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Customs
Customs
is an authority or agency in a country responsible for collecting tariffs and for controlling the flow of goods, including animals, transports, personal, and hazardous items, into and out of a country.[1] The movement of people into and out of a country is normally monitored by migration authorities, under a variety of names and arrangements. Immigration
Immigration
authorities normally check for appropriate documentation, verify that a person is entitled to enter the country, apprehend people wanted by domestic or international arrest warrants, and impede the entry of people deemed dangerous to the country. Compare illegal emigration. Many[quantify] places also use K9 units. Each country has its own laws and regulations for the import and export of goods into and out of a country, which its customs authority enforces. The import or export of some goods may be restricted or forbidden.[2] In most countries, customs are attained through government agreements and international laws.[citation needed] A customs duty is a tariff or tax on the importation (usually) or exportation (unusually) of goods. Commercial goods not yet cleared through customs are held in a customs area, often called a bonded store, until processed. All authorized ports are recognized customs areas. At airports, customs functions as the point of no return for all passengers; once passengers have cleared customs, they cannot go back.

Contents

1 Red and green channels

1.1 Blue channel 1.2 Red point phone

2 Privatization of customs 3 Summary of basic custom rules

3.1 European Union

3.1.1 Germany 3.1.2 Romania 3.1.3 Italy 3.1.4 Czech Republic and Slovakia

3.2 North America

3.2.1 United States

3.3 South America 3.4 Argentina

4 "Magic mail" 5 See also 6 References 7 External links

Red and green channels[edit] In many countries, customs procedures for arriving passengers at many international airports and some road crossings are separated into red and green channels.[3][4] Passengers with goods to declare (carrying goods above the permitted customs limits and/or carrying prohibited items) go through the red channel. Passengers with nothing to declare (carrying goods within the permitted customs limits and not carrying prohibited items) go through the green channel. However, entry into a particular channel constitutes a legal declaration, if a passenger going through the green channel is found to be carrying goods above the customs limits or prohibited items, he or she may be prosecuted for making a false declaration to customs, by virtue of having gone through the green channel. Each channel is a point of no return, once a passenger has entered a particular channel, they can not go back. Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the United States
United States
do not officially operate a red and green channel system; however, some airports copy this layout. Blue channel[edit] Airports in EU countries such as Finland, Ireland
Ireland
or the United Kingdom, also have a blue channel. As the EU is a customs union, travellers between EU countries do not have to pay customs duties. Value-added tax and excise duties may be applicable if the goods are subsequently sold, but these are collected when the goods are sold, not at the border. Passengers arriving from other EU countries go through the blue channel, where they may still be subject to checks for prohibited or restricted goods. Luggage tickets for checked luggage travelling within the EU are green-edged so they may be identified.[5][6] In most EU member states, travellers coming from other EU countries can simply use the green lane. Red point phone[edit] All airports in the United Kingdom operate a channel system, however some don't have a red channel, they instead have a red point phone which serves the same purpose. Privatization of customs[edit]

The Customs-and-duty House at the port of Haifa, Israel

Customs
Customs
is part of one of the three basic functions of a government, namely: administration; maintenance of law, order, and justice; and collection of revenue. However, in a bid to mitigate corruption, many countries have partly privatised their customs. This has occurred by way of contracting pre-shipment inspection agencies, which examine the cargo and verify the declared value before importation occurs. The country's customs is obliged to accept the agency's report for the purpose of assessing duties and taxes at the port of entry. While engaging a pre-shipment inspection agency may appear justified in a country with an inexperienced or inadequate customs establishment, the measure has not been able to plug the loophole and protect revenue. It has been found that evasion of customs duty escalated when pre-shipment agencies took over.[7] It has also been alleged that involvement of such agencies has caused shipping delays.[2] Privatization of customs has been viewed as a fatal remedy.[7] Summary of basic custom rules[edit] European Union[edit] The basic customs law is harmonized across Europe within the European Union Customs
Customs
Union. This includes customs duties and restrictions. Customs
Customs
tax from €22 to €150. In addition, see regulations of each member state. For customs declarations in the EU and in Switzerland, Norway and Iceland, the "Single Administrative Document" (SAD) is used as a basis.[8] Germany[edit] Up to €22, there are no taxes. From €22 up to €150, it is necessary to pay VAT (EUSt in Germany), which is 7% or 19% depending on the goods. From €150 it is necessary to pay VAT and customs. Romania[edit] Customs
Customs
may be very strict, especially for goods shipped from anywhere outside the EU. Up to €10 goods/package. Italy[edit] Customs
Customs
in Italy takes additional 22% VAT (Value-added tax) for goods imported from outside the European Union even if the VAT is already paid to the origin country sender. Czech Republic and Slovakia[edit] Up to €22, there are no taxes. From €22 up to €150, it is necessary to pay VAT (DPH in Czech/Slovak), which is 21%. From €150, it is necessary to pay VAT and customs. Customs
Customs
may range from zero to 10% depending on the type of imported goods. North America[edit] United States[edit] The United States
United States
imposes tariffs or "customs duties" on imports of goods: 3% on average.[9] The duty is levied at the time of import and is paid by the importer of record. Individuals arriving in the United States may be exempt from duty on a limited amount of purchases, and on goods temporarily imported (such as laptop computers) under the ATA Carnet system. Customs
Customs
duties vary by country of origin and product, with duties ranging from zero to 81% of the value of the goods. Goods from many countries are exempt from duty under various trade agreements. Certain types of goods are exempt from duty regardless of source. Customs
Customs
rules differ from other import restrictions. Failure to comply with customs rules can result in seizure of goods and civil and criminal penalties against involved parties. The U.S. Customs
Customs
and Border Protection (CBP) enforces customs rules. All goods entering the United States
United States
are subject to inspection by CBP prior to legal entry. South America[edit] Argentina[edit] Customs
Customs
may be very strict. Up to u$300 overall, there are no taxes. From to u$300 to u$1500, tax is 50% of the value of all acquired goods sumed up. "Magic mail"[edit] Juan Pablo Escobar
Pablo Escobar
writes, in My Father Pablo Escobar, "At the time Pablo Escobar
Pablo Escobar
was trafficking cocaine, Colombia's major airports had what was known as "magic mail", a sort of parallel customs system that made it possible to bring anything into the country without leaving a paper trail - in exchange for a fat bribe." See also[edit]

Australian Border Force Canada
Canada
Border Services Agency Customs
Customs
Trade Partnership against Terrorism Directorate-General of Customs
Customs
and Indirect Taxes Duty (economics) United Kingdom Border Force Port
Port
authority World Customs
Customs
Journal World Customs
Customs
Organization U.S. Customs
Customs
and Border Protection

References[edit]

^ "customs". WordReference. Retrieved 2013-09-16.  ^ a b Chowdhury, F. L. (1992) Evasion of Customs
Customs
Duty in Bangladesh, unpublished MBA dissertation submitted to Monash University, Australia. ^ "Dual-Channel System ( Customs
Customs
Clearance)". Ica.gov.sg. Retrieved 2015-09-02.  ^ "Wayback Machine" (PDF). Web.archive.org. 19 March 2009. Retrieved 31 December 2017.  ^ "EUROPA - Taxation and Customs
Customs
Union / Baggage controls". Ec.europa.eu. 2007-02-21. Retrieved 2012-01-06.  ^ [1][dead link] ^ a b Chowdhury, F. L. (2006) Corrupt bureaucracy and privatization of Customs
Customs
in Bangladesh, Pathok Samabesh, Dhaka. ^ "The single administrative document (SAD) - Taxation and customs union - European Commission". Taxation and customs union. Retrieved 31 December 2017.  ^ "Federation of International Trade Associations, country profile : United States". Fita.org. Retrieved 2012-01-06. 

External links[edit]

World Customs
Customs
Organization EU Customs

v t e

Customs
Customs
services by country

Africa

Algeria Angola Benin Botswana Burkina Faso Burundi Cameroon Cape Verde Central African Republic Chad Comoros Democratic Republic of the Congo Republic of the Congo Djibouti Egypt Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Ethiopia Gabon The Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Customs
Customs
services of Ivory Coast Ivory Coast (Côte d'Ivoire) Kenya Lesotho Liberia Libya Madagascar Malawi Mali Mauritania Mauritius Morocco Mozambique Namibia Niger Nigeria Rwanda São Tomé and Príncipe Senegal Seychelles Sierra Leone Somalia South Africa South Sudan Sudan Swaziland Tanzania Togo Tunisia Uganda Zambia Zimbabwe

Asia

Afghanistan Bahrain Bangladesh Bhutan Brunei Burma (Myanmar) Cambodia China

Mainland Hong Kong

India Indonesia Iran Iraq Israel Japan Jordan Kazakhstan North Korea South Korea Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Laos Lebanon Macau, China Malaysia Mongolia Nepal Oman Pakistan Palestine Philippines Qatar Saudi Arabia Singapore Sri Lanka Syria Republic of China (Taiwan) Thailand Tajikistan East Timor (Timor-Leste) Turkmenistan United Arab Emirates Uzbekistan Vietnam Yemen

Europe

Albania Andorra Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Belarus Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Faroe Islands Finland France Georgia Germany Gibraltar Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Kazakhstan Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia Malta Moldova Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia San Marino Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey Ukraine United Kingdom

North America

Antigua and Barbuda Bahamas Barbados Belize Canada Costa Rica Cuba Dominica Dominican Republic El Salvador Grenada Guatemala Haiti Honduras Jamaica Mexico Nicaragua Panama St. Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia St. Vincent and the Grenadines Trinidad and Tobago United States

South America

Argentina Bolivia Brazil Chile Colombia Ecuador Guyana Paraguay Peru Suriname Trinidad and Tobago Uruguay Venezuela

Oceania

Australia New Zealand

Non-recognized

Kosovo Northern Cyprus

Defunct

Czechoslovakia East Germany Serbia and Montenegro Sovie

.