Start of Philippine Revolution
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The CRY OF PUGAD LAWIN (Filipino : Sigaw ng Pugad Lawin), alternately
and originally referred to as the CRY OF BALINTAWAK (Filipino : Sigaw
ng Balíntawak, Spanish : Grito de Balíntawak), was the beginning of
Philippine Revolution against the
At the close of August 1896, members of the
Originally the term "CRY" referred to the first clash between the Katipuneros and the Civil Guards (Guardia Civil). The cry could also refer to the tearing up of community tax certificates (cédulas personales) in defiance of their allegiance to Spain. This was literally accompanied by patriotic shouts.
Because of competing accounts and ambiguity of the place where this event took place, the exact date and place of the Cry is in contention. From 1908 until 1963, the official stance was that the Cry occurred on August 26 in Balintawak. In 1963 the Philippine government declared a shift to August 23 in Pugad Lawin, Quezon City.
* 1 Different dates and places
* 2 Definition of the Cry
* 2.1 First skirmish * 2.2 Tearing of cédulas * 2.3 Formation of an insurgent government * 2.4 Other Cries
* 3 Commemoration * 4 References * 5 Further reading * 6 External links
DIFFERENT DATES AND PLACES
Various accounts give differing dates and places for the Cry. An
officer of the Spanish guardia civil, Lt. Olegario Diaz, stated that
the Cry took place in
Some of the apparent confusion is in part due to the double meanings
of the terms "Balintawak" and "Caloocan" at the turn of the century.
DEFINITION OF THE CRY
The term "Cry" is translated from the Spanish el grito de rebelion (cry of rebellion) or el grito for short. Thus the Grito de Balintawak is comparable to Mexico's Grito de Dolores (1810). However, el grito de rebelion strictly refers to a decision or call to revolt. It does not necessarily connote shouting, unlike the Filipino sigaw.
Up to the late 1920s, the Cry was generally identified with Balintawak. It was commemorated on August 26, considered the anniversary of the first hostile encounter between the Katipuneros and the Guardia Civil. The "first shot" of the Revolution (el primer tiro) was fired at Banlat, Pasong Tamo, then considered a part of Balintawak and now part of Quezon City.
TEARING OF CéDULAS
Not all accounts relate the tearing of cédulas in the last days of August. Of the accounts that do, older ones identify the place where this occurred as Kangkong in Balintawak/Kalookan. Most also give the date of the cédula-tearing as August 26, in close proximity to the first encounter. One Katipunero, Guillermo Masangkay , claimed cédulas were torn more than once – on the 24th as well as the 26th.
For his 1956 book The Revolt of the Masses
Teodoro Agoncillo defined
"the Cry" as the tearing of cedulas, departing from precedent which
had then defined it as the first skirmish of the revolution. His
version was based on the later testimonies of
Pío Valenzuela and
others who claimed the cry took place in Pugad Lawin instead of
Balintawak. Valenzuela's version, through Agoncillo's influence,
became the basis of the current stance of the Philippine government.
In 1963, President
FORMATION OF AN INSURGENT GOVERNMENT
An alternative definition of the Cry as the "birth of the Filipino
nation state" involves the setting up of a national insurgent
government through the
In 1895 Bonifacio, Masangkay,