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The Curculionidae
Curculionidae
are the family of the "true" weevils (or "snout beetles"). They are one of the largest animal families, with 5,489 genera and 82,741[1] species described worldwide. They include the bark beetles as subfamily Scolytinae, which are modified[unreliable source?] in shape in accordance with their wood-boring lifestyle. They do not much resemble other weevils, so they were traditionally considered a distinct family, Scolytidae. The family also includes the ambrosia beetles, of which the present-day subfamily Platypodinae
Platypodinae
was formerly considered the distinct family Platypodidae.

Contents

1 Description 2 Phylogeny
Phylogeny
and systematics 3 See also 4 References 5 External links

Description[edit] They are recognized by their distinctive long snouts and geniculate antennae with small clubs; beyond that, curculionids have considerable diversity of form and size, with adult lengths ranging from 1 to 40 mm (0.04 to 1.57 in). Weevils are almost entirely plant feeders, and most species are associated with a narrow range of hosts, in many cases only living on a single species. With so many species to classify and over 400 genera, the taxonomy of this family is quite complicated, and authors disagree on the number and placement of various subfamilies, tribes, and subtribes. Phylogeny
Phylogeny
and systematics[edit] The phylogeny of the group is complex; with so many species, a spirited debate exists about the relationships between subfamilies and genera. A 1997 analysis attempted to construct a phylogeny based mainly on larval characteristics.[2] Recent work on the phylogenetic relationships in weevils mentions the two subfamily groups Adelognatha (short-nosed weevils, subfamily Entiminae) and Phanerognatha (long-nosed weevils, subfamilies of Curculionidae
Curculionidae
other than Entiminae) for the species of Curculionidae.[3] Almost two dozen subfamilies are recognized by some authors even when merging those that are certainly invalid. Others, however, recognize a lesser number – the only subfamilies that are almost universally considered valid are the Baridinae, Cossoninae, Curculioninae, Cyclominae, Entiminae, Molytinae, Platypodinae, and Scolytinae. The various proposed taxonomic schemes typically recognize as many additional subfamilies again, but little agreement is seen between authorities about which. In particular, the delimitation of the Molytinae
Molytinae
has proven difficult.

Compound of a Cyrtotrachelus
Cyrtotrachelus
in acryl

The subfamilies considered valid by at least some authors today:

Bagoinae
Bagoinae
(sometimes in Molytinae) Baridinae Brachycerinae
Brachycerinae
(disputed) Conoderinae
Conoderinae
(sometimes in Baridinae) Cossoninae Cryptorhynchinae
Cryptorhynchinae
(sometimes in Curculioninae)

Play media

Cionus tuberculosus (Curculioninae)

Acalles

Curculioninae – flower weevils, acorn and nut weevils Cyclominae Dryophthorinae (disputed) Entiminae
Entiminae
– broad-nosed weevils Hyperinae
Hyperinae
(sometimes in Molytinae) Lixinae
Lixinae
(sometimes in Molytinae) Mesoptiliinae (sometimes in Molytinae) Molytinae Orobitidinae (sometimes in Baridinae) Platypodinae
Platypodinae
– typical ambrosia beetles Raymondionyminae (sometimes in Brachycerinae) Scolytinae
Scolytinae
– bark beetles Xiphaspidinae (sometimes in Baridinae)

See also[edit]

Insects portal Arthropods portal

Black vine weevil Boll weevil Pecan weevil Wheat weevil Hylobius Pests and diseases of roses

References[edit]

^ https://www.gbif.org/species/4239 ^ Adriana E. Marvaldi (1997). "Higher level phylogeny of Curculionidae (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea) based mainly on larval characters, with special reference to broad-nosed weevils" (PDF). Cladistics. 13 (4): 285–312. doi:10.1111/j.1096-0031.1997.tb00321.x.  ^ François Lieutier, Keith R. Day, Andrea Battisti, Jean-Claude Grégoire, and Hugh F. Evans, Bark and Wood Boring Insects in Living Trees in Europe, a Synthesis. Springer Science & Business Media, 2004

External links[edit]

Media related to Curculionidae
Curculionidae
at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Curculionidae
Curculionidae
at Wikispecies Images of Curculionidae
Curculionidae
species found in New Zealand

On the University of Florida
University of Florida
/ Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences Featured Creatures website:

Anthonomus eugenii, pepper weevil Cylas formicarius, sweetpotato weevil Chalcodermus aeneus, cowpea curculio Cosmopolites sordidus, banana root borer Eudociminus mannerheimii, cypress weevil Eurhinus magnificus Gerstaeckeria spp. Metamasius callizona, Mexican bromeliad weevil Metamasius hemipterus sericeus, silky cane weevil, Metamasius mosieri, Florida bromeliad weevil Naupactus (=Graphognathus) spp., whitefringed beetles Oxyops vitiosa, melaleuca weevil Pantomorus cervinus, Fuller rose weevil Pseudocneorhinus bifasciatus, twobanded Japanese weevil Rhynchophorus cruentatus, palmetto weevil Sphenophorus venatus, hunting billbug

Other University web pages on economically important curculids:

Conotrachelus nenuphar, plum curculio from the Ohio State University Orchestes pallicornis, apple flea weevil from Michigan State University

v t e

Extant Coleoptera families

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Arthropoda Class: Insecta Subclass: Pterygota Infraclass: Neoptera Superorder: Endopterygota

Suborder Archostemata

Crowsoniellidae (Crowsoniella relicta) Cupedidae
Cupedidae
(reticulated beetles) Jurodidae (Sikhotealinia zhiltzovae) Micromalthidae (telephone-pole beetle) Ommatidae

Suborder Adephaga

Extant families

Amphizoidae (trout-stream beetles) Aspidytidae Carabidae (ground beetles) Dytiscidae
Dytiscidae
(predaceous diving beetles) Gyrinidae (whirligig beetles) Haliplidae
Haliplidae
(crawling water beetles) Hygrobiidae Meruidae (Meru phyllisae) Noteridae
Noteridae
(burrowing water beetles) Rhysodidae
Rhysodidae
(wrinkled bark beetles) Trachypachidae
Trachypachidae
(false ground beetles)

Suborder Myxophaga

Hydroscaphidae
Hydroscaphidae
(skiff beetles) Lepiceridae Sphaeriusidae Torridincolidae

Suborder Polyphaga

Bostrichiformia

Bostrichoidea

Anobiidae
Anobiidae
(furniture beetles, death watch beetles, spider beetles) Bostrichidae
Bostrichidae
(auger beetles) Dermestidae
Dermestidae
(skin beetles) Jacobsoniidae
Jacobsoniidae
(Jacobson's beetles) Nosodendridae
Nosodendridae
(wounded-tree beetles)

Derodontoidea

Derodontidae
Derodontidae
(tooth-necked fungus beetles)

Cucujiformia

Chrysomeloidea

Cerambycidae (longhorn beetles) Chrysomelidae (leaf beetles) Disteniidae Megalopodidae Orsodacnidae Oxypeltidae Vesperidae

Cleroidea

Acanthocnemidae (Acanthocnemus nigricans) Chaetosomatidae Cleridae
Cleridae
(checkered beetles) Melyridae
Melyridae
(soft-wing flower beetles) Phloiophilidae (Phloiophilus edwardsi) Phycosecidae Prionoceridae Trogossitidae
Trogossitidae
(bark-gnawing beetles)

Cucujoidea

Alexiidae Biphyllidae
Biphyllidae
(false skin beetles) Boganiidae Bothrideridae
Bothrideridae
(dry bark beetles) Byturidae
Byturidae
(fruitworm beetles) Cavognathidae Cerylonidae
Cerylonidae
(minute bark beetles) Coccinellidae
Coccinellidae
(lady beetles, or God's cows) Corylophidae
Corylophidae
(minute fungus beetles) Cryptophagidae
Cryptophagidae
(silken fungus beetles) Cucujidae
Cucujidae
(flat bark beetles) Cyclaxyridae Discolomatidae Endomychidae
Endomychidae
(handsome fungus beetles) Erotylidae
Erotylidae
(pleasing fungus beetles) Helotidae Hobartiidae Kateretidae
Kateretidae
(short-winged flower beetles) Laemophloeidae
Laemophloeidae
(lined flat bark beetles) Lamingtoniidae (Lamingtonium binnaberrense) Latridiidae
Latridiidae
(minute brown scavenger beetles) Monotomidae (root-eating beetles) Myraboliidae Nitidulidae (sap beetles) Passandridae
Passandridae
(parasitic flat bark beetles) Phalacridae
Phalacridae
(shining flower beetles) Phloeostichidae Propalticidae Protocucujidae Silvanidae
Silvanidae
(silvanid flat bark beetles) Smicripidae (palmetto beetles) Sphindidae
Sphindidae
(dry-fungus beetles)

Curculionoidea (weevils)

Anthribidae
Anthribidae
(fungus weevils) Attelabidae
Attelabidae
(leaf-rolling weevils) Belidae
Belidae
(primitive weevils) Brentidae
Brentidae
(straight snout weevils, New York weevil) Caridae Curculionidae
Curculionidae
(true weevils, bark beetles, ambrosia beetles) Nemonychidae
Nemonychidae
(pine flower weevils)

Lymexyloidea

Lymexylidae
Lymexylidae
(ship-timber beetles)

Tenebrionoidea

Aderidae
Aderidae
(ant-like leaf beetles) Anthicidae
Anthicidae
(ant-like flower beetles) Archeocrypticidae (cryptic fungus beetles) Boridae
Boridae
(conifer bark beetles) Chalcodryidae Ciidae
Ciidae
(minute tree-fungus beetles) Melandryidae
Melandryidae
(false darkling beetles) Meloidae (blister beetles) Mordellidae
Mordellidae
(tumbling flower beetles) Mycetophagidae
Mycetophagidae
(hairy fungus beetles) Mycteridae (palm and flower beetles) Oedemeridae
Oedemeridae
(false blister beetle) Perimylopidae, or Promecheilidae Prostomidae
Prostomidae
(jugular-horned beetles) Pterogeniidae Pyrochroidae (fire-coloured beetles) Pythidae
Pythidae
(dead log bark beetles) Ripiphoridae
Ripiphoridae
(wedge-shaped beetles) Salpingidae
Salpingidae
(narrow-waisted bark beetles) Scraptiidae
Scraptiidae
(false flower beetles) Stenotrachelidae
Stenotrachelidae
(false longhorn beetles) Synchroidae
Synchroidae
(synchroa bark beetles) Tenebrionidae (darkling beetles) Tetratomidae (polypore fungus beetles) Trachelostenidae Trictenotomidae Ulodidae Zopheridae
Zopheridae
(ironclad beetles, cylindrical bark beetles)

Elateriformia

Buprestoidea

Buprestidae
Buprestidae
(jewel beetles, or metallic wood-boring beetles) Schizopodidae

Byrrhoidea

Byrrhidae
Byrrhidae
(pill beetles) Callirhipidae (cedar beetles) Chelonariidae (turtle beetles) Cneoglossidae Dryopidae
Dryopidae
(long-toed water beetles) Elmidae
Elmidae
(riffle beetles) Eulichadidae (forest stream beetles) Heteroceridae
Heteroceridae
(variegated mud-loving beetles) Limnichidae (minute mud beetles) Lutrochidae (travertine beetles) Psephenidae (water-penny beetles) Ptilodactylidae

Dascilloidea

Dascillidae (soft bodied plant beetles) Rhipiceridae
Rhipiceridae
(cicada beetle, cicada parasite beetles)

Elateroidea

Anischiidae Artematopodidae
Artematopodidae
(soft-bodied plant beetles) Brachypsectridae (Texas beetles) Cantharidae (soldier beetles) Cerophytidae (rare click beetles) Drilidae Elateridae (click beetles) Eucnemidae
Eucnemidae
(false click beetles) Lampyridae (fireflies) Lycidae
Lycidae
(net-winged beetles) Omalisidae Omethidae
Omethidae
(false fireflies) Phengodidae
Phengodidae
(glowworm beetles, long-lipped beetles) Plastoceridae (Plastocerus angulosus) Podabrocephalidae Rhagophthalmidae Rhinorhipidae (Rhinorhipus tamborinensis) Throscidae (false metallic wood-boring beetles)

Scirtoidea

Clambidae Decliniidae (Declinia relicta) Eucinetidae
Eucinetidae
(plate-thigh beetles) Scirtidae

Scarabaeiformia

Scarabaeoidea

Belohinidae ( Belohina inexpectata) Bolboceratidae Ceratocanthidae Diphyllostomatidae (false stag beetles) Geotrupidae
Geotrupidae
(dor beetles) Glaphyridae
Glaphyridae
(bumble bee scarab beetles) Glaresidae (enigmatic scarab beetles) Hybosoridae
Hybosoridae
(scavenger scarab beetles) Lucanidae (stag beetles) Ochodaeidae
Ochodaeidae
(sand-loving scarab beetles) Passalidae
Passalidae
(betsy beetles) Pleocomidae (rain beetles) Scarabaeidae
Scarabaeidae
(scarabs) Trogidae
Trogidae
(hide beetles)

Staphyliniformia

Histeroidea

Histeridae
Histeridae
(clown beetles) Sphaeritidae (false clown beetles) Synteliidae

Hydrophiloidea

Epimetopidae Georissidae (minute mud-loving beetles) Helophoridae Hydrochidae Hydrophilidae
Hydrophilidae
(water scavenger beetles) Spercheidae

Staphylinoidea

Agyrtidae
Agyrtidae
(primitive carrion beetles) Hydraenidae Leiodidae
Leiodidae
(round fungus beetles) Ptiliidae
Ptiliidae
(feather-winged beetles) Scydmaenidae
Scydmaenidae
(ant-like stone beetles) Silphidae
Silphidae
(carrion beetles) Staphylinidae (rove beetles)

List of subgroups of the order Coleoptera

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q7415384 ADW: Curculionidae BugGuide: 139 EoL: 5240 EPPO: 1CURCF Fauna Europaea: 11185 Fossilworks: 69436 GBIF: 4239 ITIS: 114666 NCBI:

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