Cucurbitaceae
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The Cucurbitaceae, also called cucurbits or the gourd family, are a
plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to Energy transformation, convert light energy into chemical energy that, through cellular respiration, can later be released to fuel ...

plant
family In , family (from la, familia) is a of people related either by (by recognized birth) or (by marriage or other relationship). The purpose of families is to maintain the well-being of its members and of society. Ideally, families would off ...
consisting of about 965 species in around 95
genera Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie such classification. The term may also ref ...
, of which the most important to humans are: *''
Cucurbita ''Cucurbita'' (Latin for gourd) is a genus of Herbaceous plant, herbaceous vegetables in the gourd family (biology), family, Cucurbitaceae (also known as ''cucurbits'' or ''cucurbi'') native to the Andes and Mesoamerica. Five species are grown w ...

Cucurbita
'' –
squash Squash may refer to: Sports * Squash (sport), the high-speed racquet sport also known as squash racquets * Squash (professional wrestling), an extremely one-sided match in professional wrestling * Squash tennis, a game similar to squash racquets ...
,
pumpkin A pumpkin is a cultivar of winter squash that is round with smooth, slightly ribbed skin, and is most often deep yellow to orange in coloration. The thick shell contains the seeds and pulp. The name is most commonly used for cultivars of ''Cucu ...

pumpkin
,
zucchini The zucchini (; plural: zucchini or zucchinis), courgette (; plural: courgettes) or baby marrow (''Cucurbita pepo'') is a summer squash, a Herbaceous plant, herbaceous vine whose fruit are harvested when their immature seeds and Fruit anatomy#Epic ...

zucchini
, some
gourd Gourds include the fruits of some flowering plant The flowering plants, also known as Angiospermae (), or Magnoliophyta (), are the most diverse group of Embryophyte, land plants, with 64 Order(biology), orders, 416 Family (biology), families, ...

gourd
s *''
Lagenaria ''Lagenaria'' is a genus of gourd-bearing vines in the squash family (Cucurbitaceae). ''Lagenaria'' contains six species, all of which are indigenous to tropical Africa.calabash Calabash (''Lagenaria siceraria''), also known as bottle gourd, white-flowered gourd, long melon, birdhouse gourd, New Guinea bean and Tasmania bean, is a vine grown for its fruit. It can be either harvested young to be consumed as a vegetable, ...
, and others that are inedible *''
Citrullus ''Citrullus'' is a genus Genus (plural genera) is a taxonomic rank Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie such classification. The term may also refer to ...
'' –
watermelon Watermelon (''Citrullus lanatus'') is a flowering plant Flowering plants include multiple members of the clade Angiospermae (), commonly called angiosperms. The term "angiosperm" is derived from the Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Any ...

watermelon
(''C. lanatus'', ''C. colocynthis'') and others *''
Cucumis ''Cucumis'' is a genus of twining, tendril-bearing plants in the family In human society, family (from la, familia) is a group of people related either by consanguinity (by recognized birth) or affinity (by marriage or other relationsh ...
'' –
cucumber Cucumber (''Cucumis sativus'') is a widely-cultivated creeping vine plant in the '' Cucurbitaceae'' gourd family that bears cucumiform fruits In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science Scien ...

cucumber
(''C. sativus''), various
melon Image:Cantaloupe and canary melon.jpg, Canary melon and cantaloupe A melon is any of various plants of the family Cucurbitaceae with sweet, edible, and fleshy fruit. The word "melon" can refer to either the plant or specifically to the fruit. Bo ...

melon
*''
Momordica ''Momordica'' is a genus of about 60 species of annual or perennial climbers herbaceous Herbaceous plants are vascular plants that have no persistent woody stems above ground, including many perennials, and nearly all annuals and biennial B ...

Momordica
'' –
bitter melon ''Momordica charantia'' (colloquially: bitter melon; bitter apple; bitter gourd; bitter squash; balsam-pear; with many more #Alternative names, names listed below) is a tropical and subtropical vine of the family Cucurbitaceae, widely grown in A ...

bitter melon
*''
Luffa ''Luffa'' is a genus of tropical and subtropical vine A vine (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Ro ...

Luffa
'' – the common name is also luffa, sometimes spelled loofah (when fully ripened, two species of this fibrous
fruit In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term "botany" comes from the ...

fruit
are the source of the loofah scrubbing sponge) The plants in this family are grown around the tropics and in temperate areas, where those with edible fruits were among the earliest cultivated plants in both the Old and New Worlds. The family Cucurbitaceae ranks among the highest of plant families for number and percentage of species used as human food. The name ''Cucurbitaceae'' comes to
international scientific vocabulary International scientific vocabulary (ISV) comprises scientific and specialized words whose language of origin may or may not be certain, but which are in current use in several modern languages (that is, translingually). The name "international sci ...
from
New Latin New Latin (also called Neo-Latin or modern Latin) is the revival of Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area arou ...
, from ''
Cucurbita ''Cucurbita'' (Latin for gourd) is a genus of Herbaceous plant, herbaceous vegetables in the gourd family (biology), family, Cucurbitaceae (also known as ''cucurbits'' or ''cucurbi'') native to the Andes and Mesoamerica. Five species are grown w ...

Cucurbita
'', the
type genus In biological taxonomy the type genus is the genus Genus (plural genera) is a taxonomic rank Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie such classification. T ...
, + '' -aceae'', a standardized
suffix In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional areas of linguistic analysis include ...
for plant family names in modern taxonomy. The genus name comes from the
Classical Latin Classical Latin is the form of Latin, Latin language recognized as a Literary language, literary standard language, standard by writers of the late Roman Republic and early Roman Empire. It was used from 75 BC to the 3rd century AD, when it deve ...
word ''
cucurbita ''Cucurbita'' (Latin for gourd) is a genus of Herbaceous plant, herbaceous vegetables in the gourd family (biology), family, Cucurbitaceae (also known as ''cucurbits'' or ''cucurbi'') native to the Andes and Mesoamerica. Five species are grown w ...

cucurbita
'', "gourd".


Description

Most of the plants in this family are
annual Annual may refer to: *Annual publication, periodical publications appearing regularly once per year **Yearbook **Literary annual *Annual plant *Annual report *Annual giving *Annual, Morocco, a settlement in northeastern Morocco *Annuals (band), a ...
vine A vine (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Repub ...

vine
s, but some are woody
liana A liana is a long-Plant stem, stemmed, Woody plant, woody vine that is rooted in the soil at ground level and uses trees, as well as other means of vertical support, to climb up to the Canopy (biology), canopy in search of direct sunlight. Li ...

liana
s, thorny shrubs, or trees ('' Dendrosicyos''). Many species have large, yellow or white flowers. The stems are hairy and pentangular.
Tendril upA curling tendril In botany, a tendril is a specialized Plant stem, stem, leaf or Petiole (botany), petiole with a threadlike shape used by climbing plants for support and attachment, as well as cellular invasion by parasitic plants such as '' ...

Tendril
s are present at 90° to the leaf petioles at nodes. Leaves are exstipulate, alternate, simple
palmately
palmately
lobed or palmately compound. The flowers are
unisexual In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mechanisms, ...
, with male and female flowers on different plants (
dioecious Dioecy (; Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as o ...
) or on the same plant (
monoecious Monoecy (; adjective form: monoecious ) is a sexual system in seed plants The spermatophytes (; ), also known as phanerogams (taxon Phanerogamae) or phaenogams (taxon Phaenogamae), comprise those plant Plants are predominantly photosynthet ...

monoecious
). The female flowers have inferior ovaries. The fruit is often a kind of modified
berry A berry is a small, pulpy, and often edible fruit In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering. Fruits are the means by which angiosperms dissem ...
called a pepo.


Fossil history

One of the oldest
fossil A fossil (from Classical Latin Classical Latin is the form of Latin language Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the a ...

fossil
cucurbits so far is †''Cucurbitaciphyllum lobatum'' from the
Paleocene The Paleocene, ( ) or Palaeocene, is a geological epoch (geology), epoch that lasted from about 66 to 56 mya (unit), million years ago (mya). It is the first epoch of the Paleogene Period (geology), Period in the modern Cenozoic Era (geology), Er ...
epoch, found at Shirley Canal,
Montana Montana () is a U.S. state, state in the Mountain states, Mountain West region of the United States. It is bordered by Idaho to the west; North Dakota and South Dakota to the east; Wyoming to the south; and by the Provinces and territories ...

Montana
. It was described for the first time in 1924 by the paleobotanist
Frank Hall Knowlton
Frank Hall Knowlton
. The fossil leaf is
palmate The following is a list of terms which are used to describe leaf A leaf (plural leaves) is the principal lateral appendage of the vascular plant plant stem, stem, usually borne above ground and specialized for photosynthesis. The leaves, ...
, trilobed with rounded lobal sinuses and an entire or
serrate Serration is a saw-like appearance or a row of sharp or tooth-like projections. A serrated cutting edge has many small points of contact with the material being cut. By having less contact area than a smooth blade or other edge, the applied pres ...
margin. It has a leaf pattern similar to the members of the genera ''Kedrostis'', ''Melothria'' and ''Zehneria''.


Classification


Tribal classification

The most recent classification of Cucurbitaceae delineates 15 Tribe (biology), tribes: * Tribe Gomphogyneae Benth. & Hook.f. ** ''Alsomitra'' (Blume) Spach (1 sp.) ** ''Bayabusua'' (1 sp.) ** ''Gomphogyne'' Griff. (2 spp.) ** ''Gynostemma'' Blume (10 spp.) ** ''Hemsleya'' Cogn. ex F.B.Forbes & Hemsl. (30 spp.) ** ''Neoalsomitra'' Hutch. (12 spp.) * Tribe Triceratieae A.Rich. ** ''Anisosperma'' Silva Manso (1 sp.) ** ''Cyclantheropsis'' Harms (3 spp.) ** ''Fevillea'' L. (8 spp.) ** ''Pteropepon'' (Cogn.) Cogn. (5 spp.) ** ''Sicydium (plant), Sicydium'' Schltdl. (7 spp.) * Tribe Zanonieae Benth. & Hook.f. ** ''Gerrardanthus'' Harvey in Hook.f. (3–5 spp.) ** ''Siolmatra'' Baill. (1 sp.) ** ''Xerosicyos'' Humbert (5 spp.) ** ''Zanonia'' L. (1 sp.) * Tribe Actinostemmateae H.Schaef. & S.S.Renner ** ''Actinostemma'' Griff. (3 spp.) * Tribe Indofevilleeae H.Schaef. & S.S.Renner ** ''Indofevillea'' Debabarta Chatterjee, Chatterjee (2 sp.) * Tribe Thladiantheae H.Schaef. & S.S.Renner ** ''Baijiania'' A.M.Lu & J.Q.Li (30 spp.) ** ''Thladiantha'' Bunge 1833 (5 spp.) * Tribe Siraitieae H. Schaef. & S.S. Renner ** ''Siraitia'' Merr. (3–4 spp.) * Tribe Momordiceae H.Schaef. & S.S.Renner ** ''
Momordica ''Momordica'' is a genus of about 60 species of annual or perennial climbers herbaceous Herbaceous plants are vascular plants that have no persistent woody stems above ground, including many perennials, and nearly all annuals and biennial B ...

Momordica
'' L. (60 spp.) * Tribe Joliffieae Schrad. ** ''Ampelosicyos'' Thouars (5 spp.) ** ''Cogniauxia'' Baill. (2 spp.) ** ''Telfairia'' Hook. (3 spp.) * Tribe Bryonieae Dumort. ** ''Austrobryonia'' H.Schaef. (4 spp.) ** ''Bryonia'' L. (10 spp.) ** ''Ecballium'' A.Rich. (1 sp.) * Tribe Schizopeponeae C.Jeffrey ** ''Herpetospermum'' Wall. ex Hook.f. (3 spp.) ** ''Schizopepon'' Maxim. (6–8 spp.) * Tribe Sicyoeae Schrad. ** ''Cyclanthera'' Schrad. (40 spp.) ** ''Echinocystis'' Torr. & A.Gray (1 sp.) ** ''Echinopepon'' Naudin (20 spp., including ''Brandegea'' Cogn.) ** ''Frantzia'' Pittier (5 spp.) ** ''Hanburia (plant), Hanburia'' Seem. (7 spp.) ** ''Hodgsonia'' Hook.f. & Thomson (2 spp.) ** ''Linnaeosicyos'' H.Schaef. & Kocyan (1 sp.) ** ''
Luffa ''Luffa'' is a genus of tropical and subtropical vine A vine (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Ro ...

Luffa
'' Mill. (5–7 spp.) ** ''Marah (plant), Marah'' Kellogg (7 spp.) ** ''Nothoalsomitra'' Hutch. (1 sp.) ** ''Sicyos'' L. (75 spp., including ''Sechium'' P.Browne) ** ''Trichosanthes'' L. (≤100 spp.) * Tribe Coniandreae Endl. ** ''Apodanthera'' Arn. (16 spp.) ** ''Bambekea'' Cogn. (1 sp.) ** ''Ceratosanthes'' Adans. (4 spp.) ** ''Corallocarpus'' Welw. ex Benth. & Hook.f. (17 spp.) ** ''Cucurbitella (plant genus), Cucurbitella'' Walp. (1 sp.) ** '' Dendrosicyos'' Balf.f. (1 sp.) ** ''Doyerea'' Grosourdy (1 sp.) ** ''Eureiandra'' Hook.f. (8 spp.) ** ''Gurania'' (Schltdl.) Cogn. (37 spp.) ** ''Halosicyos'' Mart.Crov (1 sp.) ** ''Helmontia'' Cogn. (2–4 spp.) ** ''Ibervillea'' Greene (9–10 spp.) ** ''Kedrostis'' Medik. (28 spp.) ** ''Melotrianthus'' M.Crovetto (1–3 spp.) ** ''Psiguria'' Neck. ex Arn. (6–12 spp.) ** ''Seyrigia (plant), Seyrigia'' Keraudren (6 spp.) ** ''Trochomeriopsis'' Cogn. (1 sp.) ** ''Tumamoca'' Rose (2 spp.) ** ''Wilbrandia'' Silva Manso (5 spp.) * Tribe Benincaseae Ser. ** ''Acanthosicyos'' Welw. ex Hook.f. (1 sp.) ** ''Benincasa'' Savi (2 spp., including ''Praecitrullus'' Pangalo) ** ''Borneosicyos'' (1–2 spp.) ** ''Cephalopentandra'' Chiov. (1 sp.) ** ''
Citrullus ''Citrullus'' is a genus Genus (plural genera) is a taxonomic rank Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie such classification. The term may also refer to ...
'' Schrad. (4 spp.) ** ''Coccinia'' Wight & Arn. (30 spp.) ** ''Ctenolepis'' Hook. f. 1867 (3 spp.) ** ''
Cucumis ''Cucumis'' is a genus of twining, tendril-bearing plants in the family In human society, family (from la, familia) is a group of people related either by consanguinity (by recognized birth) or affinity (by marriage or other relationsh ...
'' L. (65 spp.) ** ''Dactyliandra'' Hook.f. (2 spp.) ** ''Diplocyclos'' (Endl.) T.Post & Kuntze (4 spp.) ** ''Indomelothria'' (2 spp.) ** ''Khmeriosicyos'' (1 sp.) ** ''
Lagenaria ''Lagenaria'' is a genus of gourd-bearing vines in the squash family (Cucurbitaceae). ''Lagenaria'' contains six species, all of which are indigenous to tropical Africa.Cucurbita ''Cucurbita'' (Latin for gourd) is a genus of Herbaceous plant, herbaceous vegetables in the gourd family (biology), family, Cucurbitaceae (also known as ''cucurbits'' or ''cucurbi'') native to the Andes and Mesoamerica. Five species are grown w ...

Cucurbita
'' L. (15 spp.) ** ''Penelopeia (plant), Penelopeia'' Urb. (2 spp.) ** ''Peponopsis'' Naudin (1 sp.) ** ''Polyclathra'' Bertol. (6 spp.) ** ''Schizocarpum'' Schrad. (11 spp.) ** ''Sicana'' Naudin (4 spp.) ** ''Tecunumania'' Standl. & Steyerm. (1 sp.)


Systematics

Modern molecular phylogenetics suggest the following relationships: {, class="collapsible collapsed" style="width:100%; border:solid 1px #aaa" , - ! style="background:#F0F2F5" , Detailed Cladogram showing Cucurbitaceae phylogeny , - , {{Clade, style=line-height:90%;font-size:90%; , label1=Cucurbitaceae , 1={{clade , 1={{clade , label1=Gomphogyneae , 1={{clade , 1=''Alsomitra'' , 2={{clade , 1=''Bayabusua'' , 2={{clade , 1={{clade , 1=''Hemsleya'' , 2=''Gomphogyne'' , 2={{clade , 1=''Gynostemma'' , 2=''Neoalsomitra'' , 2={{clade , 1={{clade , label1=Triceratieae , 1={{clade , 1=''Fevillea'' , 2={{clade , 1=''Pteropepon'' , 2={{clade , 1=''Cyclantheropsis'' , 2=''Sicydium (plant), Sicydium'' , label2=Zanonieae , 2={{clade , 1=''Gerrardanthus'' , 2={{clade , 1={{clade , 1=''Zanonia'' , 2=''Siolmatra'' , 2=''Xerosicyos'' , 2={{clade , 1={{clade , label1=Actinostemmateae , 1=''Actinostemma'' , 2={{clade , 1={{clade , label1=Indofevilleeae , 1=''Indofevillea'' , 2={{clade , 1={{clade , label1=Thladiantheae , 1={{clade , 1=''Baijiania'' , 2=''Thladiantha'' , 2={{clade , 1={{clade , label1=Siraitieae , 1=''Siraitia'' , 2={{clade , 1={{clade , label1=Momordiceae , 1=''
Momordica ''Momordica'' is a genus of about 60 species of annual or perennial climbers herbaceous Herbaceous plants are vascular plants that have no persistent woody stems above ground, including many perennials, and nearly all annuals and biennial B ...

Momordica
'' , 2={{clade , 1={{clade , label1=Joliffieae , 1={{clade , 1=''Cogniauxia'' , 2={{clade , 1=''Telfairia'' , 2=''Ampelosicyos'' , 2={{clade , 1={{clade , label1=Bryonieae , 1={{clade , 1={{clade , 1=''Ecballium'' , 2=''Bryonia'' , 2=''Austrobryonia'' , 2={{clade , 1={{clade , label1=Sicyoeae , 1={{clade , 1={{clade , 1=''Nothoalsomitra'' , 2={{clade , 1=''Hodgsonia'' , 2={{clade , 1={{clade , 1=''Echinocystis'' , 2=''Marah (plant), Marah'' , 2={{clade , 1={{clade , 1=''Echinopepon'' , 2=''Frantzia'' , 2={{clade , 1=''Cyclanthera'' , 2=''Hanburia (plant), Hanburia'' , 3=''Sicyos'' , 2={{clade , 1=''Linnaeosicyos'' , 2={{clade , 1=''
Luffa ''Luffa'' is a genus of tropical and subtropical vine A vine (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Ro ...

Luffa
'' , 2=''Trichosanthes'' , 2={{clade , label1=Schizopeponeae , 1={{clade , 1=''Schizopepon'' , 2=''Herpetospermum'' , 3={{clade , 1={{clade , label1=Coniandreae , 1=CONIANDREAE , 2={{clade , label1=Cucurbiteae , 1=CUCURBITEAE , label2=Benincaseae , 2=BENINCASEAE , targetA=CONIANDREAE , subcladeA={{clade , 1={{clade , 1=''Bambekea'' , 2=''Eureiandra'' , 2={{clade , 1='' Dendrosicyos'' , 2={{clade , 1={{clade , 1=''Trochomeriopsis'' , 2=''Seyrigia (plant), Seyrigia'' , 2={{clade , 1=''Corallocarpus'' , 2={{clade , 1=''Cucurbitella'' , 2={{clade , 1={{clade , 1=''Doyerea'' , 2={{clade , 1=''Wilbrandia'' , 2={{clade , 1=''Psiguria'' , 2={{clade , 1=''Helmontia'' , 2=''Gurania'' , 2=''Melotrianthus'' , 3={{clade , 1=''Kedrostis'' , 2={{clade , 1={{clade , 1={{clade , 1=''Ceratosanthes'' , 2=''Halosicyos'' , 2=''Apodanthera'' , 2={{clade , 1=''Tumamoca'' , 2=''Ibervillea'' , targetB=CUCURBITEAE , subcladeB={{clade , 1={{clade , 1=''Polyclathra'' , 2={{clade , 1=''Peponopsis'' , 2=''
Cucurbita ''Cucurbita'' (Latin for gourd) is a genus of Herbaceous plant, herbaceous vegetables in the gourd family (biology), family, Cucurbitaceae (also known as ''cucurbits'' or ''cucurbi'') native to the Andes and Mesoamerica. Five species are grown w ...

Cucurbita
'' , 2={{clade , 1={{clade , 1=''Penelopeia (plant), Penelopeia'' , 2=''Calycophysum'' , 3=''Sicana'' , 2={{clade , 1=''Tecunumania'' , 2={{clade , 1=''Schizocarpum'' , 2={{clade , 1=''Cionosicys'' , 2={{clade , 1=''Abobra'' , 2=''Cayaponia'' , targetC=BENINCASEAE , subcladeC={{clade , 1=''Zehneria'' , 2={{clade , 1={{clade , 1={{clade , 1=''
Citrullus ''Citrullus'' is a genus Genus (plural genera) is a taxonomic rank Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie such classification. The term may also refer to ...
'' , 2={{clade , 1=''Peponium'' , 2=''
Lagenaria ''Lagenaria'' is a genus of gourd-bearing vines in the squash family (Cucurbitaceae). ''Lagenaria'' contains six species, all of which are indigenous to tropical Africa.Cucumis ''Cucumis'' is a genus of twining, tendril-bearing plants in the family In human society, family (from la, familia) is a group of people related either by consanguinity (by recognized birth) or affinity (by marriage or other relationsh ...
'' {{anchor, Pests, Diseases


Pests and diseases

Sweet potato whitefly is the vector of a number of cucurbit viruses that cause yellowing symptoms throughout the southern United States.{{cite journal , title=Whitefly-Transmitted Yellowing Viruses of Cucurbit Crops , publisher=American Phytopathological Society , date=2020-08-28 , doi=10.1094/grow-cuc-08-20-006 , first=William M. , last=Wintermantel


References

{{Reflist


Further reading

* {{cite book , veditors=Bates D, Robinson R, Jeffrey C , year=1990 , title=Biology and Utilization of the Cucurbitaceae , publisher=Cornell University Press , isbn=978-0-8014-1670-5 * {{cite journal , author=Jeffrey C. , year=2005 , title=A new system of Cucurbitaceae , journal=Bot. Zhurn. , volume=90 , pages=332–335


External links


Cucurbitaceae
i



i
L. Watson and M.J. Dallwitz (1992 onwards). The families of flowering plants: descriptions, illustrations, identification, information retrieval.
https://web.archive.org/web/20070103200438/http://delta-intkey.com/ {{Angiosperm families {{Taxonbar, from=Q8314 {{Authority control Cucurbitaceae, Rosid families Extant Danian first appearances Taxa named by Antoine Laurent de Jussieu Taxa described in 1789