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A CROWN PRINCE or CROWN PRINCESS is the heir apparent to the throne in a royal or imperial monarchy . The wife of a crown prince is also styled crown princess.

CONTENTS

* 1 Description * 2 Christian/Western traditional titles * 3 \'Crown Prince\' as a title for an heir apparent used today * 4 Other specific traditions * 5 See also * 6 Sources and references

DESCRIPTION

The term is now borne as a title mainly in Asia
Asia
, Scandinavia
Scandinavia
, and the Middle East
Middle East
; but it may also be used generically to refer to the person or position of the heir apparent in other kingdoms . However, heirs apparent to non-imperial and non-royal monarchies (i.e., wherein the hereditary sovereign holds a title below that of king/queen, e.g., grand duke or prince ), crown prince is not used as a title, although it is sometimes used as a synonym for heir apparent.

In Europe, where primogeniture governs succession to all monarchies except those of the Papacy and Andorra
Andorra
, the eldest son or (more recently) eldest child ( Belgium
Belgium
, Denmark
Denmark
, the Netherlands
Netherlands
, Norway
Norway
, Spain
Spain
, Sweden
Sweden
, and the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
) of the current monarch fills the role of crown prince or princess, depending upon whether females of the dynasty enjoy personal succession rights . The eldest living child of a monarch is sometimes not the heir apparent or crown prince, because that position can be held by a descendant of a deceased older child who, by "right of representation", inherits the same place in the line of succession that would be held by the ancestor if he or she were still living (e.g., Carl Gustaf, Duke
Duke
of Jämtland , was Crown Prince
Prince
of Sweden
Sweden
from 1950 to 1973, as the senior grandson by male primogeniture of King Gustaf VI Adolf of Sweden
Sweden
, although the former Prince
Prince
Sigvard, Duke
Duke
of Uppland , was Gustaf VI Adolf's eldest living son, and Prince
Prince
Bertil, Duke
Duke
of Halland , his eldest living dynastic son during those years).

In some monarchies, those of the Middle East
Middle East
for example, in which primogeniture is not the decisive factor in dynastic succession, a person may not possess the title or status of crown prince by right of birth, but may obtain (and lose) it as a result of an official designation made on some other legal or traditional basis, e.g., former Crown Prince
Prince
Hassan bin Talal of Jordan .

Compare heir apparent and heir presumptive . In Scandinavian kingdoms, the heir presumptive to the crown may hold a different title than the heir apparent : Hereditary Prince
Prince
(German: Erbprinz, French: prince héréditaire). It is also the title borne by the heir apparent of Liechtenstein
Liechtenstein
, as well as the heir apparent or presumptive of Monaco
Monaco
. In Luxembourg
Luxembourg
, the heir apparent bears the title of Hereditary Grand Duke
Duke
(German: Erbgroßherzog, Luxembourgish: Ierfgroussherzog); along with Hereditary Prince, it was also the title borne by the heirs apparent to the thrones of the grand duchies, sovereign duchies and principalities , and of mediatized princely families in the German monarchies abolished in 1918.

CHRISTIAN/WESTERN TRADITIONAL TITLES

Many monarchies use or did use substantive titles for their heirs apparent, often of historical origin:

* Dauphin ( Kingdom of France
Kingdom of France
) * Duke
Duke
of Brabant ( Belgium
Belgium
) * Duke
Duke
of Braganza ( Kingdom of Portugal ) * Duke
Duke
of Cornwall ( Kingdom of England
Kingdom of England
) * Duke
Duke
of Rothesay ( Kingdom of Scotland
Kingdom of Scotland
), currently used by the Prince
Prince
of Wales in place of his Welsh title when in Scotland * Grand Prince
Prince
( Grand Duchy of Tuscany ) * Margrave of Moravia ( Kingdom of Bohemia
Kingdom of Bohemia
) * Prince
Prince
of Asturias (Castile & Spain
Spain
) * Prince
Prince
of Girona (Aragon & Spain) * Prince
Prince
Imperial ( Empire of Brazil , Second French Empire , and Empire of Mexico ) * Prince
Prince
of Orange (Netherlands), whether or not the equivalent title is held by the spouse of the titleholder is decided by the Dutch parliament (e.g., Queen Máxima of the Netherlands
Netherlands
was never titled Princess of Orange by marriage for this reason) * Prince
Prince
of Piedmont ( Kingdom of Sardinia , and then Kingdom of Italy , when it was alternated with Prince
Prince
of Naples) * Prince
Prince
Royal (France in 1789–91 and the July Monarchy
Monarchy
, and Portugal
Portugal
since 1815) * Prince
Prince
of Turnovo ( Kingdom of Bulgaria ) * Prince
Prince
of Viana (Navarre during, at least, reigns of Christopher II and Valdemar IV ) * Prince
Prince
of Norway
Norway
(Denmark- Norway
Norway
); in 15th-19th centuries * Duke
Duke
of Valentinois , used by several heirs to the Monégasque throne * Prince
Prince
of Wales (England, Great Britain, United Kingdom) * King of the Romans (Holy Roman Empire
Roman Empire
) - an elective, rather than an inherited title, for the designated successor—usually the son, but sometimes the brother—of the Emperor * King of Rome ( First French Empire
First French Empire
) * Duke
Duke
of Sparta ( Kingdom of Greece
Kingdom of Greece
); used briefly, within Greece, only by Prince
Prince
Constantine , during the reign of his father King George I * Marquess of Baux : used by several heirs to the Monégasque throne * Prince
Prince
of Brazil (title of the Portuguese heir from 1645 to 1815) * Duke
Duke
of Scania ( Sweden
Sweden
during the time when Magnus IV of Sweden also was King of Terra Scania ) * Prince
Prince
of Ani ( Kingdom of West Armenia ) * Prince
Prince
of Alba Iulia
Alba Iulia
( Kingdom of Romania
Kingdom of Romania
) * Grand Voivode of Grahovo ( Kingdom of Montenegro ) * Prince
Prince
of Venice (see Prince
Prince
Eugène de Beauharnais ); for the heir presumptive to Napoleon I
Napoleon I
in his Kingdom of Italy * Duke
Duke
of Calabria ( Kingdom of Naples
Kingdom of Naples
and Kingdom of the Two Sicilies ); prior to the accession of King Robert the title of the Neapolitan heir was Prince
Prince
of Salerno

\'CROWN PRINCE\' AS A TITLE FOR AN HEIR APPARENT USED TODAY

Currently, the following states use the term "crown prince" (or "crown princess") for the heirs apparent to their thrones:

* Bahrain - Crown Prince
Prince
Salman bin Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa * Brunei
Brunei
- Crown Prince
Prince
Al-Muhtadee Billah * Denmark
Denmark
- Crown Prince
Prince
Frederik , Count of Montpezat * Japan - Crown Prince
Prince
Naruhito * Jordan - Crown Prince
Prince
Hussein * Kuwait - Nawaf Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah * Morocco - Crown Prince
Prince
Moulay Hassan * Norway
Norway
- Crown Prince
Prince
Haakon * Saudi Arabia - Crown Prince
Prince
Mohammed bin Salman * Swaziland - (position of Crown Prince
Prince
currently vacant) * Sweden
Sweden
- Crown Princess Victoria , Duchess of Västergötland * Thailand
Thailand
- (position of Crown Prince
Prince
currently vacant) * Tonga - Crown Prince
Prince
Tupoutoʻa ʻUlukalala

* United Arab Emirates: each of the constituent emirates of the U.A.E. uses the title of 'Crown Prince' for their heirs apparent:

* Abu Dhabi - Crown Prince
Prince
Mohammed bin Zayed Al Nahyan * Dubai - Crown Prince
Prince
Hamdan bin Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum * Fujairah - Crown Prince
Prince
Mohammed bin Hamad bin Mohammed Al Sharqi * Ajman - Crown Prince
Prince
Ammar bin Humaid Al Nuaimi * Ras Al-Khamiah - Crown Prince
Prince
Muhammed bin Saud bin Saqr Al Qasimi * Sharjah - Crown Prince
Prince
Sultan Bin Mohammed Bin Sultan Al Qasimi * Umm al-Quwain - Crown Prince
Prince
Rashid bin Saud bin Rashid Al Mua'lla

In addition; the following heirs apparent to deposed monarchies use the title of Crown Prince
Prince
as a title used by international courtesy:

* Ahmad Shah Khan, Crown Prince
Prince
of Afghanistan * Pavlos, Crown Prince
Prince
of Greece . * Reza Pahlavi, Crown Prince
Prince
of Iran . * Paras, Crown Prince
Prince
of Nepal
Nepal
* Alexander, Crown Prince
Prince
of Yugoslavia .

OTHER SPECIFIC TRADITIONS

Egypt
Egypt
, Prince
Prince
of the Sa\'id , meaning Prince
Prince
of Upper Egypt
Egypt

Persia (Iran) , Pahlavi dynasty and Qajar dynasty
Qajar dynasty
, the full style was Vala Hazrat-i-Humayun Vali Ahd , Shahzada (given name), (in Persian: والاحضرت همایون ولایتعهد) i.e. His August Imperial Highness the Heir Apparent, Prince
Prince
...;

* the above component VALI AHD (or Velayat Ahd) meaning 'successor by virtue of a covenant' (or various forms and etymological derivations) was adopted by many oriental monarchies, even some non-Muslim, e.g. WALET as alternative title for the Nepali (Hindu) royal heir apparent; first used Crown Prince
Prince
Trailokya in the middle of the nineteenth century, taken from the Mughal title 'Vali Ahd'

Hindu
Hindu
tradition (Indian subcontinent):

* Yuvaraja was part of the full title in many princely states of India, e.g.

* in Jammu * the eldest son of the heir apparent was styled: Sri
Sri
Sri
Sri
Sri
Sri
Sri Sri
Sri
NAVA YUVARAJ ('Young Crown Prince') (personal name) Bir Bikram Shah Deva

East Asian traditions:

* The cognates of Chinese Huang Taizi (皇太子, "Great Imperial Son") - if a son of the reigning emperor, and Huang Taisun (皇太孫, Great Imperial Grandson) - if a grandson of the emperor:

IF THE HEIR APPARENT IS A: SON GRANDSON

Chinese Huang Taizi Huang Taisun

Japanese Kōtaishi Kōtaison

Korean Hwangtaeja (황태자) Hwangtaeson (황태손)

Vietnamese Hoàng Thái Tử Hoàng Thái Tôn

* During the Joseon Dynasty
Dynasty
in Korea
Korea
, the crown prince was referred as Dong-gung(동궁, 東宮) due to the location of his residence from the main palace; or wangseja (王世子 왕세자). He was not necessarily the first-born son, wonja (元子 원자).

Southeast Asian traditions:

* Siam Makutrajakuman (สยามมกุฎราชกุมาร) in Thailand
Thailand
since 1886. * Krom Phrarajawangboworn Sathanmongkol or Phra Maha Uparaja or commonly called Wang Na (or Front Palace ) in Thailand
Thailand
prior to 1886. * Kanjeng Gusti Pangeran Adipati Anom in Yogyakarta
Yogyakarta
sultanate and Surakarta
Surakarta
, Indonesia
Indonesia
. * Raja Muda or Tengku Mahkota in the Malay sultanates of Malaysia
Malaysia
. * Pengiran Muda Mahkota in Brunei
Brunei

Equivalents in other cultures:

* Jaguar Prince
Prince
( Mesoamerica
Mesoamerica
) * Ka Haku O Hawaiʻi or

SEE ALSO

* Caesar (title)
Caesar (title)
(since the tetrarchy ) and Consors imperii * Princeps iuventutis * Prince
Prince
of the blood * "Crown Prince
Prince
Party " of the People\'s Republic of China * List of heirs apparent

SOURCES AND REFERENCES

* RoyalArk- see each present country * Heraldica.org- here napoleonic section

AUTHORITY CONTROL

* GND : 4771859-6 * NDL

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