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The history of the Curzon
Curzon
Line, with minor variations, goes back to the period following World War I.[1] It was drawn for the first time by the Supreme War Council
Supreme War Council
as the demarcation line between the newly emerging states, the Second Polish Republic
Second Polish Republic
and the Soviet Union. The proposal was put forward by British Foreign Secretary George Curzon,[2] to serve as a diplomatic basis for the future border agreement, and in that form, it never materialized because the war went on.[3] The line became a major geopolitical factor during World War II, when Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
invaded eastern Poland
Poland
and split its territory along the Curzon
Curzon
Line with Adolf Hitler. The Western powers entered into negotiations with the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
following Operation Barbarossa. Throughout the war until the Tehran Conference, the Allies did not agree that Poland's future eastern border should be kept at the same Curzon
Curzon
Line drawn in 1939; but Churchill's position changed after the Soviet victory at the Battle of Kursk.[4] Following a private agreement at the Tehran Conference, confirmed at the 1945 Yalta Conference, the Allied leaders Franklin Roosevelt, Winston Churchill, and Stalin issued a statement affirming the use of the Curzon
Curzon
Line, with some five-to-eight-kilometre variations, as the eastern border between Poland
Poland
and the Soviet Union.[5] When Churchill proposed to add parts of East Galicia, including the city of Lviv, to Poland's territory (following Line B), Stalin argued that the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
could not demand less territory for itself than the British Government had reconfirmed previously several times. The Allied arrangement involved compensation for this loss via the incorporation of formerly German areas (the so-called Recovered Territories) into Poland. As a result, the current border between Poland
Poland
and the countries of Belarus
Belarus
and Ukraine
Ukraine
is an approximation of the Curzon
Curzon
Line.

Territorial evolution of Polandin the 20th century Post World War I Greater Poland
Poland
Uprising (1918–19) Treaty of Versailles
Treaty of Versailles
(1919) Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye (1919) Suwałki Agreement
Suwałki Agreement
(1920) Peace of Riga
Peace of Riga
(1921) Silesian Uprisings Polish Corridor

World War II Polish areas annexed by Nazi Germany Polish areas annexed by USSR Wartime administrative division Tehran Conference
Tehran Conference
(1943) Yalta Conference
Yalta Conference
(1945)

Post World War II Potsdam Conference
Potsdam Conference
(1945) Polish–Soviet border agreement of August 1945 Treaty of Zgorzelec
Treaty of Zgorzelec
(1950) Polish-Soviet Border Adjustment Treaty (1951) Treaty of Warsaw (1970) Two Plus Four Treaty (1990) German-Polish Border Treaty (1990)

Areas Kresy
Kresy
Wschodnie ("Eastern Borderlands") Kresy
Kresy
Zachodnie ("Western Borderlands") Recovered Territories Former eastern territories of Germany Zaolzie

Demarcation lines Curzon
Curzon
Line (1920) Oder–Neisse line
Oder–Neisse line
(1950–1990)

Adjacent countries Territorial evolution of Germany Territorial changes of the Baltic states vte Contents

1 Early history

1.1 Characteristics

2 End of World War I 3 Polish-Soviet War
Polish-Soviet War
of 1919-1921

3.1 Peace of Riga

4 World War II 5 Ethnicity east of the Curzon
Curzon
Line until 1939

5.1 Largest cities and towns

6 Poles
Poles
east of the Curzon
Curzon
Line after expulsion 7 Ethnicity west of the Curzon
Curzon
Line until 1939 8 See also 9 Footnotes 10 Notes 11 References 12 Further reading 13 External links

Early history[edit] At the end of World War I, the Second Polish Republic
Second Polish Republic
reclaimed its sovereignty following the disintegration of the occupying forces of three neighbouring empires. Imperial Russia
Russia
was amid the Russian Civil War after the October Revolution, Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
split and went into decline, and the German Reich
German Reich
bowed to pressure from the victorious forces of the Allies of World War I
World War I
known as the Entente Powers. The Allied victors agreed that an independent Polish state should be recreated from territories previously part of the Russian, the Austro-Hungarian and the German empires, after 123 years of upheavals and military partitions by these.[6] The Supreme War Council
Supreme War Council
tasked the Commission on Polish Affairs
Commission on Polish Affairs
with recommending Poland's eastern border. The Allies forwarded it as an armistice line several times during the war, most notably in a note from the British government to the Soviets signed by Foreign Secretary Lord Curzon
Curzon
of Kedleston. Both parties disregarded the line when the military situation lay in their favour, and it did not play a role in establishing the Polish-Soviet border in 1921. Instead, the final Peace of Riga
Peace of Riga
(or Treaty of Riga) provided Poland
Poland
with almost 135,000 square kilometres (52,000 sq mi) of land that was, on average, about 250 kilometres (160 mi) east of the Curzon
Curzon
line.

Characteristics[edit] The northern half of the Curzon
Curzon
line lay approximately along the border which was established between the Prussian Kingdom
Prussian Kingdom
and the Russian Empire in 1797, after the Third Partition of Poland, which was the last border recognised by the United Kingdom. Along most of its length, the line followed an ethnic boundary - areas west of the line contained an overall Polish majority while areas to its east were inhabited by Ukrainians, Belorussians, Poles, Jews, and Lithuanians.[7][8][9][10][11] Its 1920 northern extension into Lithuania
Lithuania
divided the area disputed between Poland
Poland
and Lithuania. There were two versions of the southern portion of the line: "A" and "B". Version "B" allocated Lwów (Lviv) to Poland.

End of World War I[edit] The US President Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points
Fourteen Points
included the statement "An independent Polish state should be erected which should include the territories inhabited by indisputably Polish populations, which should be assured a free and secure access to the sea..." Article 87 of the Versailles Treaty
Versailles Treaty
stipulated that "The boundaries of Poland
Poland
not laid down in the present Treaty will be subsequently determined by the Principal Allied and Associated Powers." In accordance with these declarations, the Supreme War Council
Supreme War Council
tasked the Commission on Polish Affairs
Commission on Polish Affairs
with proposing Poland's eastern boundaries in lands that were inhabited by a mixed population of Poles, Lithuanians, Ukrainians
Ukrainians
and Belorussians.[12][13] The Commission issued its recommendation on 22 April; its proposed Russo-Polish borders were close to those of the 19th-century Congress Poland.[13] The Supreme Council continued to debate the issue for several months. On 8 December, the Council published a map and description of the line along with an announcement that it recognized "Poland's right to organize a regular administration of the territories of the former Russian Empire situated to the West of the line described below."[13] At the same time, the announcement stated the Council was not "...prejudging the provisions which must in the future define the eastern frontiers of Poland" and that "the rights that Poland
Poland
may be able to establish over the territories situated to the East of the said line are expressly reserved."[13] The announcement had no immediate impact, although the Allies recommended its consideration in an August 1919 proposal to Poland, which was ignored.[13][14]

Polish ethnographic map from 1912, showing the proportions of Polish population according to pre-WW1 censuses Polish ethnographic map showing the proportions of Polish population (incorporates data from pre-WW1 censuses and the 1916 census) Polish-Soviet War
Polish-Soviet War
of 1919-1921[edit] Main article: Polish-Soviet War Polish forces pushed eastward, taking Kiev in May 1920. Following a strong Soviet counteroffensive, Prime Minister Władysław Grabski sought Allied assistance in July. Under pressure, he agreed to a Polish withdrawal to the 1919 version of the line and, in Galicia, an armistice near the current line of battle.[15] On 11 July 1920 Curzon
Curzon
signed a telegram sent to the Bolshevik government proposing that a ceasefire be established along the line, and his name was subsequently associated with it.[13] Curzon's July 1920 proposal differed from the 19 December announcement in two significant ways.[16] The December note did not address the issue of Galicia, since it had been a part of the Austrian Empire rather than the Russian, nor did it address the Polish-Lithuanian dispute over the Vilnius
Vilnius
Region, since those borders were demarcated at the time by the Foch Line.[16] The July 1920 note specifically addressed the Polish-Lithuanian dispute by mentioning a line running from Grodno
Grodno
to Vilnius
Vilnius
(Wilno) and thence north to Daugavpils, Latvia
Latvia
(Dynaburg).[16] It also mentioned Galicia, where earlier discussions had resulted in the alternatives of Line A and Line B.[16] The note endorsed Line A, which included Lwów and its nearby oil fields within Russia.[17] This portion of the line did not correspond to the current line of battle in Galicia, as per Grabski's agreement, and its inclusion in the July note has lent itself to disputation.[15] On 17 July, the Soviets responded to the note with a refusal. Georgy Chicherin, representing the Soviets, commented on the delayed interest of the British for a peace treaty between Russia
Russia
and Poland. He agreed to start negotiations as long as the Polish side asked for it. The Soviet side at that time offered more favourable border solutions to Poland
Poland
than the ones offered by the Curzon
Curzon
line.[18] In August the Soviets were defeated by the Poles
Poles
just outside Warsaw and forced to retreat. During the ensuing Polish offensive, the Polish government repudiated Grabski's agreement with regard to the line on the grounds that the Allies had not delivered support or protection.[19]

Peace of Riga[edit] Main article: Peace of Riga Belarusian Caricature: "Down with the infamous Riga partition! Long live a free peasant indivisible Belarus!" At the March 1921 Treaty of Riga
Treaty of Riga
the Soviets conceded[20] a frontier well to the east of the Curzon
Curzon
Line, where Poland
Poland
had conquered a great part of the Vilna Governorate
Vilna Governorate
(1920/1922), including the town of Wilno (Vilnius), and East Galicia
East Galicia
(1919), including the city of Lwów, as well as most of the region of Volhynia (1921). The treaty provided Poland
Poland
with almost 135,000 square kilometres (52,000 sq mi) of land that was, on average, about 250 kilometres (160 mi) east of the Curzon line.[21][22] The Polish-Soviet border was recognised by the League of Nations
League of Nations
in 1923 and confirmed by various Polish-Soviet agreements. Within the annexed regions, Poland
Poland
founded several administrative districts, such as the Volhynian Voivodeship, the Polesie Voivodeship, and the Wilno Voivodeship. As a concern of possible expansion of Polish territory, Polish politicians traditionally could be subdivided into two opposite groups advocating contrary approaches: restoration of Poland
Poland
based on its former western territories one side and, alternatively, restoration of Poland
Poland
based on its previous holdings in the east on the other. During the first quarter of the 20th century, a representative of the first political group was Roman Dmowski, an adherent of the pan-slavistic movement and author of several political books and publications[23] of some importance, who suggested to define Poland's eastern border in accordance with the ethnographic principle and to concentrate on resisting a more dangerous enemy of the Polish nation than Russia, which in his view was Germany. A representative of the second group was Józef Piłsudski, a socialist who was born in the Vilna Governorate
Vilna Governorate
annexed during the 1795 Third Partition of Poland
Poland
by the Russian Empire, whose political vision was essentially a far-reaching restoration of the borders of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. Because the Russian Empire had collapsed into a state of civil war following the Russian Revolution of 1917, and the Soviet Army
Soviet Army
had been defeated and been weakened considerably at the end of World War I
World War I
by Germany's army, resulting in the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, Piłsudski took the chance and used military force in an attempt to realise his political vision by concentrating on the east and involving himself in the Polish–Soviet War.

World War II[edit] Main articles: Invasion of Poland
Poland
and Soviet invasion of Poland The terms of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact
Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact
of August 1939 provided for the partition of Poland
Poland
along the line of the San, Vistula
Vistula
and Narew rivers which did not go along Curzon
Curzon
Line but reached far beyond it and awarded the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
with territories of Lublin and near Warsaw. In September, after the military defeat of Poland, the Soviet Union annexed all territories east of the Curzon
Curzon
Line plus Białystok and Eastern Galicia. The territories east of this line were incorporated into the Byelorussian SSR
Byelorussian SSR
and Ukrainian SSR
Ukrainian SSR
after staged referendums and hundreds of thousands of Poles
Poles
and a lesser number of Jews
Jews
were deported eastwards into the Soviet Union. In July 1941 these territories were seized by Germany
Germany
in the course of the invasion of the Soviet Union. During the German occupation most of the Jewish population was deported or killed by Germans. In 1944, the Soviet armed forces recaptured eastern Poland
Poland
from the Germans. The Soviets unilaterally declared a new frontier between the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and Poland
Poland
(approximately the same as the Curzon
Curzon
Line). The Polish government-in-exile
Polish government-in-exile
in London bitterly opposed this, insisting on the "Riga line". At the Tehran and Yalta conferences between Stalin and the western Allies, the allied leaders Roosevelt and Churchill asked Stalin to reconsider, particularly over Lwów, but he refused. During the negotiations at Yalta, Stalin posed the question "Do you want me to tell the Russian people that I am less Russian than Lord Curzon?"[24] The altered Curzon
Curzon
Line thus became the permanent eastern border of Poland
Poland
and was recognised by the western Allies in July 1945. The border was later adjusted several times, the biggest revision being in 1951. When the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
ceased to exist in 1991, the Curzon
Curzon
line became Poland's eastern border with Lithuania, Belarus
Belarus
and Ukraine.

Ethnicity east of the Curzon
Curzon
Line until 1939[edit] Mother tongue in Poland
Poland
in 1931: red/green = Polish/other languages The ethnic composition of these areas proved difficult to measure, both during the interwar period and after World War II. A 1944 article in The Times
The Times
estimated that in 1931 there lived between 2.2 and 2.5 million Poles
Poles
east of the Curzon
Curzon
Line.[25] According to historian Yohanan Cohen's estimate, in 1939 the population in the territories of interwar Poland
Poland
east of the Curzon
Curzon
Line gained via the Treaty of Riga
Treaty of Riga
totalled 12 million, consisting of over 5 million Ukrainians, between 3.5 and 4 million Poles, 1.5 million Belarusians, and 1.3 million Jews.[26] During World War II, politicians gave varying estimates of the Polish population east of the Curzon line that would be affected by population transfers. Winston Churchill mentioned "3 to 4 million Poles
Poles
east of the Curzon
Curzon
Line".[27] Stanisław Mikołajczyk, then Prime Minister of the Polish government-in-exile, counted this population as 5 million.[28] Ukrainians
Ukrainians
and Belarusians if counted together composed the majority of the population of interwar Eastern Poland.[29] The area also had a significant number of Jewish inhabitants. Poles
Poles
constituted majorities in the main cities (followed by Jews) and in some rural areas, such as Vilnius
Vilnius
region or Wilno Voivodeship.[29][30][31] After the Soviet deportation of Poles
Poles
and Jews
Jews
in 1939–1941 (see Polish minority in Soviet Union), The Holocaust
The Holocaust
and the ethnic cleansing of the Polish population of Volhynia
Volhynia
and East Galicia
East Galicia
by Ukrainian Nationalists, the Polish population in the territories had decreased considerably. The cities of Wilno, Lwów, Grodno
Grodno
and some smaller towns still had significant Polish populations. After 1945, the Polish population of the area east of the new Soviet-Polish border was in general confronted with the alternative either to accept a different citizenship or to emigrate. According to more recent research, about 3 million Roman Catholic Poles
Poles
lived east of the Curzon
Curzon
line within interwar Poland's borders, of whom about 2.1 million[32] to 2.2 million[33] died, fled, emigrated or were expelled to the newly annexed German territories.[34][35] There still exists a big Polish minority in Lithuania
Lithuania
and a big Polish minority in Belarus
Belarus
today. The cities of Vilnius, Grodno
Grodno
and some smaller towns still have significant Polish populations. Vilnius
Vilnius
District Municipality and Sapotskin
Sapotskin
region have a Polish majority. Ukrainian nationalists continued their partisan war and were imprisoned by the Soviets and sent to the Gulag. There they revolted, actively participating in several uprisings (Kengir uprising, Norilsk uprising, Vorkuta uprising). Polish population east of the Curzon
Curzon
Line before World War II
World War II
can be estimated by adding together figures for Former Eastern Poland
Poland
and for pre-1939 Soviet Union:

1. Interwar Poland

Polish mother tongue (of whom Roman Catholics)

Source (census)

Today part of:

South-Eastern Poland

2,249,703 (1,765,765)[36]

1931 Polish census[37]

 Ukraine

North-Eastern Poland

1,663,888 (1,358,029)[38][39]

1931 Polish census

and

2. Interwar USSR

Ethnic Poles
Poles
according to official census

Source (census)

Today part of:

Soviet Ukraine

476,435

1926 Soviet census

 Ukraine

Soviet Belarus

97,498

1926 Soviet census

 Belarus

Soviet Russia

197,827

1926 Soviet census

 Russia

rest of the USSR

10,574

1926 Soviet census

3. Interwar Baltic states

Ethnic Poles
Poles
according to official census

Source (census)

Today part of:

Lithuania

65,599 [Note 1]

1923 Lithuanian census

 Lithuania

Latvia

59,374

1930 Latvian census[40]

 Latvia

Estonia

1,608

1934 Estonian census

 Estonia

TOTAL (1., 2., 3.)

4 to 5 million ethnic Poles

Largest cities and towns[edit] In 1931 according to the Polish National Census, the ten largest cities in the Eastern Borderlands were: Lwów (pop. 312,200), Wilno (pop. 195,100), Stanisławów (pop. 60,000), Grodno
Grodno
(pop. 49,700), Brześć nad Bugiem (pop. 48,400), Borysław (pop. 41,500), Równe (pop. 40,600), Tarnopol (pop. 35,600), Łuck (pop. 35,600) and Kołomyja (pop. 33,800). The ethnolinguistic structure of 22 largest cities was:

Ethnolinguistic structure (mother tongue) of the population in 22 largest cities and towns in Kresy
Kresy
according to the census of 1931[37]

City

Pop.

Polish

Yiddish

Hebrew

German

Ukrainian

Belarusian

Russian

Lithuanian

Other

Today part of:

Lwów

312,231

63.5% (198,212)

21.6% (67,520)

2.5% (7,796)

0.8% (2,448)

11.3% (35,137)

0% (24)

0.1% (462)

0% (6)

0.2% (626)

 Ukraine

Wilno

195,071

65.9% (128,628)

24.4% (47,523)

3.6% (7,073)

0.3% (561)

0.1% (213)

0.9% (1,737)

3.8% (7,372)

0.8% (1,579)

0.2% (385)

 Lithuania

Stanisławów

59,960

43.7% (26,187)

34.4% (20,651)

3.8% (2,293)

2.2% (1,332)

15.6% (9,357)

0% (3)

0.1% (50)

0% (1)

0.1% (86)

 Ukraine

Grodno

49,669

47.2% (23,458)

39.7% (19,717)

2.4% (1,214)

0.2% (99)

0.2% (83)

2.5% (1,261)

7.5% (3,730)

0% (22)

0.2% (85)

 Belarus

Brześć

48,385

42.6% (20,595)

39.3% (19,032)

4.7% (2,283)

0% (24)

0.8% (393)

7.1% (3,434)

5.3% (2,575)

0% (1)

0.1% (48)

 Belarus

Borysław

41,496

55.3% (22,967)

24.4% (10,139)

1% (399)

0.5% (209)

18.5% (7,686)

0% (4)

0.1% (37)

0% (2)

0.1% (53)

 Ukraine

Równe

40,612

27.5% (11,173)

50.8% (20,635)

4.7% (1,922)

0.8% (327)

7.9% (3,194)

0.1% (58)

6.9% (2,792)

0% (4)

1.2% (507)

 Ukraine

Tarnopol

35,644

77.7% (27,712)

11.6% (4,130)

2.4% (872)

0% (14)

8.1% (2,896)

0% (2)

0% (6)

0% (0)

0% (12)

 Ukraine

Łuck

35,554

31.9% (11,326)

46.3% (16,477)

2.2% (790)

2.3% (813)

9.3% (3,305)

0.1% (36)

6.4% (2,284)

0% (1)

1.5% (522)

 Ukraine

Kołomyja

33,788

65% (21,969)

19.3% (6,506)

0.9% (292)

3.6% (1,220)

11.1% (3,742)

0% (0)

0% (6)

0% (2)

0.2% (51)

 Ukraine

Drohobycz

32,261

58.4% (18,840)

23.5% (7,589)

1.2% (398)

0.4% (120)

16.3% (5,243)

0% (13)

0.1% (21)

0% (0)

0.1% (37)

 Ukraine

Pińsk

31,912

23% (7,346)

50.3% (16,053)

12.9% (4,128)

0.1% (45)

0.3% (82)

4.3% (1,373)

9% (2,866)

0% (2)

0.1% (17)

 Belarus

Stryj

30,491

42.3% (12,897)

28.5% (8,691)

2.9% (870)

1.6% (501)

24.6% (7,510)

0% (0)

0% (10)

0% (0)

0% (12)

 Ukraine

Kowel

27,677

37.2% (10,295)

39.1% (10,821)

7.1% (1,965)

0.2% (50)

9% (2,489)

0.1% (27)

7.1% (1,954)

0% (1)

0.3% (75)

 Ukraine

Włodzimierz

24,591

39.1% (9,616)

35.1% (8,623)

8.1% (1,988)

0.6% (138)

14% (3,446)

0.1% (18)

2.9% (724)

0% (0)

0.2% (38)

 Ukraine

Baranowicze

22,818

42.8% (9,758)

38.4% (8,754)

2.9% (669)

0.1% (25)

0.2% (50)

11.1% (2,537)

4.4% (1,006)

0% (1)

0.1% (18)

 Belarus

Sambor

21,923

61.9% (13,575)

22.5% (4,942)

1.7% (383)

0.1% (28)

13.2% (2,902)

0% (4)

0% (4)

0% (0)

0.4% (85)

 Ukraine

Krzemieniec

19,877

15.6% (3,108)

34.7% (6,904)

1.7% (341)

0.1% (23)

42.4% (8,430)

0% (6)

4.4% (883)

0% (2)

0.9% (180)

 Ukraine

Lida

19,326

63.3% (12,239)

24.6% (4,760)

8% (1,540)

0% (5)

0.1% (28)

2.1% (414)

1.7% (328)

0% (2)

0.1% (10)

 Belarus

Czortków

19,038

55.2% (10,504)

22.4% (4,274)

3.1% (586)

0.1% (11)

19.1% (3,633)

0% (0)

0.1% (17)

0% (0)

0.1% (13)

 Ukraine

Brody

17,905

44.9% (8,031)

34% (6,085)

1% (181)

0.2% (37)

19.8% (3,548)

0% (5)

0.1% (9)

0% (0)

0.1% (9)

 Ukraine

Słonim

16,251

52% (8,452)

36.5% (5,927)

4.7% (756)

0.1% (9)

0.3% (45)

4% (656)

2.3% (369)

0% (2)

0.2% (35)

 Belarus

Poles
Poles
east of the Curzon
Curzon
Line after expulsion[edit] Despite the expulsion of most of ethnic Poles
Poles
from the Soviet Union between 1944 and 1958, the Soviet census of 1959 still counted around 1.5 million ethnic Poles
Poles
remaining in the USSR:

Republic of the USSR

Ethnic Poles
Poles
in 1959 census

Belarusian SSR

538,881

Ukrainian SSR

363,297

Lithuanian SSR

230,107

Latvian SSR

59,774

Estonian SSR

2,256

rest of the USSR

185,967

TOTAL

1,380,282

According to a more recent census, there were about 295,000 Poles
Poles
in Belarus
Belarus
in 2009 (3.1% of the Belarus
Belarus
population).[41]

Ethnicity west of the Curzon
Curzon
Line until 1939[edit] Main article: Zakerzonia According to Piotr Eberhardt, back in year 1939 the population of all territories between the Oder-Neisse Line and the Curzon
Curzon
Line - so all territories which formed post-1945 Poland
Poland
- amounted to 32,337,800 inhabitants, of whom around 2/3 were ethnic Poles, around 1/4 ethnic Germans, 7% Jews
Jews
(2,254,300), while the total number of Ukrainians
Ukrainians
to the west of the Curzon
Curzon
Line was 657,500 (2%); there were also 140,900 Belarusians and 47,000 people of all other ethnic groups.[42] Much of the Ukrainian population was forcibly resettled after World War II to Soviet Ukraine
Ukraine
or scattered in the new Polish Recovered Territories of Silesia, Pomerania, Lubusz Land, Warmia
Warmia
and Masuria
Masuria
in a military operation called Operation Vistula.

See also[edit] Lewis Bernstein Namier Oder–Neisse line Molotov Line Spa Conference of 1920 I Saw Poland
Poland
Betrayed by Arthur Bliss Lane Territorial changes of Poland
Poland
immediately after World War II Zakerzonia 1893 Afghanistan’s Durand Line 1914 India–China McMahon Line 1947 India–Pakistan Radcliffe Line Footnotes[edit]

^ Eberhardt, Piotr (2012). "The Curzon
Curzon
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^ Eberhardt, Piotr (2000). "Przemieszczenia ludności na terytorium Polski spowodowane II wojną światową" (PDF). Dokumentacja Geograficzna (in Polish with English summary). Warsaw. 15: 75–76 – via Repozytorium Cyfrowe Instytutów Naukowych.CS1 maint: Unrecognized language (link)

Notes[edit]

^ Polish sources estimated, based on the percentage of votes for Polish parties in the 1923 Lithuanian parliamentary election, that the real number of ethnic Poles
Poles
in interwar Lithuania
Lithuania
in 1923 was 202,026.

References[edit] Borsody, Stephen. 1993. The New Central Europe. New York: Boulder, Chapter 10: "Europe's Coming Partition". ISBN 0-88033-263-8 Nabrdalik, Bart. April 2006. Hidden Europe-Bieszczady, Poland. Escape from America Magazine. Vol. 8, Issue 3 Rogowska, Anna. Stępień, Stanisław (in Polish) Polish-Ukrainian Border in the Last Half of the Century. ( Curzon
Curzon
line from the historical perspective) Wróbel, Piotr. 2000. The devil's playground: Poland
Poland
in World War II. The Wanda Muszynski lecture in Polish studies. Montreal, Quebec: Canadian Foundation for Polish Studies of the Polish Institute of Arts & Sciences. Byrnes, James F. Speaking Frankly. New York: Harper and Brothers Publishers, 1947, pp. 25–32. From the memoirs of James F. Byrnes, on the Yalta Conference. Churchill, Winston S. Closing the ring. 2nd ed. Tome 5. London: The Reprint Society Ltd, 1954, pp. 283–285; 314-317. From the memoirs of Winston Churchill. Churchill, Winston S. Triumph and Tragedy. 2nd ed. Tome 6. London: The Reprint Society Ltd, 1956, pp. 288–292. From the memoirs of Winston Churchill, on the Yalta Conference. Crimea Conference, in Parliamentary Debates. 1944-45, No. 408; fifth series, pp. 1274–1284. Winston Churchill's statement to the House of Commons of the United Kingdom, 27 February 1945, describing the outcome of the Yalta Conference. Further reading[edit] Bohdan, Kordan (1997). "Making Borders Stick: Population Transfer and Resettlement in the Trans- Curzon
Curzon
Territories, 1944–1949". International Migration Review. 31 (3): 704–720. JSTOR 2547293. Rusin B., Lewis Namier, the Curzon
Curzon
Line, and the shaping of Poland’s eastern frontier after World War I External links[edit] Slavic

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