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The CROWN DEPENDENCIES are the Isle of Man
Isle of Man
in the Irish Sea , and the Bailiwicks of Jersey
Jersey
and Guernsey
Guernsey
in the English Channel . They are independently administered jurisdictions, and do not form part of either the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
or the British Overseas Territories
British Overseas Territories
. They are self-governing possessions of the Crown (defined uniquely in each jurisdiction). Internationally, the dependencies are considered "territories for which the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is responsible", rather than sovereign states . As a result, they are not member states of the Commonwealth of Nations
Commonwealth of Nations
. However, they do have relationships with the Commonwealth, the European Union
European Union
, and other international organisations, and are members of the British–Irish Council . They have their own teams in the Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
. They are not part of the European Union
European Union
(EU), although they are within the EU\'s customs area .

As the Crown dependencies
Crown dependencies
are not sovereign states, the power to pass legislation affecting the islands ultimately rests with the government of the United Kingdom. However they each have their own legislative assemblies, with the power to legislate on many local matters with the assent of the Crown (Privy Council , or in the case of the Isle of Man in certain circumstances the Lieutenant-Governor ). In each case, the head of government is referred to as the Chief Minister .

CONTENTS

* 1 Definition

* 2 Channel Islands: Bailiwicks of Jersey
Jersey
and Guernsey
Guernsey

* 2.1 Bailiwick of Guernsey
Guernsey
* 2.2 Bailiwick of Jersey
Jersey

* 3 Isle of Man
Isle of Man

* 4 Relationship with the British Crown

* 4.1 Bailiwicks of Guernsey
Guernsey
and Jersey
Jersey
* 4.2 Isle of Man
Isle of Man

* 5 Relationship with the UK * 6 Relationship with the Commonwealth of Nations
Commonwealth of Nations

* 7 Relationship with the EU

* 7.1 Brexit

* 8 See also * 9 References * 10 External links

DEFINITION

"The Crown" is defined differently in each Crown Dependency. In Jersey, statements in the 21st century of the constitutional position by the Law Officers of the Crown define it as the "Crown in right of Jersey", with all Crown land in the Bailiwick of Jersey
Jersey
belonging to the Crown in right of Jersey
Jersey
and not to the Crown Estate of the United Kingdom. Legislation of the Isle of Man
Isle of Man
defines the "Crown in right of the Isle of Man" as being separate from the "Crown in right of the United Kingdom". In Guernsey, legislation refers to the "Crown in right of the Bailiwick", and the Law Officers of the Crown of Guernsey
Guernsey
submitted that " The Crown
The Crown
in this context ordinarily means the Crown in right of the _république_ of the Bailiwick of Guernsey" and that this comprises "the collective governmental and civic institutions, established by and under the authority of the Monarch, for the governance of these Islands, including the States of Guernsey and legislatures in the other Islands, the Royal Court and other courts, the Lieutenant Governor, Parish authorities, and the Crown acting in and through the Privy Council." This constitutional concept is also worded as the "Crown in right of the Bailiwick of Guernsey".

NAME FLAG ARMS LOCATION MOTTO AREA POPULATION CAPITAL

Isle of Man
Isle of Man
_

Irish Sea Quocunque Jeceris Stabit_ ( Latin
Latin
: "Whithersoever you throw it, it will stand") 0000572 !572 km2 (221 sq mi) 84497 !84,997 Douglas

Bailiwick of Jersey
Jersey

English Channel

0000118,2 !118.2 km2 (46 sq mi) 100080 !100,080 Saint Helier
Saint Helier

Bailiwick of Guernsey
Guernsey
Guernsey
Guernsey

English Channel

78 km2 (30 sq mi) 65,849 Saint Peter Port
Saint Peter Port
(capital of the whole Bailiwick and of Guernsey
Guernsey
also)

_ Alderney

Saint Anne

Sark
Sark

The Seigneurie (de facto_; Sark
Sark
does not have a capital city)

CHANNEL ISLANDS: BAILIWICKS OF JERSEY AND GUERNSEY

Main article: Channel Islands
Channel Islands
The Channel Islands
Channel Islands
located in the English Channel

Since 1290, the Channel Islands
Channel Islands
have been governed as

* the Bailiwick of Jersey
Jersey
, comprising the island of Jersey
Jersey
and uninhabited islets such as the Minquiers and Écréhous * the Bailiwick of Guernsey
Guernsey
, comprising the islands of Guernsey
Guernsey
, Sark
Sark
, Alderney , Brecqhou , Herm , Jethou and Lihou
Lihou
.

Each Bailiwick is a Crown dependency and each is headed by a Bailiff, with a Lieutenant Governor representing the Crown in each Bailiwick. Each Bailiwick has its own legal and healthcare systems, and their own separate immigration policies, with "local status" in one Bailiwick having no jurisdiction in the other. The two Bailiwicks exercise bilateral double taxation treaties . Since 1961, the Bailiwicks have had separate courts of appeal , but generally the Bailiff of each Bailiwick has been appointed to serve on the panel of appellate judges for the other Bailiwick.

BAILIWICK OF GUERNSEY

Main article: Bailiwick of Guernsey
Guernsey
See also: List of islands of the Bailiwick of Guernsey
Guernsey

The Bailiwick of Guernsey
Guernsey
comprises three separate jurisdictions:

* Guernsey
Guernsey
, which includes also the nearby islands of Herm and Jethou, and other smaller uninhabited islands. * Sark
Sark
, which also includes the nearby island of Brecqhou, and other smaller uninhabited islands. * Alderney , including smaller surrounding uninhabited islands.

Brecqhou island

The parliament of Guernsey
Guernsey
is the States of Deliberation , the parliament of Sark
Sark
is called the Chief Pleas , and the parliament of Alderney is called the States of Alderney . The three parliaments together can also approve joint Bailiwick-wide legislation that applies in those parts of the Bailiwick whose parliaments approve it.

Guernsey
Guernsey
issues its own coins and banknotes :

* Guernsey
Guernsey
banknotes * Coins of the Guernsey
Guernsey
pound

These circulate freely in both Bailiwicks alongside UK coinage and English and Scottish banknotes . They are not legal tender within the UK.

There are no political parties in any of the parliaments, candidates stand for election as independents .

Guernsey
Guernsey
has its own separate international vehicle registrations (GBG – Guernsey, GBA – Alderney), internet domain ( .gg
.gg
– Guernsey), and ISO 3166-2 codes, first reserved on behalf of the Universal Postal Union
Universal Postal Union
(GGY – Guernsey) and then added officially by the International Organization for Standardization on 29 March 2006. In any case the GBG on a numberplate is only put on the number plate of a car or motorbike at the request of the vehicle owner and is not compulsory, however a motorbike/scooter can have an identical number as a car, i.e. 5432 on 2 wheels and on 4 wheels.

BAILIWICK OF JERSEY

Main article: Bailiwick of Jersey
Jersey
See also: Law of Jersey
Jersey
Aerial view of Saint Clement, Jersey
Jersey

The Bailiwick of Jersey
Jersey
consists of the island of Jersey
Jersey
and a number of surrounding uninhabited islands.

The parliament is the States of Jersey
Jersey
, the first known mention of which is in a document of 1497. The _States of Jersey
Jersey
Law 2005_ introduced the post of Chief Minister of Jersey
Jersey
, abolished the Bailiff's power of dissent to a resolution of the States and the Lieutenant Governor's power of veto over a resolution of the States, established that any Order in Council or Act of the United Kingdom proposed to apply to Jersey
Jersey
must be referred to the States so the States can express their views on it.

Jersey
Jersey
issues its own coins and banknotes:

* Jersey
Jersey
banknotes * Coins of the Jersey
Jersey
pound

These circulate freely in both Bailiwicks alongside UK coinage and English and Scottish banknotes. They are not legal tender within the UK but are legal currency backed by deposits at the Bank of England.

There are few political parties , as candidates generally stand for election as independents (but see _List of political parties in Jersey _).

Jersey
Jersey
has its own separate international vehicle registration (GBJ – Jersey), internet domain ( .je – Jersey), and ISO 3166-2 codes, first reserved on behalf of the Universal Postal Union
Universal Postal Union
(JEY – Jersey) and then added officially by the International Organization for Standardization on 29 March 2006.

ISLE OF MAN

The Isle of Man
Isle of Man
located in the Irish Sea Main article: Isle of Man See also: Politics of the Isle of Man
Isle of Man
, History of the Isle of Man , and Noble and royal titles of the Isle of Man
Isle of Man

The Isle of Man's Tynwald claims to be the world's oldest parliament in continuous existence, dating back to 979. (However, it does not claim to be the oldest parliament, as Iceland
Iceland
's Althing dates back to 930.) It consists of a popularly elected _ House of Keys _ and an indirectly elected _Legislative Council _, which may sit separately or jointly to consider pieces of legislation, which, when passed into law, are known as "Acts of Tynwald ". Candidates mostly stand for election to the Keys as independents, rather than being selected by political parties . There is a Council of Ministers headed by a Chief Minister .

The Isle of Man
Isle of Man
issues its own coins and banknotes:

* Manx banknotes * Coins of the Manx pound

These circulate freely on the island alongside British coinage (as well as coinage from the Channel Islands
Channel Islands
and Gibraltar) and English, Northern Irish and Scottish banknotes.

The Isle of Man, unlike the other Crown dependencies, has a Common Purse Agreement with the United Kingdom.

Isle of Man
Isle of Man
Post issues its own stamps and derives significant revenue from the sale of special issues to collectors.

The Isle of Man
Isle of Man
has its own separate international vehicle registration (GBM – Isle of Man), internet domain ( .im – Isle of Man), and ISO 3166-2 codes, first reserved on behalf of the Universal Postal Union (IMN – Isle of Man) and then added officially by the International Organization for Standardization on 29 March 2006. In addition, since 2008 the Isle of Man
Isle of Man
has used the aircraft registration M-.

RELATIONSHIP WITH THE BRITISH CROWN

In each Crown dependency, the monarch is represented by a Lieutenant Governor , but this post is largely ceremonial. Since 2010 the Lieutenant Governors of each Crown dependency have been recommended to the Crown by a panel in each respective Crown dependency; this replaced the previous system of the appointments being made by the Crown on the recommendation of UK ministers. In 2005, it was decided in the Isle of Man
Isle of Man
to replace the Lieutenant Governor with a Crown Commissioner , but this decision was reversed before it was implemented.

All "insular" legislation has to receive the approval of the "Queen in Council", in effect, the Privy Council in London. Certain types of domestic legislation in the Isle of Man, however, may be signed into law by the Lieutenant Governor, using delegated powers, without having to pass through the Privy Council. In Jersey, provisional legislation of an administrative nature may be adopted by means of _triennial regulations_ (renewable after three years), without requiring the assent of the Privy Council. Much legislation, in practice, is effected by means of secondary legislation under the authority of prior laws or Orders in Council.

BAILIWICKS OF GUERNSEY AND JERSEY

"La Reine, Notre Duc" (The Queen, Our Duke): title of a Diamond Jubilee exhibition at the Jersey
Jersey
Arts Centre in 2012

The Channel Islands
Channel Islands
are part of the territory annexed by the Duchy of Normandy
Normandy
in 933 from the Duchy of Brittany . This territory was added to the grant of land given in settlement by the King of France
France
in 911 to the Viking raiders who had sailed up the Seine almost to the walls of Paris.

William the Conqueror
William the Conqueror
, Duke of Normandy, claimed the title King of England
England
in 1066, following the death of Edward the Confessor , and secured the claim through the Norman conquest of England .

Subsequent marriages between Kings of England
England
and French nobles meant that Kings of England
England
had title to more French lands than the King of France. When the King of France
France
asserted his feudal right of patronage , the then-King of England, King John , fearing he would be imprisoned should he attend, failed to fulfil his obligation.

In 1204 the title and lands of the Duchy of Normandy and his other French possessions were stripped from King John of England by the King of France. The Channel Islands
Channel Islands
remained in the possession of the King of England, who ruled them as Duke of Normandy
Normandy
until the Treaty of Paris in 1259.

King Henry III of England renounced the title of Duke of Normandy
Normandy
by that treaty, and none of his successors ever revived it. The Channel Islands continued to be governed by the Kings of England
England
as French fiefs, distinct from Normandy, until the Hundred Years\' War , during which they were definitively separated from France.

At no time did the Channel Islands
Channel Islands
form part of the Kingdom of England, and they remained legally separate, though under the same monarch, through the subsequent unions of Scotland
Scotland
and England
England
(1707), and Ireland (1801). Elizabeth II reigns over the Channel Islands directly, and not by virtue of her role as monarch of the United Kingdom. No specific title is associated with her role as monarch of the Channel Islands, however; she is popularly referred to (even on a Buckingham Palace website) as "Duke of Normandy" (not "Duchess") but this anachronistic title has no basis in law. The monarch has been described, in Jersey, as the "Queen in right of Jersey", and in legislation as the "Sovereign of the Bailiwick of Jersey" and "Sovereign in right of the Bailiwick of Jersey".

A unique constitutional position has arisen as successive monarchs have confirmed the liberties and privileges of the Bailiwicks , often referring to the so-called _Constitutions of King John_, a legendary document supposed to have been granted by King John in the aftermath of 1204. Governments of the Bailiwicks have generally tried to avoid testing the limits of the unwritten constitution by avoiding conflict with British governments.

Following the restoration of King Charles II , who had spent part of his exile in Jersey, the Channel Islands
Channel Islands
were given the right to set their own customs duties, referred to by the Jersey
Jersey
Legal French term as _impôts_.

ISLE OF MAN

Aerial view of Castletown, Isle of Man
Isle of Man

In the Isle of Man
Isle of Man
the British monarch is Lord of Mann , a title variously held by Norse , Scottish and English kings and nobles (the English nobles in feudality to the English Crown) until it was revested into the British monarch in 1765. The title "Lord" is today used irrespective of the gender of the person who holds it.

RELATIONSHIP WITH THE UK

Crown dependencies
Crown dependencies
have the international status of "territories for which the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is responsible" rather than sovereign states. The relationship between the Crown dependencies
Crown dependencies
and the UK is "one of mutual respect and support, i.e. a partnership".

Until 2001, responsibility for the UK government's relationships with the Crown dependencies
Crown dependencies
rested with the Home Office
Home Office
, but it was then transferred first to the Lord Chancellor\'s Department , then to the Department for Constitutional Affairs
Department for Constitutional Affairs
, and finally to the Ministry of Justice . In 2010 the Ministry of Justice stated that relationships with the Crown dependencies
Crown dependencies
are the responsibility of the United Kingdom Government as a whole, with the Ministry of Justice holding responsibility for the constitutional relationship and other ministries engaging with their opposite numbers in the Crown dependencies according to their respective policy areas. Sir John Chalmers McColl as Lieutenant Governor of Jersey
Jersey

The British Government is solely responsible for defence and international representation (although, in accordance with 2007 framework agreements, the UK has elected not to act internationally on behalf of the Crown dependencies
Crown dependencies
without prior consultation). The Crown dependencies
Crown dependencies
are within the Common Travel Area and apply the same visa policy of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, but each Crown dependency has responsibility for its own customs and immigration services.

Acts of the British Parliament
Parliament
do not usually apply to the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man, unless explicitly stated. UK legislation does not ordinarily extend to them without their consent. For a UK Act to extend otherwise than by an Order in Council is now very unusual. When deemed advisable, Acts of Parliament
Parliament
may be extended to the Islands by means of an Order in Council (thus giving the UK Government some responsibility for good governance in the islands). An example of this was the Television Act 1954 , which was extended to the Channel Islands, so as to create a local ITV franchise, known as Channel Television . By constitutional convention this is only done at the request of the Insular Authorities, and has become a rare option (thus giving the Insular Authorities themselves the responsibility for good governance in the islands), the islands usually preferring nowadays to pass localised versions of laws giving effect to international treaties.

Westminster retains the right to legislate for the Islands against their will as a last resort, but this is also rarely exercised, and may, according to legal opinion from the Attorney-General of Jersey, have fallen into desuetude — although this argument was not accepted by the Department for Constitutional Affairs. (The Marine, Etc., Broadcasting (Offences) Act 1967 was one recent piece of legislation extended to the Isle of Man
Isle of Man
against the wishes of Tynwald).

The States of Jersey
Jersey
Law 2005 established that all Acts of the United Kingdom and Orders in Council were to be referred to the States , thus giving greater freedom of action to Jersey
Jersey
in international affairs.

Matters reserved to the Crown (i.e. acting through the United Kingdom Government) are limited to defence, citizenship, and diplomatic representation. The islands are not bound by treaties concluded by the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(unless they so request) and may separately conclude treaties with foreign governments (except concerning matters reserved to the Crown). The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
conceded at the end of the 20th century that the islands may establish direct political (non-diplomatic) contacts with foreign governments to avoid British embassies being obliged to pass on communications from the governments that were in conflict with United Kingdom
United Kingdom
government policy. In recent years, with the development of finance industries and the increasing interdependence of the modern world, the Islands have been more active in international relations, concluding treaties and signing conventions with other states separately from the UK. Such treaties typically concern matters such as tax, finance, environment and trade, and other matters not relating directly to defence and international representation. The UK has in recent years, however, agreed to the Channel Islands
Channel Islands
negotiating directly with the French government on topics such as French nuclear activities in the region, as this is a matter on which the UK government holds views so at odds with those of the governments of the Bailiwicks that it feels unable to continue to represent the Islands itself.

As in England, but not the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
as a whole, the Church of England
England
is the Established Church in the Isle of Man
Isle of Man
, Guernsey
Guernsey
and Jersey
Jersey
.

In 2007-2008, each Crown Dependency and the UK signed agreements that established frameworks for the development of the international identity of each Crown Dependency. Among the points clarified in the agreements were that:

* the UK has no democratic accountability in and for the Crown Dependencies, which are governed by their own democratically elected assemblies; * the UK will not act internationally on behalf of the Crown Dependencies without prior consultation; * each Crown Dependency has an international identity that is different from that of the UK; * the UK supports the principle of each Crown Dependency further developing its international identity; * the UK recognises that the interests of each Crown Dependency may differ from those of the UK, and the UK will seek to represent any differing interests when acting in an international capacity; and * the UK and each Crown Dependency will work together to resolve or clarify any differences that may arise between their respective interests.

The constitutional and cultural proximity of the Islands to the UK means that there are shared institutions and organisations. The BBC
BBC
, for example, has local radio stations in the Channel Islands, and also a website run by a team based in the Isle of Man
Isle of Man
(which is included in BBC
BBC
North West ). While the Islands now assume responsibility for their own post and telecommunications, they continue to participate in the UK telephone numbering plan , and they have adopted postcode systems which are compatible with that of the UK.

The Crown
The Crown
dependencies, together with the United Kingdom, are collectively known as the British Islands . Since the British Nationality Act 1981 came into effect, they have been treated as part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
for British nationality law purposes. However, each Crown dependency maintains local controls over housing and employment, with special rules applying to British citizens without specified connections to that Crown dependency (as well as to non-British citizens).

RELATIONSHIP WITH THE COMMONWEALTH OF NATIONS

While their constitutional status bears some resemblance to that of the Commonwealth realms , the Crown dependencies
Crown dependencies
are not members of the Commonwealth of Nations
Commonwealth of Nations
. They participate in the Commonwealth of Nations by virtue of their relationship with the United Kingdom, and participate in various Commonwealth institutions in their own right. For example, all three participate in the Commonwealth Parliamentary Association and the Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
.

All three Crown dependencies
Crown dependencies
regard the existing situation as unsatisfactory and have lobbied for change. The States of Jersey
Jersey
have called on the British Foreign Secretary to request that the Commonwealth Heads of Government "consider granting associate membership to Jersey
Jersey
and the other Crown Dependencies as well as any other territories at a similarly advanced stage of autonomy". Jersey has proposed that it be accorded "self-representation in all Commonwealth meetings; full participation in debates and procedures, with a right to speak where relevant and the opportunity to enter into discussions with those who are full members; and no right to vote in the Ministerial or Heads of Government meetings, which is reserved for full members". The States of Guernsey
Guernsey
and the Government of the Isle of Man have made calls of a similar nature for a more integrated relationship with the Commonwealth, including more direct representation and enhanced participation in Commonwealth organisations and meetings, including Commonwealth Heads of Government Meetings . The Chief Minister of the Isle of Man
Isle of Man
has said: "A closer connection with the Commonwealth itself would be a welcome further development of the Island's international relationships"

RELATIONSHIP WITH THE EU

Certain aspects of membership of the European Union
European Union
apply to the Crown dependencies, by association of the United Kingdom's membership. For example Article 355 (5)(c) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union
European Union
(TFEU) states: _this Treaty shall apply to the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man
Isle of Man
only to the extent necessary to ensure the implementation of the arrangements for those islands set out in the Treaty concerning the accession of new Member States to the European Economic Community and to the European Atomic Energy Community signed on 22 January 1972._;

and by Protocol 3 to the UK's Act of Accession to the Community:

An Act to make provision in connection with the enlargement of the European Communities to include the United Kingdom, together with (for certain purposes) the Channel Islands, the Isle of Man
Isle of Man
and Gibraltar
Gibraltar
. "

Of the Four Freedoms of the EU , the islands take part in that concerning the movement of goods, but not those concerning the movement of persons, services or capital. The Channel Islands
Channel Islands
are outside the VAT area (as they have no VAT), while the Isle of Man
Isle of Man
is inside it. Both areas are inside the customs union.

Channel Islanders and Manx people are British citizens and hence European citizens . However, they are not entitled to take advantage of the freedom of movement of people or services unless they are directly connected (through birth, descent from a parent or grandparent, or five years' residence) with the United Kingdom.

The common agricultural policy of the EU does not apply to the Crown dependencies. Their citizens do not take part in elections to the European Parliament
Parliament
.

BREXIT

With the impending Brexit negotiations, the House of Lords
House of Lords
has produced a report entitled "Brexit: the Crown Dependencies" which states the "UK Government must continue to fulfil its constitutional obligations to represent the interests of the Crown Dependencies in international relations, even where these differ from those of the UK, both during the Brexit negotiations and beyond." In the Great Repeal Bill white paper published on 30 March 2017 the UK government states _The Government is committed to engaging with the Crown Dependencies, Gibraltar
Gibraltar
and the other Overseas Territories as we leave the EU._ :ch.5

SEE ALSO

* List of leaders of Crown Dependencies * European microstates
European microstates
* Royal charters applying to the Channel Islands
Channel Islands

* Jersey
Jersey
portal * Isle of Man
Isle of Man
portal * Channel Islands
Channel Islands
portal * Politics portal * United Kingdom
United Kingdom
portal

REFERENCES

* ^ "Crown Dependencies - Justice Committee". _ Parliament
Parliament
of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
_. 30 March 2010. Retrieved 14 November 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "Background briefing on the Crown dependencies: Jersey, Guernsey
Guernsey
and the Isle of Man" (PDF). _Ministry of Justice _. Retrieved 31 July 2017. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Fact sheet on the UK\'s relationship with the Crown Dependencies" (PDF). _Ministry of Justice_. Retrieved 25 August 2014. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "Government Response to the Justice Select Committee\'s report: Crown Dependencies" (PDF). _Ministry of Justice_. November 2010. Retrieved 31 July 2017. * ^ "Profile of Jersey". _States of Jersey
Jersey
_. Archived from the original on 2 September 2006. Retrieved 31 July 2008. The legislature passes primary legislation, which requires approval by The Queen in Council, and enacts subordinate legislation in many areas without any requirement for Royal Sanction and under powers conferred by primary legislation. * ^ "Review of the Roles of the Crown Officers" (PDF). _States of Jersey_. 2 July 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 August 2011. * ^ "Written Question To H.M. Attorney General by Deputy P.V.F. Le Claire of St. Helier". _States of Jersey_. 22 June 2010. Archived from the original on 27 September 2011. * ^ "The Air Navigation (Isle of Man) Order 2007 (No. 1115)". _The National Archives_. Retrieved 31 July 2017. * ^ "The Unregistered Design Rights ( Bailiwick of Guernsey) Ordinance". _ Guernsey
Guernsey
Legal Resources_. 2005. Archived from the original on 21 July 2011. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Review of the Roles of the Jersey
Jersey
Crown officers" (PDF). _States of Jersey_. 30 March 2012. Retrieved 31 July 2017. * ^ de Woolfson, Joel (21 June 2010). "It\'s a power thing…". _ Guernsey
Guernsey
Press _. Archived from the original on 10 June 2011. Retrieved 31 July 2017. * ^ Mollet, Ralph (1954). _A Chronology of Jersey_. Jersey: Société Jersiaise . * ^ Leach, Robert (2011). "A Quick Guide to Legal Tender" (PDF). _robertleach.co.uk_. p. 3. Retrieved 24 October 2014. * ^ "CIA World Factbook: Guernsey". _ Central Intelligence Agency
Central Intelligence Agency
_. Retrieved 3 November 2010. * ^ Balleine, G. R. ; Syvret, Marguerite; Stevens, Joan (1998). _Balleine's History of Jersey_ (Revised & Enlarged ed.). Chichester
Chichester
: Phillimore & Co . ISBN 1-86077-065-7 . * ^ "States of Jersey
Jersey
Law 2005". _ Jersey
Jersey
Legal Information_. 5 May 2006. Archived from the original on 31 October 2007. * ^ "The Council of Ministers". _ Isle of Man
Isle of Man
Government_. Archived from the original on 29 April 2013. Retrieved 29 January 2013. * ^ "£105,000 – the tax-free reward for being a royal rep". _This Is Jersey_. 6 July 2010. Archived from the original on 16 August 2011. * ^ Ogier, Thom (3 July 2010). " Guernsey
Guernsey
will choose its next Lt-Governor". _This Is Guernsey_. Archived from the original on 13 August 2011. * ^ "Review of the Roles of the Crown Officers" (PDF). _States of Jersey_. 29 March 2010. Retrieved 31 July 2017. * ^ Southwell, Richard (October 1997). "The Sources of Jersey
Jersey
Law". _ Jersey
Jersey
Legal Information Board_. Archived from the original on 31 March 2012. Retrieved 31 July 2017. * ^ "Royal Insight". _The official website of the British Monarchy_. October 2003. Archived from the original on 15 December 2008. Retrieved 23 July 2008. * ^ "Royal Insight". _The official website of the British Monarchy_. January 2007. Archived from the original on 15 December 2008. Retrieved 23 July 2008. * ^ Matthews, Paul (June 1999). "Lé Rouai, Nouot\' Duc". _Jersey Legal Information Board_. Archived from the original on 3 October 2011. * ^ Velde, François R. "Royal Styles and Titles in England
England
and Great Britain: Duke of Normandy". _Heraldica_. Retrieved 31 July 2017.

* ^ "Review of the Roles of the Crown Officers" (PDF). _States of Jersey_. 4 May 2010. Retrieved 31 July 2017. * ^ "Succession to the Crown (Jersey) Law". _ Jersey
Jersey
Legal Information Board_. 2013. Archived from the original on 14 January 2015. Retrieved 24 November 2013. * ^ "Crown Dependencies - Justice Committee: Memorandum submitted by the Policy Council of the States of Guernsey". _ Parliament
Parliament
of the United Kingdom_. October 2009. Retrieved 31 July 2017. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Framework for developing the international identity of Jersey" (PDF). _States of Jersey_. 1 May 2007. Retrieved 31 July 2017.

* ^ "UK Legislation and the Crown Dependencies". _Department for Constitutional Affairs _. Archived from the original on 16 May 2008. Retrieved 31 July 2017. * ^ Gell, Sir James . "Memorandum Respecting the Ecclesiastical Courts of the Isle of Man...". _ Isle of Man
Isle of Man
Online_. Retrieved 7 February 2017. * ^ "About". _ Guernsey
Guernsey
Deanery_. Church of England. Retrieved 31 July 2017. * ^ "Framework for developing the international identity of Guernsey". _States of Guernsey_. 18 December 2008. Retrieved 31 July 2017. * ^ "Framework for developing the international identity of the Isle of Man" (PDF). _ Isle of Man
Isle of Man
Government_. 1 May 2007. Retrieved 31 July 2017. * ^ " Nationality instructions: Volume 2". _ UK Border Agency _. 10 December 2013. Retrieved 31 July 2017. * ^ "Foreign Affairs Committee: Written evidence from States of Jersey". _ Parliament
Parliament
of the United Kingdom_. Retrieved 18 March 2013. * ^ "Foreign Affairs Committee: The role and future of the Commonwealth". _ Parliament
Parliament
of the United Kingdom_. Retrieved 18 March 2013. * ^ "Foreign Affairs Committee: Written evidence from the States of Guernsey". _ Parliament
Parliament
of the United Kingdom_. Retrieved 18 March 2013. * ^ " Isle of Man
Isle of Man
welcomes report on Commonwealth future". _Isle of Man Government_. 23 November 2012. Archived from the original on 2 March 2013. Retrieved 19 March 2013. * ^ "European Communities Act 1972". _The National Archives_. Retrieved 31 July 2017. * ^ "Article 6 of Council Directive 2006/112/EC of 28 November 2006 (as amended) on the common system of value added tax (OJ L 347)". _ EUR-Lex _. 11 December 2006. p. 1. Retrieved 31 July 2017. * ^ "Article 3(1) of Council Regulation 2913/92/EEC of 12 October 1992 establishing the Community Customs Code (as amended) (OJ L 302)". _EUR-Lex_. 19 October 1992. pp. 1–50. Retrieved 31 July 2017. * ^ s 1 of the _British Nationality Act 1981_ grants citizenship to (most) people born in the 'United Kingdom'. s 50 of the Act defines the 'United Kingdom' to include the Channel Islands
Channel Islands
and the Isle of Man. * ^ Protocol 3 of the Treaty of Accession of the United Kingdom, Ireland and Denmark