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A crown prince is the male heir apparent to the throne in a royal or imperial monarchy. Its female form is crown princess, which may refer either to an heir apparent or, especially in earlier times, the wife of the person styled crown prince.[citation needed] Crown prince
Crown prince
as a descriptive term has been used throughout history for the prince being first in line to a throne and is expected to succeed (i.e. the heir apparent) barring any unforeseen future event preventing this. In certain monarchies, a more specific substantive title may be accorded and become associated with the position of heir apparent (e.g. Prince of Asturias
Prince of Asturias
in Spain, Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales
in the United Kingdom). In these monarchies, the term crown prince may be used less often than the substantive title. Until the late twentieth century, no modern monarchy adopted a system whereby females would be guaranteed to succeed to the throne (i.e. absolute primogeniture), a crown princess would therefore more likely refer to the spouse of a crown prince and would be styled crown princess not in her own right but by courtesy.

Contents

1 Description 2 Christian/Western traditional titles 3 As a title for an heir apparent used today 4 Other specific traditions 5 See also 6 Sources and references

Description[edit] The term crown prince is not used in monarchies wherein the hereditary sovereign holds a title below that of king/queen (such as grand duke or prince), although it is sometimes used as a synonym for heir apparent. In Europe, where primogeniture governed succession to all monarchies except those of the Papacy and Andorra, the eldest son or (more recently) eldest child of the current monarch fills the role of crown prince or princess, depending upon whether females of the dynasty enjoy personal succession rights. Primogeniture
Primogeniture
has been abolished in Belgium, Denmark, Luxembourg, Norway, Sweden, the Netherlands
Netherlands
and the United Kingdom. The eldest living child of a monarch is sometimes not the heir apparent or crown prince, because that position can be held by a descendant of a deceased older child who, by "right of representation", inherits the same place in the line of succession that would be held by the ancestor if he or she were still living (for example, Carl Gustaf, Duke
Duke
of Jämtland was the crown prince of Sweden from 1950 to 1973, as the senior grandson by male primogeniture of King Gustaf VI Adolf of Sweden, although the former Prince
Prince
Sigvard, Duke
Duke
of Uppland was Gustaf VI Adolf's eldest living son, and Prince Bertil, Duke
Duke
of Halland his eldest living dynastic son during those years). In some monarchies, those of the Middle East
Middle East
for example, in which primogeniture is not the decisive factor in dynastic succession, a person may not possess the title or status of crown prince by right of birth, but may obtain (and lose) it as a result of an official designation made on some other legal or traditional basis, such as former crown prince Hassan bin Talal of Jordan. Compare heir apparent and heir presumptive. In Scandinavian kingdoms, the heir presumptive to the crown may hold a different title than the heir apparent: hereditary prince (German: Erbprinz, French: prince héréditaire). It is also the title borne by the heir apparent of Liechtenstein, as well as the heir apparent or presumptive of Monaco. In Luxembourg, the heir apparent bears the title of hereditary grand duke (German: erbgroßherzog, Luxembourgish: ierfgroussherzog); along with hereditary prince, it was also the title borne by the heirs apparent to the thrones of the grand duchies, sovereign duchies and principalities, and of mediatized princely families in the German monarchies abolished in 1918. Christian/Western traditional titles[edit] Many monarchies use or did use substantive titles for their heirs apparent, often of historical origin:

Dauphin (Kingdom of France) Duke
Duke
of Brabant (Belgium) Duke
Duke
of Braganza (Kingdom of Portugal) Duke
Duke
of Cornwall (Kingdom of England) Duke
Duke
of Rothesay (Kingdom of Scotland), currently used by the Prince of Wales in place of his Welsh title when in Scotland Grand Prince
Prince
(Grand Duchy of Tuscany) Margrave of Moravia (Kingdom of Bohemia) Prince of Asturias
Prince of Asturias
(Castile & Spain) Prince
Prince
of Girona (Aragon & Spain) Prince
Prince
Imperial (Empire of Brazil, Second French Empire, and Empire of Mexico) Prince
Prince
of Orange (Netherlands), whether or not the equivalent title is held by the spouse of the titleholder is decided by the Dutch parliament (e.g., Queen Máxima of the Netherlands
Netherlands
was never titled Princess of Orange by marriage for this reason) Prince
Prince
of Piedmont (Kingdom of Sardinia, and then Kingdom of Italy, when it was alternated with Prince
Prince
of Naples) Prince
Prince
Royal (France in 1789–91 and the July Monarchy, and Portugal since 1815) Prince
Prince
of Turnovo (Kingdom of Bulgaria) Prince
Prince
of Viana (Navarre & Spain) Rex iunior (Kingdom of Hungary), lit. junior king as he was crowned during the life of the incumbent king Tsesarevich
Tsesarevich
(Russia)

Some monarchies have used (although not always de jure) a territorial title for heirs apparent which, though often perceived as a crown princely title, is not automatically hereditary. It generally requires a specific conferral by the sovereign, which may be withheld. Current and past titles in this category include:

Caesar or Kaisar (Roman and early Byzantine Empires) in honor of Gaius Julius, distinguished from the senior Augustus Symbasileus
Symbasileus
(late Byzantine Empire), lit. co-emperor but still distinguished from the senior who was addressed as Autocrator Aetheling
Aetheling
(Anglo-Saxon England) and edling (Welsh kingdoms), lit. of the royal family Duke
Duke
of Estonia and Lolland (Denmark; during, at least, reigns of Christopher II and Valdemar IV) Prince
Prince
of Norway
Norway
(Denmark-Norway); in 15th-19th centuries Duke
Duke
of Valentinois, used by several heirs to the Monégasque throne Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales
(England, Great Britain, United Kingdom) King of the Romans
King of the Romans
(Holy Roman Empire) - an elective, rather than an inherited title, for the designated successor—usually the son, but sometimes the brother—of the Emperor King of Rome (First French Empire) Duke
Duke
of Sparta (Kingdom of Greece); used briefly, within Greece, only by Prince
Prince
Constantine, during the reign of his father King George I Marquess of Baux : used by several heirs to the Monégasque throne Prince
Prince
of Brazil (title of the Portuguese heir from 1645 to 1815) Duke
Duke
of Scania ( Sweden
Sweden
during the time when Magnus IV of Sweden
Sweden
also was King of Terra Scania) Prince
Prince
of Ani (Kingdom of West Armenia) Prince
Prince
of Alba Iulia
Alba Iulia
(Kingdom of Romania) Grand Voivode of Grahovo (Kingdom of Montenegro) Prince
Prince
of Venice (see Prince
Prince
Eugène de Beauharnais); for the heir presumptive to Napoleon I
Napoleon I
in his Kingdom of Italy Duke
Duke
of Calabria ( Kingdom of Naples
Kingdom of Naples
and Kingdom of the Two Sicilies); prior to the accession of King Robert the title of the Neapolitan heir was Prince
Prince
of Salerno

As a title for an heir apparent used today[edit] Currently, the following states use the term "crown prince" (or "crown princess") for the heirs apparent to their thrones:

Bahrain - Crown Prince
Prince
Salman bin Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa Brunei
Brunei
- Crown Prince
Prince
Al-Muhtadee Billah Denmark
Denmark
- Crown Prince
Prince
Frederik, Count of Montpezat Japan - Crown Prince
Prince
Naruhito Jordan - Crown Prince
Prince
Hussein Kuwait - Nawaf Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah Malaysia: Deputy Yang di-Pertuan Agong Nazrin Shah of Perak

Johor - Crown Prince
Prince
Tunku Ismail Idris Kedah - Crown Prince
Prince
Tunku Sarafuddin Badlishah Sultan Sallehuddin Kelantan - Crown Prince
Prince
Tengku Muhammad Faiz Petra Pahang - Crown Prince
Prince
Tengku Abdullah Perak - Crown Prince
Prince
Raja Jaafar Perlis - Crown Prince
Prince
Tuanku Syed Faizuddin Putra Jamalullail Selangor - Crown Prince
Prince
Tengku Amir Shah Terengganu - Crown Prince
Prince
Tengku Muhammad Ismail

Morocco - Crown Prince
Prince
Moulay Hassan Norway
Norway
- Crown Prince
Prince
Haakon Saudi Arabia - Crown Prince
Prince
Mohammed bin Salman Swaziland - (position of Crown Prince
Prince
currently vacant) Sweden
Sweden
- Crown Princess Victoria, Duchess of Västergötland Thailand
Thailand
- (position of Crown Prince
Prince
currently vacant) Tonga - Crown Prince
Prince
Tupoutoʻa ʻUlukalala United Arab Emirates: each of the constituent emirates of the U.A.E. uses the title of 'Crown Prince' for their heirs apparent:

Abu Dhabi - Crown Prince
Prince
Mohammed bin Zayed Al Nahyan Dubai - Crown Prince
Prince
Hamdan bin Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum Fujairah - Crown Prince
Prince
Mohammed bin Hamad bin Mohammed Al Sharqi Ajman - Crown Prince
Prince
Ammar bin Humaid Al Nuaimi Ras Al-Khamiah - Crown Prince
Prince
Muhammed bin Saud bin Saqr Al Qasimi Sharjah - Crown Prince
Prince
Sultan Bin Mohammed Bin Sultan Al Qasimi Umm al-Quwain - Crown Prince
Prince
Rashid bin Saud bin Rashid Al Mua'lla

In addition; the following heirs apparent to deposed monarchies use the title of Crown Prince
Prince
as a title used by international courtesy:

Ahmad Shah Khan, Crown Prince
Prince
of Afghanistan Pavlos, Crown Prince
Prince
of Greece. Reza Pahlavi, Crown Prince
Prince
of Iran. Paras, Crown Prince
Prince
of Nepal Alexander, Crown Prince
Prince
of Yugoslavia.

Other specific traditions[edit] Egypt, Prince
Prince
of the Sa'id, meaning Prince
Prince
of Upper Egypt Persia (Iran), Pahlavi dynasty
Pahlavi dynasty
and Qajar dynasty, the full style was Vala Hazrat-i-Humayun Vali Ahd, Shahzada (given name), (in Persian: والاحضرت همایون ولایتعهد) i.e. His August Imperial Highness the Heir Apparent, Prince
Prince
...;

the above component vali ahd (or Velayat Ahd) meaning 'successor by virtue of a covenant' (or various forms and etymological derivations) was adopted by many oriental monarchies, even some non-Muslim, e.g. Walet as alternative title for the Nepali (Hindu) royal heir apparent; first used Crown Prince
Prince
Trailokya in the middle of the nineteenth century, taken from the Mughal title 'Vali Ahd'

Hindu
Hindu
tradition (Indian subcontinent):

Yuvaraja was part of the full title in many princely states of India, e.g.

in Jammu & Kashmir, the heir apparent was styled Maharaj Kumar Shri Yuvaraj (personal name) Singhji Bahadur

Tika Nepal, where the King was styled Maharajadhiraja:

the heir apparent was styled: Sri
Sri
Sri
Sri
Sri
Sri
Sri
Sri
Sri
Sri
Yuvarajadhiraj ('Young King of Kings', i.e. Crown Prince) (personal name) Bir Bikram Shah Deva; the eldest son of the heir apparent was styled: Sri
Sri
Sri
Sri
Sri
Sri
Sri
Sri
Sri Nava Yuvaraj ('Young Crown Prince') (personal name) Bir Bikram Shah Deva

East Asian traditions:

The cognates of Chinese Huang Taizi (皇太子, "Great Imperial Son") - if a son of the reigning emperor, and Huang Taisun (皇太孫, Great Imperial Grandson) - if a grandson of the emperor:

if the heir apparent is a: son grandson

Chinese Huang Taizi Huang Taisun

Japanese Kōtaishi Kōtaison

Korean Hwangtaeja (황태자) Hwangtaeson (황태손)

Vietnamese Hoàng Thái Tử Hoàng Thái Tôn

During the Joseon Dynasty
Dynasty
in Korea, the crown prince was referred as Dong-gung(동궁, 東宮) due to the location of his residence from the main palace; or wangseja (王世子 왕세자). He was not necessarily the first-born son, wonja (元子 원자).

Southeast Asian traditions:

Siam Makutrajakuman
Siam Makutrajakuman
(สยามมกุฎราชกุมาร) in Thailand
Thailand
since 1886. Krom Phrarajawangboworn Sathanmongkol
Krom Phrarajawangboworn Sathanmongkol
or Phra Maha Uparaja or commonly called Wang Na (or Front Palace) in Thailand
Thailand
prior to 1886. Kanjeng Gusti Pangeran Adipati Anom in Yogyakarta
Yogyakarta
sultanate and Surakarta, Indonesia. Raja Muda or Tengku Mahkota in the Malay sultanates of Malaysia. Pengiran Muda Mahkota in Brunei

Equivalents in other cultures:

Jaguar Prince
Prince
(Mesoamerica) Ka Haku O Hawaiʻi or "The Lord of Hawaii" in the Hawaiian language. Aremo, "First Son and Heir" in the Yoruba language
Yoruba language
of West Africa, used as a royal title in many of the kingdoms of the region.

See also[edit]

Caesar (title)
Caesar (title)
(since the tetrarchy) and Consors imperii Princeps iuventutis Prince
Prince
of the blood "Crown Prince
Prince
Party" of the People's Republic of China List of heirs apparent

Sources and references[edit]

RoyalArk- see each present country Heraldica.org- here napoleonic section

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