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The CROWN OF ARAGON (/ˈærəɡən/ ; Aragonese : _Corona d'Aragón_, Catalan : _Corona d'Aragó_, Spanish : _Corona de Aragón_) was a composite monarchy , also nowadays referred to as a confederation of individual polities or kingdoms ruled by one king, with a personal and dynastic union of the Kingdom of Aragon and the County
County
of Barcelona
Barcelona
. At the height of its power in the 14th and 15th centuries, the Crown of Aragon
Crown of Aragon
was a thalassocracy (a state with primarily maritime realms) controlling a large portion of present-day eastern Spain
Spain
, parts of what is now southern France
France
, and a Mediterranean "empire" which included the Balearic Islands , Sicily
Sicily
, Corsica , Sardinia
Sardinia
, Malta
Malta
, Southern Italy
Italy
(from 1442) and parts of Greece (until 1388). The component realms of the Crown were not united politically except at the level of the king, who ruled over each autonomous polity according to its own laws, raising funds under each tax structure, dealing separately with each _Corts_ or _Cortes_. Put in contemporary terms, it has sometimes been considered that the different lands of the Crown of Aragon
Crown of Aragon
(mainly the Kingdom of Aragon, the Principality of Catalonia and the Kingdom of Valencia ) functioned more as a confederation than as a single kingdom. In this sense, the larger Crown of Aragon
Crown of Aragon
must not be confused with one of its constituent parts, the Kingdom of Aragon, from which it takes its name.

In 1469, a new dynastic familial union of the Crown of Aragon
Crown of Aragon
with the Crown of Castile
Crown of Castile
by the Catholic Monarchs
Catholic Monarchs
, joining what contemporaries referred to as "the Spains" led to what would become the Kingdom of Spain
Spain
under King Philip II . The Crown existed until it was abolished by the Nueva Planta decrees issued by King Philip V in 1716 as a consequence of the defeat of Archduke Charles (as Charles III of Aragon) in the War of the Spanish Succession
War of the Spanish Succession
.

CONTENTS

* 1 Context

* 2 History

* 2.1 Origin * 2.2 Expansion * 2.3 Union with Castile * 2.4 Dissolution * 2.5 Nationalist revisionism

* 3 Pennon * 4 Institutions * 5 Capital * 6 Composition * 7 See also * 8 Notes

* 9 References

* 9.1 Bibliography

* 10 External links

CONTEXT

Formally, the political center of the Crown of Aragon
Crown of Aragon
was Zaragoza
Zaragoza
, where kings were crowned at La Seo Cathedral . The 'de facto' capital and leading cultural, administrative and economic centre of the Crown of Aragon was Barcelona
Barcelona
followed by Valencia
Valencia
. Finally, Palma (Majorca ) was an additional important city and seaport .

The Crown of Aragon
Crown of Aragon
eventually included the Kingdom of Aragon , the Principality of Catalonia (until the 12th century as County
County
of Barcelona
Barcelona
), the Kingdom of Valencia , the Kingdom of Majorca
Majorca
, the Kingdom of Sicily
Sicily
, Malta
Malta
, the Kingdom of Naples and Kingdom of Sardinia
Sardinia
. For brief periods the Crown of Aragon
Crown of Aragon
also controlled Montpellier , Provence
Provence
, Corsica , and the twin Duchy of Athens and Neopatras in Latin Greece
Greece
.

The countries that are today known as Spain
Spain
and Portugal
Portugal
spent the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
after 722 in an intermittent struggle called the _ Reconquista
Reconquista
_. This struggle pitted the northern Christian kingdoms against the Islamic taifa petty kingdoms of the South and against each other.

In the Late Middle Ages, the expansion of the Aragonese Crown southwards met with the Castilian advance eastward in the region of Murcia
Murcia
. Afterward, the Aragonese Crown focused on the Mediterranean, acting as far as Greece
Greece
and Barbary
Barbary
, whereas Portugal, which completed its _Reconquista_ in 1249, would focus on the Atlantic Ocean. Mercenaries from the territories in the Crown, known as _almogàvers _ participated in the creation of this Mediterranean "empire", and later found employment in countries all across southern Europe.

The Crown of Aragon
Crown of Aragon
has been considered by some as an empire which ruled in the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
for hundreds of years, with the power to set rules over the entire sea (for instance, the _Llibre del Consolat del Mar_ or _Book of the Consulate of the Sea _, written in Catalan , is one of the oldest compilation of maritime laws in the world). It was indeed, at its height, one of the major powers in Europe.

However, its different territories were only connected through the person of the monarch, an aspect of empire as early as Achaemenid Persia . A modern historian, Juan de Contreras y Lopez de Ayala, Marqués de Lozoya described the Crown of Aragon
Crown of Aragon
as being more like a confederacy than a centralised kingdom, let alone an empire. Nor did official documents ever refer to it as an empire (_Imperium_ or any cognate word); instead, it was considered a dynastic union of autonomous kingdoms.

HISTORY

ORIGIN

Petronilla of Aragon (1136–1173) and Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Barcelona
Barcelona
(ca. 1131–1162) depicted in a 16th-century painting.

The Aragonese empire originated in 1137, when the Kingdom of Aragon and the County of Barcelona (with the County
County
of Provence
Provence
, Girona , Cerdanya
Cerdanya
, Osona and other territories) merged by dynastic union upon the marriage of Raymond Berenguer IV of Barcelona
Barcelona
and Petronilla of Aragon ; their individual titles combined in the person of their son Alfonso II of Aragon
Alfonso II of Aragon
, who ascended to the throne in 1162. This union respected the existing institutions and parliaments of both territories. Although the County of Barcelona had more wealth (given its position on the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
and strong family ties in Occitania), the combined state was initially known as _Regno, Dominio et Corona Aragonum et Catalonie_, and later as _Corona Regum Aragoniae_, _Corona Aragonum_ or simply _Aragon_. This was due to the total loss of Catalan influence, the renunciation of the family rights of the counts of Barcelona
Barcelona
in Occitania , and the extinction of the House of Aragon and Barcelona
Barcelona
in 1410. Consequently, the monarchs denominated themselves _de Aragon_, and Aragon became prominent as an Iberian kingdom linked to the House of Jiménez which ruled over Navarre
Navarre
(905–1234), Castile, Leon and Galicia (1035–1126) and Aragon (1035–1137).

Petronilla's father King Ramiro, "The Monk" (reigned 1134–1137) who was raised in the Saint Pons de Thomières Monastery, Viscounty of Béziers as a Benedictine
Benedictine
monk was the youngest of three brothers. His brothers Peter I (reigned 1094–1104) and Alfonso I _El Batallador_ (The Battler, reigned 1104–1134) had bravely fought against Castile for hegemony in the Iberian peninsula. After the death of Alfonso I, the Aragonese nobility that campaigned close him feared being overwhelmed by the influence of Castile. And so, Ramiro was forced to leave his monastic life and proclaim himself King of Aragon. He married Agnes, sister of the Duke of Aquitaine and betrothed his only daughter to Raymond Berengar IV of Barcelona
Barcelona
, member of one of the most influential families in Southern Occitania . The wedding agreement provided Raymond Berengar IV the title of _Princeps Aragonum_ and _Dominator Aragonenesis_ (Ruler of the Kingdom and Commander of the Aragonese Military) and kept the title and honors of King of Aragon to Ramiro II.

Raymond Berengar IV, the first ruler of the united dynasty, called himself Count of Barcelona
Barcelona
and "Prince of Aragon".

EXPANSION

Territorial expansion of the Crown of Aragon
Crown of Aragon
between 11th and 14th centuries in the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands. Equestrian heraldic representation of King of Aragon in the "Equestrian armorial of the Golden Fleece" 1433-1435.

Alfonso II inherited two realms and with them, two different expansion processes. The House of Jiménez looked south in a battle against Castile for the control of the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
coast in the Iberian peninsula. The House of Barcelona
Barcelona
looked north to its origins, Occitania , where through family ties it had significant influence, especially in Provence
Provence
and Foix .

Soon, Alfonso II of Aragon
Alfonso II of Aragon
and Barcelona
Barcelona
committed himself to conquer Valencia
Valencia
as the Aragonese nobility demanded. But like his father, he gave priority to the expansion and consolidation of the House of Barcelona's influence in Occitania .

Alfonso II signed the treaties of Cazorla , a multilateral treaty between Navarre
Navarre
, Aragón , León , Portugal
Portugal
, and Castile to redefine the frontiers and zones of expansion of each kingdom. Alfonso II assured Valencia
Valencia
by renouncing the Aragonese rights of annexing Murcia in exchange for securing the Aragonese frontier with Castile. This action should be seen as result of the aforementioned priority given over the Occitan and Catalan dominions of the Crown of Aragon.

From the 9th century, the dukes of Aquitaine , the kings of Navarre
Navarre
, the counts of Foix , the counts of Toulouse
Toulouse
and the counts of Barcelona
Barcelona
were rivals in their attempts at controlling the various _pays _ of Occitania . And the House of Barcelona
Barcelona
succeeded in extending its influence to the area that is now south of France through strong family ties, in the areas of the County
County
of Provence
Provence
, County of Toulouse and County of Foix . The rebellion of the Cathars or Albigensians, who rejected the authority and teachings of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
, led to the loss of these possessions in southern France. Pope Innocent III called upon Phillip II of France
France
to suppress the Albigensians— The Albigensian Crusade , which led to bringing Occitania firmly under the control of the King of France, and the Capetian dynasty from northern France.

Peter II of Aragon and I of Barcelona
Barcelona
returned from the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa in autumn 1212 to find that Simon de Montfort had conquered Toulouse
Toulouse
, exiling the Count Raymond VI of Toulouse
Toulouse
, who was Peter's brother-in-law and vassal. Peter's army crossed the Pyrenees
Pyrenees
and arrived at Muret where they were joined by Raymond of Foix and Raymond of Toulouse's forces, in September 1213 to confront Montfort's army. The Battle of Muret began on 12 September 1213. The Catalan, Aragonese and Occitan forces were disorganised and disintegrated under the assault of Montfort's squadrons. Peter himself was caught in the thick of fighting, and died as a result of a foolhardy act of bravado. Thus, the nobility of Toulouse, Foix and other vassals of the Crown of Aragon
Crown of Aragon
were defeated. The conflict concluded with the Treaty of Meaux-Paris in 1229, in which the Crown of Aragon agreed to renounce its rights over the south of Occitania with the integration of these territories into the dominions of the King of France
France
.

King James I (13th century) returned to an era of expansion to the South, by conquering and incorporating Majorca
Majorca
and a good share of the Kingdom of Valencia into the Crown. With the Treaty of Corbeil (1258) , which was based upon the principle of natural frontiers, the Capetians were recognized as heirs of the Carolingian dynasty , and the Capetian king renounced his feudal overlordship over Catalonia. The general principle was clear, Catalan influence north of the Pyrenees, beyond the Roussillon
Roussillon
, Vallespir , Conflent and Capcir , was to cease. James I had realized that wasting his forces and distracting his energies in attempts to keep a footing in France
France
would only end in disaster. On January 1266, James I besieged and captured Murcia, then settled his own men, mostly Catalans, there; and handed Murcia
Murcia
over to Castile with the treaty of Cazorla .

The Kingdom of Majorca
Majorca
, including the counties of Cerdanya
Cerdanya
and Roussillon- Vallespir and the city of Montpellier , was held independently from 1276 to 1279 by James II of Majorca
Majorca
and as a vassal of the Crown of Aragon
Crown of Aragon
after that date, becoming a full member of the Crown of Aragon
Crown of Aragon
in 1344.

Valencia
Valencia
was finally made a new kingdom with its own institutions and not an extension of Aragón as the Aragonese noblemen had intended since even before the creation of the Crown of Aragon. The Kingdom of Valencia
Valencia
became the third member of the crown together with Aragon and Catalonia. Majorca's legal status was not ranked at the same level of the aforementioned three members.

In 1282, the Sicilians rose up against the second dynasty of the Angevins on the Sicilian Vespers and massacred the garrison soldiers throughout the island. Peter III responded to their call, and landed in Trapani
Trapani
to an enthusiastic welcome five months later. This caused Pope Martin IV
Pope Martin IV
to excommunicate the king, place Sicily
Sicily
under interdiction, and offer the kingdom of Aragon to a son of Philip III of France
France
.

When Peter III refused to impose the _Charters of Aragon_ in Valencia, the nobles and towns united in Zaragoza
Zaragoza
to demand a confirmation of their privileges, which the king had to accept in 1283. Thus began the Union of Aragon , which developed the power of the _Justícia_ to mediate between the king and the Aragonese bourgeois.

When James II of Aragon completed the conquest of the kingdom of Valencia, the Crown of Aragon
Crown of Aragon
established itself as one of the major powers in Europe.

In 1297, to solve the dispute between the Anjevins and the Aragonese over Sicily, Pope Boniface VIII created _ex novo _ a Kingdom of Sardinia
Sardinia
and Corsica and entrusted it as a fief to the Aragonese King James II , ignoring already existing, indigenous states. In 1324, James II finally started to seize the Pisan territories in the former states of Cagliari and Gallura . In 1347 Aragon made war on the Genoese Doria and Malaspina houses, which controlled most of the lands of the former Logudoro state in north-western Sardinia, and added them to its direct domains. The Giudicato of Arborea , the only remaining independent Sardinian state, proved far more difficult to subdue. The rulers of Arborea developed the ambition to unite all of Sardinia under their rule and create a single Sardinian state, and at a certain point (1368–1388, 1392–1409) almost managed to drive the Aragonese out. The war between Arborea and Aragon was fought on and off for more than 100 years; this situation lasted until 1409, when the army of Arborea suffered a heavy defeat by the Aragonese army in the Battle of Sanluri ; the capital Oristano was lost in 1410. After some years during which Arborean rulers failed to organise a successful resurgence, they sold their remaining rights for 100,000 gold florins, and by 1420 the Aragonese Kingdom of Sardinia
Sardinia
finally extended throughout the island. The subduing of Sardinia
Sardinia
having taken a century, Corsica , which had never been wrested from the Genoese, was dropped from the formal title of the Kingdom.

Through the marriage of Peter IV to Maria of Sicily
Sicily
(1381), the Kingdom of Sicily
Sicily
, as well as the duchies of Athens and Neopatria , were finally implemented more fimrly into the Crown. The Greek possessions were permanently lost to Nerio I Acciaioli in 1388 and Sicily
Sicily
was dissociated in the hands of Martin I from 1395 to 1409, but the Kingdom of Naples was added finally in 1442 by the conquest led by Alfonso V .

The King's possessions outside of the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands were ruled by proxy through local elites as petty kingdoms , rather than subjected directly to a centralised government. They were more an economic part of the Crown of Aragon
Crown of Aragon
than a political one.

The fact that the King was keen on settling new kingdoms instead of merely expanding the existing kingdoms was a part of a power struggle that pitted the interests of the king against those of the existing nobility . This process was also under way in most of the European states that successfully effected the transition to the Early Modern state. Thus, the new territories gained from the Moors
Moors
—namely Valencia
Valencia
and Majorca—were usually given _fueros _—Catalan _furs_—as an instrument of self-government in order to limit the power of nobility in these new acquisitions and, at the same time, increase their allegiance to the monarchy itself. The trend in the neighbouring kingdom of Castile was quite similar, both kingdoms giving impetus to the Reconquista
Reconquista
by granting different grades of self-government either to cities or territories, instead of placing the new territories under the direct rule of nobility.

UNION WITH CASTILE

Ferdinand V and Isabella I , King and Queen of Castile and León, and later of Aragon, Valencia, Sicily, and Majorca
Majorca

In 1410, King Martin I died without living descendants or heirs. As a result, by the Pact of Caspe , Ferdinand of Antequera from the Castilian dynasty of Trastámara , received the Crown of Aragon
Crown of Aragon
as Ferdinand I of Aragon .

Later, his grandson King Ferdinand II of Aragon
Ferdinand II of Aragon
recovered the northern Catalan counties— Roussillon
Roussillon
and Cerdagne—which had been lost to France
France
as well as the kingdom of Navarre
Navarre
, which had recently joined the Crown of Aragon
Crown of Aragon
but had been lost after internal dynastic disputes.

In 1469, Ferdinand married Infanta Isabella of Castile , half-sister of King Henry IV of Castile , who became Queen of Castile and León after Henry's death in 1474. Their marriage was a dynastic union which became the constituent event for the dawn of the Kingdom of Spain
Spain
. At that point both the Castile and the Crown of Aragon remained distinct territories, each keeping its own traditional institutions, parliaments and laws. The process of territorial consolidation was completed when King Charles I , known as Emperor Charles V, in 1516 united all the kingdoms on the Iberian peninsula, save the Kingdoms of Portugal
Portugal
and the Algarve, under one monarch—his co-monarch and mother Queen Joanna I in confinement—thereby furthering the creation of the Spanish state, albeit a decentralised one.

DISSOLUTION

The literary evocation of past splendour recalls correctly the great age of the 13th and 14th centuries, when Valencia, Majorca
Majorca
and Sicily were conquered, the population growth could be handled without social conflict, and the urban prosperity, which peaked in 1345, created the institutional and cultural achievements of the Crown. The Aragonese crown's wealth and power stagnated and its authority was steadily transferred to the new Spanish crown after that date—the demographic growth was partially offset by the expulsion of the Jews from Spain (1492), Muslims (1502) and the expulsion of the Moriscos (1609). It was unable to prevent the loss of Roussillon
Roussillon
in 1659, the loss of Minorca and its Italian domains in 1707–1716, and the imposition of French language on Roussillon
Roussillon
(1700) and Castilian as the language of government in all the old Aragonese Crown lands in Spain (1707–1716).

The Crown of Aragon
Crown of Aragon
and its institutions were abolished in 1716 only after the War of the Spanish Succession
War of the Spanish Succession
(1701–1714) by the Nueva Planta decrees , issued by Philip V of Spain
Spain
. The old regime was swept away, the administration was subsumed into the Castilian administration, the lands of the Crown were united formally with those of Castile to legally form a single state, the kingdom of Spain, as it moved towards a centralized government under the new Bourbon dynasty.

NATIONALIST REVISIONISM

Some of the nationalist movements in Spain
Spain
consider the former kingdoms of the Crown of Aragon
Crown of Aragon
to be the foundation of their nations, the Catalan nationalist movement being the most prominent. Spanish nationalism , on the other hand, tends to place more importance on the later dynastic union with the Crown of Castile, considering it the origin of one Spanish nation.

The reprisals inflicted on the territories that had fought against Philip V in the War of Succession is given by some Valencian and Catalan nationalists as an argument against the centralism of Spanish nationalism and in favor of federalism, confederation, or even independence. Some Catalans associated their ancient privileges with their Generalitat
Generalitat
and resistance to Castile. Because restoration of _fueros _ was one of its tenets, Carlism won support in the lands of the Crown of Aragon
Crown of Aragon
during the 19th century.

The Romanticism of the 19th century Catalan Renaixença evoked a "Pyrenean realm" that corresponded more to the vision of 13th century troubadours than to the historical reality of the Crown. This vision survives today as "a nostalgic programme of politicised culture". Thus, the history of the Crown of Aragon
Crown of Aragon
remains a politically loaded topic in modern Spain, especially when it comes to asserting the level of independence enjoyed by constituents of the Crown, like the County
County
of Barcelona, which is sometimes used to justify the level of autonomy (or independence) that should be enjoyed by contemporary Catalonia and other territories.

PENNON

Main article: Coat of arms of the Crown of Aragon Coat of arms of Aragon (Lozenge shaped variant)

The origin of Coat of arms of the Crown of Aragon is the familiar coat of the Counts of Barcelona
Barcelona
and Kings of Aragon . The Pennon was used exclusively by the monarchs of the Crown and was expressive of their sovereignty. James III of Majorca
Majorca
, vassal of the Kingdom of Aragon, used a coat of arms with four bars, as seen on the Leges Palatinae miniatures.

INSTITUTIONS

Aragon, Catalonia and Valencia
Valencia
each had a legislative body, known as the _Cortes_ in Aragon or _Corts_ in Catalonia and Valencia. A _Diputación del General_ or _Diputació del General_ was established in each, becoming known as a _Generalidad_ in Aragon and _Generalitat _ in Catalonia and Valencia.

CAPITAL

During the reign of the house of Barcelona
Barcelona
(from Alfonso II to Martin I ) the _de facto _ capital was Barcelona
Barcelona
, because the kings of this dynasty lived in the city during a long time and it became in the administrative and economic center of the Crown. In the early 15th century the de facto capital was Valencia, until Alfonso V came to the throne. During the 15-16th century the Crown's _de facto _ capital was Naples
Naples
: after Alfonso V of Aragon , also Ferdinand II of Aragon settled the capital in Naples. Alfonso, in particular, wanted to transform Naples
Naples
into a real Mediterranean
Mediterranean
capital, lavishing also huge sums to embellish it further. Later the courts were itinerant until Philip II of Spain
Spain
. The Spanish historian Domingo Buesa Conde has argued that Zaragoza
Zaragoza
ought to be considered the political capital, but not economic or administrative, due to the obligation of the kings to be crowned at the Seo of Zaragoza.

COMPOSITION

The crown was made up of the following states (which are nowadays parts of the modern countries of Spain, France, Italy
Italy
, Greece
Greece
, Malta , and Andorra
Andorra
).

Sort by "Earliest annexion" to see the states in the chronological order they were joined to the crown.

NAME TYPE OF ENTITY NOTES EARLIEST ANNEXION

_ ANDORRA Co-principality Briefly annexed by Aragon in 1396 and again in 1512 1396

ARAGON Kingdom Joined with the County of Barcelona in 1162 to form the Crown 1162

ATHENS Duchy
Duchy
Inherited through the Kingdom of Sicily
Sicily
in 1381; lost in 1388 1381

COUNTY OF BARCELONA , EVENTUALLY FORMED THE PRINCIPALITY OF CATALONIA Principality
Principality
, originally a county Joined with Aragon in 1162 to form the Crown. Between the 12th 14th centuries, it developed common institutions and legislation with the rest of the Catalan Counties, such as the Usages of Barcelona
Barcelona
, the Catalan Courts and the Generalitat
Generalitat
, creating the Principality
Principality
of Catalonia as political entity. 1162

GéVAUDAN County Inherited in 1166 by Alfonso II ; lost in 1307 1166

MAJORCA Kingdom Established in 1231 by James I, including Roussillon
Roussillon
and Montpellier , as part of the Crown 1231

NAPLES Kingdom Successfully wrested by Alfonso V from Capetian rule in 1442; briefly gained independence, contended again by the French King Louis XIII , then reconquered by Spain
Spain
in the Italian War of 1499–1504 ; lost permanently in 1714, after the War of the Spanish Succession
War of the Spanish Succession
1442

NEOPATRIA Duchy Inherited through the Kingdom of Sicily
Sicily
in 1381; lost in 1390 1381

PROVENCE County Inherited with the county of Barcelona
Barcelona
in 1162 1162

SARDINIA Kingdom In 1297 Pope Boniface VIII created ex novo _ this kingdom and entrusted it in fiefdom to the Aragonese King James II , ignoring already existing, indigenous states; Aragonese conquest of the island did not start until 1324 and was completed only by 1420. The kingdom was lost in 1714. 1324

SICILY Kingdom Ruled as an independent kingdom by relatives or cadet members of the House of Aragon from 1282 to 1409; then added permanently to the Crown; lost in 1713 1282

VALENCIA Kingdom Established in 1238, as part of the Crown, following the conquest of the Moorish taifa 1238

SEE ALSO

_ Wikimedia Commons has media related to ANCIENT CROWN OF ARAGON _.

* List of Aragonese monarchs * List of Sicilian monarchs * Prince of Girona

NOTES

* ^ _CORONA D\'ARAGóN_ (Aragonese pronunciation: ) _CORONA D\'ARAGó_ (Eastern Catalan: , Western Catalan: ) _CORONA ARAGONUM_ (Latin pronunciation: _CORONA DE ARAGóN_ (Spanish pronunciation: ) * ^ Domingo J. Buesa Conde, in _El rey de Aragón_ (Zaragoza, CAI, 2000:57–59. ISBN 84-95306-44-1 ) postulates that the Crown of Aragon's political capital of Zaragoza, though it was not the economic one, nor the administrative one, due to the court being itinerative in the 14th century, took its start from the decrees of Peter IV of Aragon establishing his coronation there.: "_Pedro IV parte (...) de la aceptación de la capital del Ebro como "cabeza del Reino". por eso hizo saber a sus súbditos que_ Mandamos que este sacrosanto sacramento de la unción sea recibido de manos del metropolitano en la ciudad de Zaragoza
Zaragoza
_al tiempo que recordaba: "...y como quiera que los reyes de Aragón están obligados a recibir la unción en la ciudad de Zaragoza, que es la cabeza del Reino de Aragón, el cual reino es nuestra principal designación—esto es, apellido—y título, consideramos conveniente y razonable que, del mismo modo, en ella reciban los reyes de Aragón el honor de la coronación y las demás insignias reales, igual que vimos a los emperadores recibir la corona en la ciudad de Roma, cabeza de su imperio._ Zaragoza, antigua capital del reino de Aragón, se ha convertido en la capital política de la Corona (...)_._

REFERENCES

* ^ _A_ _B_ Pablo Fernández Albaladejo (2001). _Los Borbones: dinastía y memoria de nación en la España del siglo XVIII..._, Marcial Pons Historia. * ^ _A_ _B_ Historical Dictionary of the Catalans.Buffery-Marcer.2011 The Crown of Aragon
Crown of Aragon
was a confederation of kingdoms * ^ _A_ _B_ Captives and Their Saviors in the Medieval Crown of Aragon. Rodriguez.2007 The Crown of Aragon
Crown of Aragon
was a confederation of individual polities ruled by one king, the king of Aragon * ^ Henry Kamen, _Empire: how Spain
Spain
became a world power, 1492-1762_, 2002:20. * ^ Marqués de Lozoya, _Historia de España_, Salvat, ed. 1952, vol. II page 60: "_El Reino de Aragon, el Principado de Cataluña, el Reino de Valencia
Valencia
y el Reino de Mallorca, constituyen una confederación de Estados_". * ^ Books.google.it * ^ Thomas N. Bisson, _The Medieval Crown of Aragon: a short history_, 1986, chapter II. The age of the Early Count-Kings (1137–1213) (The Principate of Ramon Berenguer IV 1137–1162), page 31 * ^ Cateura Benàsser, Pau. "Els impostos indirectes en el regne de Mallorca." (PDF). Retrieved 2008-04-24. El Tall dels Temps, 14. (Palma de) Mallorca: El Tall, 1996. ISBN 84-96019-28-4 . 127pp. * ^ Michel Roquebert , _Histoire des Cathares_, 2002, Ed. Perrin, ISBN 2-262-01894-4 . * ^ Stanley G. Payne . "Chapter Five. The Rise of Aragon-Catalonia". _A History of Spain
Spain
and Portugal_. Retrieved 2008-07-02. * ^ Bisson T. N. chapter II. The age of the Early Count-Kings (1137–1213) (Dynastic Policy 1162–1213), page 36 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ H. J. Chaytor. "Chapter 6, James the Conqueror". _A History of Aragon and Catalonia_. Retrieved 2008-04-25. * ^ Bisson 1986:67 * ^ _A_ _B_ Bisson 1986:87–88 * ^ H. J. Chaytor. "7, Pedro III". _A History of Aragon and Catalonia_. Retrieved 2008-05-03. * ^ Not to be confused with James II of Majorca * ^ _A_ _B_ The _ Giudicati _, the city of Sassari , and the Genoese and Pisan local possessions. * ^ Stanley G. Payne . "Chapter Nine, The United Spanish Monarchy". _A History of Spain
Spain
and Portugal_. Retrieved 2008-04-17. * ^ H. J. Chaytor. "Juan II. Union of Aragon with Castile". _A History of Aragon and Catalonia_. Retrieved 2008-04-17. * ^ Richard Herr. "Chapter 3, The Making of Spain". _An historical essay on modern Spain_. Retrieved 2008-04-17. * ^ Bisson T. N. Epilogue, page 188-189 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Bisson T. N. Epilogue, page 189 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Bisson T. N. Epilogue, page 188 * ^ "La web de la Generalitat
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rebautiza la Corona de Aragón como "nación catalana independiente" (in Spanish). * ^ Léon Jéquier. _Actes du II Colloque international d'héraldique_. Breassone 1981. Académie internationale d'héraldique. Les Origines des armoiries. Paris. ISBN 2-86377-030-6 .(in French) * ^ "La bandera de Aragón". Autonomical Government of Aragon. 6 March 1997. Retrieved 2008-04-20. Page on the official flag of Aragon and the origin of the "palos de gules" or "barras de Aragón" (in Spanish) * ^ History books (Donzelli), _Medieval Historic_, Rome 1998, ISBN 88-7989-406-4 * ^ A team of investigators of the UIB directed by Doctor Josep Juan Vidal. "Felipe II, the King that defended Majorca
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but didn\'t want to recognize all its privileges" (PDF) (in Spanish). Servei de Comunicacions de la UIB. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 May 2008. Retrieved 2008-04-17. * ^ Formally including Corsica , which was never conquered or controlled by the Aragonese or the Spanish. * ^ Including Malta