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The CURCULIONIDAE are the family of the "true" weevils (or "snout beetles"). They are one of the largest animal families, with 5,489 genera and 86,100 species described worldwide.

They also include the bark beetles as subfamily Scolytinae
Scolytinae
, which are modified in shape in accordance with their wood-boring lifestyle. They do not much resemble other weevils, so they were traditionally considered a distinct family, Scolytidae. The family also includes the ambrosia beetles , of which the present-day subfamily Platypodinae was formerly considered the distinct family Platypodidae.

CONTENTS

* 1 Description * 2 Phylogeny
Phylogeny
and systematics * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links

DESCRIPTION

They are recognized by their distinctive long snouts and geniculate antennae with small clubs; beyond that, curculionids have considerable diversity of form and size, with adult lengths ranging from 1 to 40 mm (0.04 to 1.57 in).

Weevils are almost entirely plant feeders, and most species are associated with a narrow range of hosts, in many cases only living on a single species. With so many species to classify and over 400 genera, the taxonomy of this family is quite complicated, and authors disagree on the number and placement of various subfamilies, tribes, and subtribes.

PHYLOGENY AND SYSTEMATICS

The phylogeny of the group is complex; with so many species, a spirited debate exists about the relationships between subfamilies and genera. A 1997 analysis attempted to construct a phylogeny based mainly on larval characteristics.

Recent work on the phylogenetic relationships in weevils mentions the two subfamily groups ADELOGNATHA (short-nosed weevils, subfamily Entiminae ) and PHANEROGNATHA (long-nosed weevils, subfamilies of Curculionidae
Curculionidae
other than Entiminae) for the species of Curculionidae.

Almost two dozen subfamilies are recognized by some authors even when merging those that are certainly invalid. Others, however, recognize a lesser number – the only subfamilies that are almost universally considered valid are the Baridinae , Cossoninae , Curculioninae , Cyclominae , Entiminae , Molytinae
Molytinae
, Platypodinae , and Scolytinae
Scolytinae
. The various proposed taxonomic schemes typically recognize as many additional subfamilies again, but little agreement is seen between authorities about which. In particular, the delimitation of the Molytinae
Molytinae
has proven difficult. Compound of a Cyrtotrachelus in acryl

The subfamilies considered valid by at least some authors today:

* Bagoinae (sometimes in Molytinae) * Baridinae * Brachycerinae (disputed) * Conoderinae (sometimes in Baridinae) * Cossoninae

* Cryptorhynchinae (sometimes in Curculioninae) Play media Cionus tuberculosus ( Curculioninae )

* Acalles

* Curculioninae – flower weevils, acorn and nut weevils * Cyclominae * Dryophthorinae (disputed) * Entiminae – broad-nosed weevils * Hyperinae (sometimes in Molytinae) * Lixinae
Lixinae
(sometimes in Molytinae) * Mesoptiliinae (sometimes in Molytinae) * Molytinae
Molytinae
* Orobitidinae (sometimes in Baridinae) * Platypodinae – typical ambrosia beetles * Raymondionyminae (sometimes in Brachycerinae) * Scolytinae
Scolytinae
– bark beetles * Xiphaspidinae (sometimes in Baridinae)

SEE ALSO

* Insects portal * Arthropods portal

* Black vine weevil * Boll weevil
Boll weevil
* Pecan weevil * Wheat weevil * Hylobius * Pests and diseases of roses

REFERENCES

* ^ http://www.gbif.org/species/116196879 * ^ Adriana E. Marvaldi (1997). "Higher level phylogeny of Curculionidae
Curculionidae
(Coleoptera: Curculionoidea) based mainly on larval characters, with special reference to broad-nosed weevils" (PDF ). Cladistics . 13 (4): 285–312. doi :10.1111/j.1096-0031.1997.tb00321.x . * ^ François Lieutier, Keith R. Day, Andrea Battisti, Jean-Claude Grégoire, and Hugh F. Evans, Bark and Wood Boring Insects in Living Trees in Europe, a Synthesis. Springer Science ;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;">v

* t * e

Extant Coleoptera families

* Kingdom: Animalia * Phylum: Arthropoda * Class: Insecta * Subclass: Pterygota
Pterygota
* Infraclass: Neoptera
Neoptera
* Superorder: Endopterygota
Endopterygota

SUBORDER ARCHOSTEMATA

* Crowsoniellidae (Crowsoniella relicta) * Cupedidae (reticulated beetles) * Jurodidae (Sikhotealinia zhiltzovae) * Micromalthidae (telephone-pole beetle) * Ommatidae

SUBORDER ADEPHAGA

EXTANT FAMILIES

* Amphizoidae (trout-stream beetles) * Aspidytidae
Aspidytidae
* Carabidae (ground beetles) * Dytiscidae
Dytiscidae
(predaceous diving beetles) * Gyrinidae (whirligig beetles) * Haliplidae
Haliplidae
(crawling water beetles) * Hygrobiidae * Meruidae (Meru phyllisae) * Noteridae
Noteridae
(burrowing water beetles) * Rhysodidae
Rhysodidae
(wrinkled bark beetles) * Trachypachidae
Trachypachidae
(false ground beetles)

SUBORDER MYXOPHAGA

* Hydroscaphidae
Hydroscaphidae
(skiff beetles) * Lepiceridae * Sphaeriusidae * Torridincolidae

SUBORDER POLYPHAGA

BOSTRICHIFORMIA

BOSTRICHOIDEA

* Anobiidae (furniture beetles, death watch beetles, spider beetles)

* Bostrichidae (auger beetles) * Dermestidae (skin beetles) * Jacobsoniidae (Jacobson\'s beetles) * Nosodendridae (wounded-tree beetles)

DERODONTOIDEA

* Derodontidae (tooth-necked fungus beetles)

CUCUJIFORMIA

CHRYSOMELOIDEA

* Cerambycidae (longhorn beetles) * Chrysomelidae (leaf beetles) * Disteniidae * Megalopodidae * Orsodacnidae * Oxypeltidae * Vesperidae

CLEROIDEA

* Acanthocnemidae (Acanthocnemus nigricans) * Chaetosomatidae * Cleridae
Cleridae
(checkered beetles) * Melyridae
Melyridae
(soft-wing flower beetles) * Phloiophilidae (Phloiophilus edwardsi) * Phycosecidae
Phycosecidae
* Prionoceridae
Prionoceridae
* Trogossitidae
Trogossitidae
(bark-gnawing beetles)

CUCUJOIDEA

* Alexiidae * Biphyllidae
Biphyllidae
(false skin beetles) * Boganiidae * Bothrideridae
Bothrideridae
(dry bark beetles) * Byturidae (fruitworm beetles) * Cavognathidae * Cerylonidae (minute bark beetles) * Coccinellidae
Coccinellidae
(lady beetles, or God\'s cows) * Corylophidae (minute fungus beetles) * Cryptophagidae (silken fungus beetles) * Cucujidae
Cucujidae
(flat bark beetles) * Cyclaxyridae * Discolomatidae * Endomychidae (handsome fungus beetles) * Erotylidae
Erotylidae
(pleasing fungus beetles) * Helotidae * Hobartiidae * Kateretidae (short-winged flower beetles) * Laemophloeidae (lined flat bark beetles) * Lamingtoniidae (Lamingtonium binnaberrense) * Latridiidae (minute brown scavenger beetles) * Monotomidae (root-eating beetles) * Myraboliidae * Nitidulidae (sap beetles) * Passandridae
Passandridae
(parasitic flat bark beetles) * Phalacridae
Phalacridae
(shining flower beetles) * Phloeostichidae * Propalticidae * Protocucujidae * Silvanidae (silvanid flat bark beetles) * Smicripidae (palmetto beetles) * Sphindidae (dry-fungus beetles)

Curculionoidea
Curculionoidea
(weevils)

* Anthribidae
Anthribidae
(fungus weevils) * Attelabidae (leaf-rolling weevils) * Belidae (primitive weevils) * Brentidae
Brentidae
(straight snout weevils, New York weevil) * Caridae * Curculionidae
Curculionidae
(true weevils, bark beetles, ambrosia beetles) * Nemonychidae (pine flower weevils)

LYMEXYLOIDEA

* Lymexylidae
Lymexylidae
(ship-timber beetles)

TENEBRIONOIDEA

* Aderidae
Aderidae
(ant-like leaf beetles) * Anthicidae
Anthicidae
(ant-like flower beetles) * Archeocrypticidae (cryptic fungus beetles) * Boridae (conifer bark beetles) * Chalcodryidae
Chalcodryidae
* Ciidae (minute tree-fungus beetles) * Melandryidae (false darkling beetles) * Meloidae (blister beetles) * Mordellidae
Mordellidae
(tumbling flower beetles) * Mycetophagidae (hairy fungus beetles) * Mycteridae (palm and flower beetles) * Oedemeridae (false blister beetle) * Perimylopidae, or Promecheilidae * Prostomidae (jugular-horned beetles) * Pterogeniidae * Pyrochroidae (fire-coloured beetles) * Pythidae (dead log bark beetles) * Ripiphoridae (wedge-shaped beetles) * Salpingidae
Salpingidae
(narrow-waisted bark beetles) * Scraptiidae (false flower beetles) * Stenotrachelidae (false longhorn beetles) * Synchroidae
Synchroidae
(synchroa bark beetles) * Tenebrionidae (darkling beetles) * Tetratomidae (polypore fungus beetles) * Trachelostenidae * Trictenotomidae * Ulodidae * Zopheridae (ironclad beetles, cylindrical bark beetles)

ELATERIFORMIA

BUPRESTOIDEA

* Buprestidae
Buprestidae
(jewel beetles, or metallic wood-boring beetles) * Schizopodidae

BYRRHOIDEA

* Byrrhidae (pill beetles) * Callirhipidae (cedar beetles) * Chelonariidae (turtle beetles) * Cneoglossidae * Dryopidae (long-toed water beetles) * Elmidae (riffle beetles) * Eulichadidae (forest stream beetles) * Heteroceridae (variegated mud-loving beetles) * Limnichidae (minute mud beetles) * Lutrochidae (travertine beetles) * Psephenidae (water-penny beetles) * Ptilodactylidae

DASCILLOIDEA

* Dascillidae (soft bodied plant beetles) * Rhipiceridae (cicada beetle, cicada parasite beetles)

ELATEROIDEA

* Anischiidae * Artematopodidae (soft-bodied plant beetles) * Brachypsectridae (Texas beetles) * Cantharidae (soldier beetles) * Cerophytidae (rare click beetles) * Drilidae * Elateridae (click beetles) * Eucnemidae (false click beetles) * Lampyridae (fireflies) * Lycidae (net-winged beetles) * Omalisidae * Omethidae (false fireflies) * Phengodidae
Phengodidae
(glowworm beetles, long-lipped beetles) * Plastoceridae (Plastocerus angulosus) * Podabrocephalidae * Rhagophthalmidae * Rhinorhipidae (Rhinorhipus tamborinensis) * Throscidae (false metallic wood-boring beetles)

SCIRTOIDEA

* Clambidae * Decliniidae (Declinia relicta) * Eucinetidae (plate-thigh beetles) * Scirtidae
Scirtidae

SCARABAEIFORMIA

SCARABAEOIDEA

* Belohinidae ( Belohina inexpectata) * Bolboceratidae * Ceratocanthidae * Diphyllostomatidae (false stag beetles) * Geotrupidae (dor beetles) * Glaphyridae (bumble bee scarab beetles) * Glaresidae (enigmatic scarab beetles) * Hybosoridae (scavenger scarab beetles) * Lucanidae (stag beetles) * Ochodaeidae (sand-loving scarab beetles) * Passalidae
Passalidae
(betsy beetles) * Pleocomidae (rain beetles) * Scarabaeidae
Scarabaeidae
(scarabs) * Trogidae
Trogidae
(hide beetles)

STAPHYLINIFORMIA

HISTEROIDEA

* Histeridae (clown beetles) * Sphaeritidae (false clown beetles) * Synteliidae

HYDROPHILOIDEA

* Epimetopidae * Georissidae (minute mud-loving beetles) * Helophoridae * Hydrochidae * Hydrophilidae (water scavenger beetles) * Spercheidae

STAPHYLINOIDEA

* Agyrtidae (primitive carrion beetles) * Hydraenidae * Leiodidae (round fungus beetles) * Ptiliidae (feather-winged beetles) * Scydmaenidae (ant-like stone beetles) * Silphidae
Silphidae
(carrion beetles) * Staphylinidae (rove beetles)

List of subgroups of the order Co

.