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(i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

Coordinates : 22°00′N 80°00′W / 22.000°N 80.000°W / 22.000; -80.000

Republic of Cuba República de Cuba
Cuba
(Spanish )

Flag Coat of arms

MOTTO: "¡Patria o Muerte, Venceremos!" (Spanish) "Homeland or Death, we shall overcome!"

ANTHEM: La Bayamesa
La Bayamesa
Bayamo Song

Location of Cuba
Cuba
(green)

Capital and largest city Havana
Havana
23°8′N 82°23′W / 23.133°N 82.383°W / 23.133; -82.383

OFFICIAL LANGUAGES Spanish

ETHNIC GROUPS (2012 )

* 64.1% White * 26.6% Mulatto
Mulatto
, Mestizo
Mestizo
, Zambo
Zambo
, or Pardo * 9.3% Black

DEMONYM Cuban

GOVERNMENT Unitary Marxist–Leninist one-party socialist republic

• PRESIDENT Raúl Castro

• FIRST VICE PRESIDENT Miguel Díaz-Canel

• PRESIDENT OF THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY Esteban Lazo Hernández

LEGISLATURE National Assembly of People\'s Power

INDEPENDENCE

• DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE 10 October 1868

• WAR OF INDEPENDENCE 24 February 1895

• RECOGNIZED (HANDED OVER FROM SPAIN TO THE UNITED STATES) 10 December 1898

• REPUBLIC DECLARED (INDEPENDENCE FROM UNITED STATES ) 20 May 1902

• CUBAN REVOLUTION 26 July 1953 – 1 January 1959

• CURRENT CONSTITUTION 24 February 1976

AREA

• TOTAL 109,884 km2 (42,426 sq mi) (104th )

• WATER (%) 0.94

POPULATION

• 2016 CENSUS 11,239,224 (81st )

• DENSITY 102.3/km2 (265.0/sq mi) (106th )

GDP
GDP
(PPP ) 2015 estimate

• TOTAL US$
US$
254.865 billion

• PER CAPITA US$
US$
22,237 (2015)

GDP
GDP
(NOMINAL) 2016 estimate

• TOTAL US$
US$
89.689 billion (65th )

• PER CAPITA US$
US$
7,815 (77th )

GINI (2000) 38.0 medium

HDI (2015) 0.775 high · 68th

CURRENCY

* Peso (CUP ) * Convertible peso a

(CUC )

TIME ZONE CST (UTC −5)

• SUMMER (DST ) CDT (UTC −4)

DRIVES ON THE right

CALLING CODE +53

ISO 3166 CODE CU

INTERNET TLD .cu

WEBSITE www.cubagob .cu

* From 1993 to 2004, the United States
United States
dollar was used alongside the peso until the dollar was replaced by the convertible peso.

CUBA (/ˈkjuːbə/ ; Spanish pronunciation: ), officially the REPUBLIC OF CUBA (Spanish : República de Cuba
Cuba
(help ·info )), is a country comprising the island of Cuba
Cuba
as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos . Cuba
Cuba
is located in the northern Caribbean
Caribbean
where the Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea , the Gulf of Mexico , and the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
meet. It is south of both the U.S. state of Florida
Florida
and the Bahamas
Bahamas
, west of Haiti
Haiti
, and north of Jamaica
Jamaica
. Havana
Havana
is the largest city and capital; other major cities include Santiago de Cuba and Camagüey
Camagüey
. Cuba
Cuba
is the largest island in the Caribbean, with an area of 109,884 square kilometres (42,426 sq mi), and the second-most populous after Hispaniola
Hispaniola
, with over 11 million inhabitants.

The territory of Cuba
Cuba
was inhabited by the Ciboney tribes in the 4th millennium BC . Until the 15th century, it was inhabited by Amerindian
Amerindian
tribes which became a colony of Spain
Spain
until the Spanish–American War
Spanish–American War
of 1898, when Cuba
Cuba
gained nominal independence as a de facto United States
United States
protectorate in 1902. As a fragile republic, Cuba
Cuba
attempted to strengthen its democratic system , but mounting political radicalization and social strife culminated in the dictatorship of Fulgencio Batista
Fulgencio Batista
in 1952. Further unrest and instability led to Batista\'s ousting in January 1959 by the July 26 Movement , which afterwards established communist rule under the leadership of Fidel Castro
Fidel Castro
. Since 1965, the state has been governed by the Communist Party of Cuba . A point of contention during the Cold War
Cold War
between the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and the United States, a nuclear war nearly broke out during the Cuban Missile Crisis
Cuban Missile Crisis
of 1962. Cuba
Cuba
is one of the few remaining Marxist–Leninist socialist states , where the role of the vanguard Communist Party is enshrined in the Constitution . Independent observers have accused the Cuban government of numerous human rights abuses, including arbitrary imprisonment .

Culturally, Cuba
Cuba
is considered part of Latin America
Latin America
. It is a multiethnic country whose people , culture and customs derive from diverse origins, including the aboriginal Taíno
Taíno
and Ciboney peoples, the long period of Spanish colonialism , the introduction of African slaves , and a close relationship with the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in the Cold War .

Cuba
Cuba
is a founding member of the UN , G77 , NAM , ACP , ALBA
ALBA
, and OAS . The country is one of the world's only planned economies and its economy is dominated by the exports of sugar, tobacco, coffee and skilled labor. According to the Human Development Index
Human Development Index
, Cuba
Cuba
has high human development and is ranked the eighth highest in North America, though 67th in the world. It also ranks highly in some metrics of national performance, including health care and education .

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology

* 2 History

* 2.1 Pre-Columbian era * 2.2 Spanish colonization and rule (1492–1898) * 2.3 Independence
Independence
movements

* 2.4 Republic (1902–59)

* 2.4.1 First years (1902–1925) * 2.4.2 Revolution of 1933–1940 * 2.4.3 Constitution of 1940

* 2.5 Revolution and Communist party rule (1959–present)

* 3 Government and politics

* 3.1 Administrative divisions * 3.2 Human rights
Human rights
* 3.3 Foreign relations * 3.4 Crime and law enforcement * 3.5 Military

* 4 Economy

* 4.1 Resources * 4.2 Tourism

* 5 Geography

* 5.1 Climate * 5.2 Biodiversity

* 6 Demographics

* 6.1 Ethnoracial groups * 6.2 Immigration and emigration * 6.3 Religion * 6.4 Languages * 6.5 Largest cities

* 7 Media

* 7.1 Press * 7.2 Television * 7.3 Internet

* 8 Culture

* 8.1 Music * 8.2 Cuisine * 8.3 Literature * 8.4 Dance * 8.5 Sports

* 9 Education * 10 Health * 11 See also * 12 References * 13 Bibliography * 14 External links

ETYMOLOGY

Historians believe the name Cuba
Cuba
comes from the Taíno language , however "its exact derivation unknown". The exact meaning of the name is unclear but it may be translated either as 'where fertile land is abundant' (cubao), or 'great place' (coabana). Authors who believe that Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
was Portuguese state that Cuba
Cuba
was named by Columbus for the town of Cuba
Cuba
in the district of Beja in Portugal
Portugal
.

HISTORY

Main articles: History of Cuba and Timeline of Cuban history

PRE-COLUMBIAN ERA

Monument of Hatuey , an early Taíno
Taíno
chief of Cuba
Cuba

Before the arrival of the Spanish, Cuba
Cuba
was inhabited by three distinct tribes of indigenous peoples of the Americas . The Taíno
Taíno
(an Arawak
Arawak
people), the Guanajatabey , and the Ciboney people .

The ancestors of the Ciboney migrated from the mainland of South America, with the earliest sites dated to 5,000 BP .

The Taíno
Taíno
arrived from Hispanola sometime in the 3rd century A.D. When Columbus arrived they were the dominant culture in Cuba, having an estimated population of 150,000.

The Taíno
Taíno
were farmers, while the Ciboney were farmers as well as fishers and hunter-gatherers .

SPANISH COLONIZATION AND RULE (1492–1898)

Main article: Captaincy General of Cuba

After first landing on an island then called Guanahani
Guanahani
, Bahamas
Bahamas
, on 12 October 1492, Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
commanded his three ships: La Pinta , La Niña
Niña
and the Santa María , to land on Cuba's northeastern coast on 28 October 1492. (This was near what is now Bariay, Holguín Province .) Columbus claimed the island for the new Kingdom of Spain
Spain
and named it Isla Juana after Juan, Prince of Asturias . Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar , conquistador of Cuba
Cuba

In 1511, the first Spanish settlement was founded by Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar at Baracoa
Baracoa
. Other towns soon followed, including San Cristobal de la Habana , founded in 1515, which later became the capital. The native Taíno
Taíno
were forced to work under the encomienda system, which resembled a feudal system in Medieval Europe. Within a century the indigenous people were virtually wiped out due to multiple factors, primarily Eurasian infectious diseases , to which they had no natural resistance (immunity), aggravated by harsh conditions of the repressive colonial subjugation. In 1529, a measles outbreak in Cuba killed two-thirds of those few natives who had previously survived smallpox .

On 18 May 1539, Conquistador
Conquistador
Hernando de Soto
Hernando de Soto
departed from Havana
Havana
at the head of some 600 followers into a vast expedition through the Southeastern United States, starting at La Florida
Florida
, in search of gold, treasure, fame and power. On 1 September 1548, Dr. Gonzalo Perez de Angulo was appointed governor of Cuba. He arrived in Santiago, Cuba
Cuba
on 4 November 1549 and immediately declared the liberty of all natives. He became Cuba's first permanent governor to reside in Havana
Havana
instead of Santiago, and he built Havana's first church made of masonry. After the French took Havana
Havana
in 1555, the governor's son, Francisco de Angulo, went to Mexico. British map of Cuba
Cuba
1680

Cuba
Cuba
developed slowly and, unlike the plantation islands of the Caribbean, had a diversified agriculture. But what was most important was that the colony developed as an urbanized society that primarily supported the Spanish colonial empire. By the mid-18th century, its colonists held 50,000 slaves, compared to 60,000 in Barbados
Barbados
; 300,000 in Virginia
Virginia
, both British colonies; and 450,000 in French Saint-Domingue
Saint-Domingue
, which had large-scale sugar cane plantations. Map of Cuba
Cuba
by Cornelius van Wytfliet in 1597 (National Library of Sweden)

The Seven Years\' War , which erupted in 1754 across three continents, eventually arrived in the Spanish Caribbean. Spain's alliance with the French pitched them into direct conflict with the British, and in 1762 a British expedition of five warships and 4,000 troops set out from Portsmouth
Portsmouth
to capture Cuba. The British arrived on 6 June, and by August had Havana
Havana
under siege . When Havana surrendered, the admiral of the British fleet, George Keppel , the 3rd Earl of Albemarle , entered the city as a conquering new governor and took control of the whole western part of the island. The British immediately opened up trade with their North American and Caribbean colonies, causing a rapid transformation of Cuban society. They imported food, horses and other goods into the city, as well as thousands of slaves from West Africa to work on the under developed sugar plantations. The British invasion and occupation of Havana in 1762

Though Havana, which had become the third-largest city in the Americas, was to enter an era of sustained development and increasing ties with North America
North America
during this period, the British occupation of the city proved short-lived. Pressure from London sugar merchants, fearing a decline in sugar prices, forced negotiations with the Spanish over colonial territories. Less than a year after Britain seized Havana, it signed the Peace of Paris together with France
France
and Spain, ending the Seven Years' War. The treaty gave Britain Florida
Florida
in exchange for Cuba. The French had recommended this to Spain, advising that declining to give up Florida
Florida
could result in Spain
Spain
instead losing Mexico
Mexico
and much of the South American mainland to the British. Many in Britain were disappointed, believing that Florida
Florida
was a poor return for Cuba
Cuba
and Britain\'s other gains in the war .

The real engine for the growth of Cuba's commerce in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century was the Haitian Revolution
Haitian Revolution
. When the enslaved peoples of what had been the Caribbean's richest colony freed themselves through violent revolt, Cuban planters perceived the region's changing circumstances with both a sense of fear and opportunity. They were afraid because of the prospect that slaves might revolt in Cuba, too, and numerous prohibitions during the 1790s on the sale of slaves in Cuba
Cuba
that had previously been slaves in French colonies underscored this anxiety. The planters saw opportunity, however, because they thought that they could exploit the situation by transforming Cuba
Cuba
into the slave society and sugar-producing "pearl of the Antilles" that Haiti
Haiti
had been before the revolution. As the historian Ada Ferrer has written, "At a basic level, liberation in Saint-Domingue
Saint-Domingue
helped entrench its denial in Cuba. As slavery and colonialism collapsed in the French colony, the Spanish island underwent transformations that were almost the mirror image of Haiti's." Estimates suggest that between 1790 and 1820 some 325,000 Africans were imported to Cuba
Cuba
as slaves, which was four times the amount that had arrived between 1760 and 1790. Slaves in Cuba
Cuba
unloading ice from Maine, c. 1832

Although a smaller proportion of the population of Cuba
Cuba
was enslaved, at times slaves arose in revolt. In 1812 the Aponte Slave Rebellion took place but it was suppressed.

The population of Cuba
Cuba
in 1817 was 630,980, of which 291,021 were white, 115,691 free people of color (mixed-race), and 224,268 black slaves. This was a much higher proportion of free blacks to slaves than in Virginia
Virginia
, for instance, or the other Caribbean
Caribbean
islands. Historians such as Swedish Magnus Mõrner, who studied slavery in Latin America, found that manumissions increased when slave economies were in decline, as in 18th-century Cuba
Cuba
and early 19th-century Maryland of the United States.

In part due to Cuban slaves working primarily in urbanized settings, by the 19th century, there had developed the practice of coartacion, or "buying oneself out of slavery", a "uniquely Cuban development", according to historian Herbert S. Klein. Due to a shortage of white labor, blacks dominated urban industries "to such an extent that when whites in large numbers came to Cuba
Cuba
in the middle of the nineteenth century, they were unable to displace Negro workers." A system of diversified agriculture, with small farms and fewer slaves, served to supply the cities with produce and other goods.

In the 1820s, when the rest of Spain's empire in Latin America rebelled and formed independent states, Cuba
Cuba
remained loyal. Its economy was based on serving the empire. By 1860, Cuba
Cuba
had 213,167 free people of color, 39% of its non-white population of 550,000. By contrast, Virginia, with about the same number of blacks, had only 58,042 or 11% who were free; the rest were enslaved. In the antebellum years, Virginia
Virginia
discouraged manumissions after Nat Turner\'s Slave Rebellion of 1831 and strengthened restrictions against free blacks, as did other Southern states. In addition, there was a high demand for slaves, and Virginia
Virginia
planters sold many in the internal domestic slave trade, to be shipped or taken overland to the Deep South
Deep South
, which had greatly expanded its cotton production.

INDEPENDENCE MOVEMENTS

See also: Cuban War of Independence
Independence
Carlos Manuel de Céspedes is known as Father of the Homeland in Cuba, having declared the nation's independence from Spain
Spain
in 1868.

Full independence from Spain
Spain
was the goal of a rebellion in 1868 led by planter Carlos Manuel de Céspedes . De Céspedes, a sugar planter, freed his slaves to fight with him for an independent Cuba. On 27 December 1868, he issued a decree condemning slavery in theory but accepting it in practice and declaring free any slaves whose masters present them for military service. The 1868 rebellion resulted in a prolonged conflict known as the Ten Years\' War . Two thousand Cuban Chinese joined the rebels. Chinese had been imported as indentured laborers. A monument in Havana
Havana
honours the Cuban Chinese who fell in the war.

The United States
United States
declined to recognize the new Cuban government, although many European and Latin American nations did so. In 1878, the Pact of Zanjón ended the conflict, with Spain
Spain
promising greater autonomy to Cuba. In 1879–1880, Cuban patriot Calixto García attempted to start another war known as the Little War but did not receive enough support. Slavery
Slavery
in Cuba
Cuba
was abolished in 1875 but the process was comp

.