "proves that hardcore
hackers, multimedia junkies, cyberpunks and cellular freaks are poised
to take over the world."
FILM AND TELEVISION
List of cyberpunk works § Films , and List of cyberpunk
works § Television and Web Series
Blade Runner (1982)—adapted from Philip K. Dick's Do
Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? —is set in 2019 in a dystopian
future in which manufactured beings called replicants are slaves used
on space colonies and are legal prey on
Earth to various bounty
hunters who "retire" (kill) them. Although
Blade Runner was largely
unsuccessful in its first theatrical release, it found a viewership in
the home video market and became a cult film . Since the movie omits
the religious and mythical elements of Dick's original novel (e.g.
empathy boxes and Wilbur Mercer), it falls more strictly within the
cyberpunk genre than the novel does.
William Gibson would later reveal
that upon first viewing the film, he was surprised at how the look of
this film matched his vision when he was working on
Neuromancer . The
film's tone has since been the staple of many cyberpunk movies, such
as The Matrix trilogy (1999-2003), which uses a wide variety of
The number of films in the genre or at least using a few genre
elements has grown steadily since Blade Runner. Several of Philip K.
Dick's works have been adapted to the silver screen. The films Johnny
Mnemonic and New Rose Hotel , both based upon short stories by
William Gibson, flopped commercially and critically.
In addition, "tech-noir " film as a hybrid genre, means a work of
combining neo-noir and science fiction or cyberpunk. It includes many
cyberpunk films such as
Blade Runner ,
Burst City , Robocop , 12
Monkeys , The Lawnmower Man ,
Hackers , Hardware , and Strange Days .
ANIME AND MANGA
List of cyberpunk works §
Cyberpunk themes are widely visible in anime and manga . In
where cosplay is popular and not only teenagers display such fashion
styles, cyberpunk has been accepted and its influence is widespread.
William Gibson's Neuromancer, whose influence dominated the early
cyberpunk movement, was also set in Chiba , one of Japan's largest
industrial areas, although at the time of writing the novel Gibson did
not know the location of Chiba and had no idea how perfectly it fit
his vision in some ways. The exposure to cyberpunk ideas and fiction
in the mid 1980s has allowed it to seep into the Japanese culture.
Cyberpunk anime and manga draw upon a futuristic vision which has
elements in common with western science fiction and therefore have
received wide international acceptance outside Japan. "The
conceptualization involved in cyberpunk is more of forging ahead,
looking at the new global culture. It is a culture that does not exist
right now, so the Japanese concept of a cyberpunk future, seems just
as valid as a Western one, especially as Western cyberpunk often
incorporates many Japanese elements."
William Gibson is now a
frequent visitor to Japan, and he came to see that many of his visions
Japan have become a reality:
Japan simply was cyberpunk. The Japanese themselves knew it
and delighted in it. I remember my first glimpse of Shibuya , when one
of the young
Tokyo journalists who had taken me there, his face
drenched with the light of a thousand media-suns—all that towering,
animated crawl of commercial information—said, "You see? You see? It
Blade Runner town." And it was. It so evidently was.
Cyberpunk has influenced many anime and manga including the
ground-breaking Akira ,
Ghost in the Shell ,
Ergo Proxy , Battle Angel
Megazone 23 , Neo
Goku Midnight Eye , Cyber City Oedo
Bubblegum Crisis , A.D. Police: Dead End City ,
Angel Cop ,
Armitage III ,
Serial Experiments Lain ,
Neon Genesis Evangelion
Neon Genesis Evangelion and
List of cyberpunk works § Video games , and List of
cyberpunk works §
There are many cyberpunk video games . Popular series include the
Megami Tensei series, Deus Ex series, Syndicate series,The Last Night
(video game) ,
System Shock and its sequel . Other games, like Blade
Ghost in the Shell , and the Matrix series, are based upon
genre movies, or role-playing games (for instance the various
CD Projekt RED are currently developing a cyberpunk
Cyberpunk 2077 .
Several role-playing games (RPGs) called
Cyberpunk exist: Cyberpunk,
Cyberpunk 2020 and
Cyberpunk v3, by
R. Talsorian Games , and GURPS
Cyberpunk , published by
Steve Jackson Games as a module of the GURPS
family of RPGs.
Cyberpunk 2020 was designed with the settings of
William Gibson's writings in mind, and to some extent with his
approval, unlike the approach taken by FASA in producing the
Shadowrun game. Both are set in the near future, in a world
where cybernetics are prominent. In addition, Iron Crown Enterprises
released an RPG named
Cyberspace , which was out of print for several
years until recently being re-released in online PDF form.
In 1990, in a convergence of cyberpunk art and reality, the United
States Secret Service raided Steve Jackson Games's headquarters and
confiscated all their computers. This was allegedly because the GURPS
Cyberpunk sourcebook could be used to perpetrate computer crime. That
was, in fact, not the main reason for the raid, but after the event it
was too late to correct the public's impression. Steve Jackson Games
later won a lawsuit against the Secret Service, aided by the new
Electronic Frontier Foundation
Electronic Frontier Foundation . This event has achieved a sort of
notoriety, which has extended to the book itself as well. All
published editions of
GURPS Cyberpunk have a tagline on the front
cover, which reads "The book that was seized by the U.S. Secret
Service!" Inside, the book provides a summary of the raid and its
Shortly thereafter, Val / Variable Assembly Language For Use With
Artificial Intelligence was utilized in conjunction with the
underground's programming language Perl to design an online punk role
playing game, Chrystal City, to mask crimes against necessity law,
illegal by anarchist ethic, in the global manifestation of a cyberpunk
virtual reality intended for astral space.
Cyberpunk has also inspired several tabletop , miniature and board
games such as
Games Workshop .
Netrunner is a
collectible card game introduced in 1996, based on the
Tokyo NOVA , debuting in 1993, is a cyberpunk
role-playing game that uses playing cards instead of dice.
List of cyberpunk works § Music "Much of the
industrial/dance heavy 'Cyberpunk'—recorded in
Billy Idol 's
Macintosh-run studio—revolves around Idol's theme of the common man
rising up to fight against a faceless, soulless, corporate world."
Some musicians and acts have been classified as cyberpunk due to
their aesthetic style and musical content. Often dealing with
dystopian visions of the future or biomechanical themes, some fit more
squarely in the category than others. Bands whose music has been
classified as cyberpunk include
Front Line Assembly , Clock
Sigue Sigue Sputnik
Sigue Sigue Sputnik . Some musicians not normally associated
with cyberpunk have at times been inspired to create concept albums
exploring such themes. Albums such as
Gary Numan 's Replicas , The
Pleasure Principle and
Telekon were heavily inspired by the works of
Philip K. Dick.
The Man-Machine and
Computer World albums
both explored the theme of humanity becoming dependent on technology.
Nine Inch Nails
Nine Inch Nails ' concept album Year Zero also fits into this
Billy Idol 's
Cyberpunk drew heavily from cyberpunk
literature and the cyberdelic counter culture in its creation. 1.
Outside , a cyberpunk narrative fueled concept album by
David Bowie ,
was warmly met by critics upon its release in 1995. Many musicians
have also taken inspiration from specific cyberpunk works or authors,
Sonic Youth , whose albums Sister and
Daydream Nation take
influence from the works of
Phillip K. Dick and William Gibson
Vaporwave and Synthwave are also influenced by cyberpunk. The former
has been interpreted as a dystopian critique of capitalism in the
vein of cyberpunk and the latter as a nostalgic retrofuturistic
revival of aspects of cyberpunk's origins.
Furthermore, many dubstep producers, such as
Machine Man and
Ghosthack, have found inspiration in cyberpunk themes for their works.
ART AND ARCHITECTURE
Neo-Futurism artworks and cityscapes have been influenced by
cyberpunk, such as the
Sony Center in the
Potsdamer Platz public
SOCIETY AND COUNTERCULTURE
Several subcultures have been inspired by cyberpunk fiction. These
include the cyberdelic counter culture of the late 1980s and early
90s. Cyberdelic, whose adherents referred to themselves as
"cyberpunks", attempted to blend the psychedelic art and drug movement
with the technology of cyberculture . Early adherents included Timothy
Mark Frauenfelder and
R. U. Sirius . The movement largely
faded following the dot-com bubble implosion of 2000.
Cybergoth is a fashion and dance subculture which draws its
inspiration from cyberpunk fiction, as well as rave and Gothic
subcultures. In addition, a distinct cyberpunk fashion of its own has
emerged in recent years which rejects the raver and goth influences of
cybergoth , and draws inspiration from urban street fashion, "post
apocalypse", functional clothing, high tech sports wear, tactical
uniform and multifunction. This fashion goes by names like "tech
wear", "goth ninja" or "tech ninja". Important designers in this type
of fashion are ACRONYM, Demobaza ,
Boris Bidjan Saberi , Rick Owens
and Alexander Wang .
Kowloon Walled City in
Hong Kong (demolished in 1994) is often
referenced as the model cyberpunk/dystopian slum as, given its poor
living conditions at the time coupled by the city's political,
physical, and economic isolation has caused many in academia to be
fascinated by the ingenuity of its spawning.
As a wider variety of writers began to work with cyberpunk concepts,
new subgenres of science fiction emerged, some of which could be
considered as playing off the cyberpunk label, others which could be
considered as legitimate explorations into newer territory. These
focused on technology and its social effects in different ways. One
prominent subgenre is "steampunk ," which is set in an alternate
Victorian era that combines anachronistic technology with
cyberpunk's bleak film noir world view. The term was originally coined
around 1987 as a joke to describe some of the novels of
Tim Powers ,
James P. Blaylock , and
K.W. Jeter , but by the time Gibson and
Sterling entered the subgenre with their collaborative novel The
Difference Engine the term was being used earnestly as well.
Another subgenre is "biopunk " (cyberpunk themes dominated by
biotechnology ) from the early 1990s, a derivative style building on
biotechnology rather than informational technology. In these stories,
people are changed in some way not by mechanical means, but by genetic
Paul Di Filippo
Paul Di Filippo is seen as the most prominent biopunk
writer, including his half-serious ribofunk .
Bruce Sterling 's
Shaper/Mechanist cycle is also seen as a major influence. In addition,
some people consider works such as
Neal Stephenson 's The Diamond Age
to be postcyberpunk .
Cyberpunk works have been described as well-situated within
postmodern literature .
Role playing game publisher
R. Talsorian Games , owner of the
Cyberpunk 2020 franchise, trademarked the word "Cyberpunk" in the
United States in 2012.
Video game developer
CD Projekt , which is
Cyberpunk 2077 , bought the U.S. trademark from R.
Talsorian Games, and has filed a trademark in the European Union.
* Literature portal
Speculative fiction portal
Utopian and dystopian fiction
* ^ Ketterer, David (1992). Canadian Science Fiction and Fantasy.
Indiana University Press
Indiana University Press . p. 141. ISBN 0-253-33122-6 .
* ^ Hassler, Donald M. (2008). New Boundaries in Political Science
University of South Carolina Press
University of South Carolina Press . pp. 75–76. ISBN
* ^ A B Graham, Stephen (2004). The Cybercities Reader.
p. 389. ISBN 0-415-27956-9 .
* ^ Gibson, William from Burning Chrome published in 1981
* ^ Gillis, Stacy (2005). The Matrix Trilogy:
Wallflower Press. p. 75. ISBN 1-904764-32-0 .
* ^ A B Person, Lawrence (October 8, 1999). "Notes Toward a
Slashdot . Originally published in Nova
Express, issue 16 (1998).
* ^ ‘NEW WORLDS\': ONE OF THE MOST INFLUENTIAL SCI-FI MAGAZINES
RETURNS THIS FALL
Ballard’s think-pieces on the intrusion of technology and media —
"The Atrocity Exhibition", "Notes Towards a Mental Breakdown", "The
Assassination of John Fitzgerald Kennedy Considered as a Downhill
Motor Race" (collected with others as The Atrocity Exhibition with
illustrations by Phoebe Gloeckner) — paved the way for cyberpunk.
Brian Aldiss practically populated his own subgenre with quirky epics
like Acid Head War, a messianic tale of freestyle narrative set in a
post-war Europe in which hallucinogenic drugs had affected entire
populations, and Report on Probability A, an experimental story about
the observations of three characters named G, S, and C. * ^
Steampunk and Wizardry: Science Fiction Since 1980 Chapter
4. The New Wave
* ^ \'Unblinking, clinical\': From Ballard to cyberpunk
* ^ The Early Life of the Word “Cyberpunk”
* ^ Postmodern Metanarratives:
Blade Runner and Literature in the
Age of Image
* ^ Review of "Mirrorshades: The
Cyberpunk Anthology" Edited by
* ^ Bethke crashes the cyberpunk system
* ^ "The
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