The CROWN ESTATE is a collection of lands and holdings in the United
Kingdom belonging to the British monarch as a corporation sole ,
making it the "Sovereign's public estate", which is neither government
property nor part of the monarch's private estate. As a result of
this arrangement, the sovereign is not involved with the management or
administration of the estate, exercising only very limited control of
its affairs. Instead, the estate's extensive portfolio is overseen by
a semi-independent, incorporated public body headed by the CROWN
ESTATE COMMISSIONERS, who exercise "the powers of ownership" of the
estate, although they are not "owners in their own right". The
revenues from these hereditary possessions have been placed by the
monarch at the disposition of Her Majesty\'s Government and thus
proceed directly to Her Majesty\'s Treasury for the benefit of the
British nation. The
Crown Estate is formally accountable to the
Parliament of the United Kingdom
The Crown Estate is one of the largest property managers in the United Kingdom, overseeing property worth £12 billion, with urban properties valued at £9.1 billion representing the majority of the estate by value. These include a large number of properties in central London, but the estate also controls 792,000 ha (1,960,000 acres) of agricultural land and forest, more than half of the UK's foreshore , and retains various other traditional holdings and rights, including Ascot Racecourse and Windsor Great Park . Naturally occurring gold and silver in the UK, collectively known as "Mines Royal", are managed by the Crown Estate and leased to mining operators.
Crown Estate properties were administered by the
reigning monarch to help fund the business of governing the country.
However, in 1760,
* 1 History
* 2 Present day
* 2.1 Crown Estate Act 1961
* 2.2 Holdings
* 2.2.1 Urban portfolio * 2.2.2 Rural portfolio * 2.2.3 Windsor Estate * 2.2.4 Marine holdings * 2.2.5 Other rights and interests
* 2.3 Finances
* 3 Governance
* 3.1 Historical * 3.2 Chairmen and chief executives of the Crown Estate Commissioners
* 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 References * 7 External links
CROWN LAND IN ENGLAND AND WALES
The history of the Crown lands in
England and Wales
Before the reign of William III all the revenues of the kingdom were bestowed on the monarch for the general expenses of government. These revenues were of two kinds:
* the hereditary revenues, derived principally from the Crown lands, feudal rights (commuted for the hereditary excise duties in 1660), profits of the post office, with licences, this created a personal debt for the monarch.
On George III's accession he surrendered the income from the Crown lands to Parliament, together with abrogating responsibility for the cost of the civil government and the clearance of associated debts. As a result, and to avoid pecuniary embarrassment, he was granted a fixed civil list payment and the income retained from the Duchy of Lancaster . The King surrendered to parliamentary control the hereditary excise duties, post office revenues, and "the small branches" of hereditary revenue including rents of the Crown lands in England (which amounted to about £11,000, or £1,499,917 today), and was granted a civil list annuity of £800,000 (equal to £109,084,906 today) for the support of his household, subject to the payment of certain annuities to members of the royal family.
Although the King had retained large hereditary revenues, his income proved insufficient for his charged expenses because he used the privilege to reward supporters with bribes and gifts. Debts amounting to over £3 million (equal to £216,265,586 today) over the course of George's reign were paid by Parliament, and the civil list annuity was then increased from time to time.
Every succeeding sovereign down to and including
A new consolidated grant rounding together the Civil List, Royal Palaces and Royal Travel grants-in-aid. It is intended that future funding will be set as a fraction of The Crown Estate revenue and paid through the annual Treasury Estimates process, and subject to full National Audit Office audit. . . .
The Grant is to enable The Queen to discharge her duties as Head of State. i.e it meets the central staff costs and running expenses of Her Majesty's official Household – such things as official receptions, investitures, garden parties and so on. It will also cover the maintenance of the Royal Palaces in England and the cost of travel to carry out royal engagements such as opening buildings and other royal visits. . . .
While the amount of the Grant will be linked to the profits of the Crown Estate, those profits will continue to be paid in to the Exchequer; they are not to be hypothecated. Setting the Grant at a percentage of profits of the Crown Estate will help to put in place a durable and transparent framework.
In April 2014 it was reported that the Crown Estate is proposing to sell about 200 of its 750 rural homes in the UK but at the same time – * take into account the need to observe a high standard of estate management practice.
* When selling or letting its property the Crown Estate should always seek to achieve the best consideration (i.e. price) which can reasonably be obtained in all the circumstances, but discounting any monopoly value (mainly from ownership of the foreshore and seabed). * The Crown Estate cannot grant leases for a term of longer than 150 years. * The Crown Estate cannot grant land options for more than ten years unless the property is re-valued when the option is exercised. * The Crown Estate cannot borrow money. * Donations can be made for religious or educational purposes connected with the estate or for tenants’ welfare. Otherwise, charitable donations are forbidden. * The character of the Windsor estate (Park and Forest) must be preserved; no part of the estate may be sold. * A report should be submitted to the Queen and to Parliament annually, showing the performance of the estate over the previous year. * The Crown Estate should observe professional accounting practices and distinguish in its accounts between capital and revenue.
* Money received as a premium from a tenant on the granting of a new lease should be allocated between capital and revenue as follows:
* where the lease is for a term of thirty years or less it must be treated as revenue; * for leases of more than thirty years it must be treated as capital.
In 2010 a UK Parliament Treasury Committee report on the Crown Estate, the first for twenty years, reported that
* it is “alarmed” that the Crown Estate in 2007 started investing in joint ventures such as the Gibraltar Limited Partnership, which it says is in “grave” financial difficulties. The Crown Estate owns 50% of the partnership, which owns the Fort Kinnaird retail park near Edinburgh; * the Crown Estate has a monopoly over the marine environment, and has focused too strongly on collecting revenues rather than acting in the long-term public interest around ports and harbours; * the quality of residential property management in the urban estate falls short. Consultation processes have lacked transparency, and the Committee was "particularly concerned" that the Crown Estate had failed to consult local bodies which had rights to nominate key workers; * some non-commercial historic properties should be reviewed with a view to transferring management to conservation bodies such as English Heritage; * Ministers should take a greater interest in the Crown Estate, because its overall management struggles to balance revenue generating with acting in the wider public interest.
Crown Estate chief executive Roger Bright said: “We welcome the Committee’s recognition that we run a successful business operation.”
This includes the entirety of
In 2002 the Crown Estate began implementing a £1 billion investment programme to improve Regent Street's commercial, retail and visitor facilities and public realm. In addition, they are investing £500 million in St James's, including a number of major redevelopments.
Holdings consist of around 144,000 hectares (356,000 acres) of agricultural land and forests, together with minerals and residential and commercial property.
Agricultural interests Agricultural interests include both livestock and arable farming. Consisting of around 106,000 hectares (263,000 acres) across the UK, they also include 26,900 hectares (66,500 acres) of common land, principally in Wales.
Salmon fishings The legal rights to salmon fishings on many rivers in Scotland.
Almost 11,000 hectares (27,000 acres) of forestry, including areas
Minerals Rights to extract minerals covers some 115,500 hectares (285,500 acres). Actual operations include 34 lettings, extracting sand, gravel, limestone, granite, brick clay, coal, slate and dimension stone.
The Windsor Estate covers approximately 6,300 hectares and includes Windsor Great Park , the Home Park of Windsor Castle , extensive forests, residential and commercial properties, golf courses, a racecourse and let farms.
Commercial and residential Offices, retail and hotel 250 hectares
Leisure Golf clubs/ Ascot Racecourse 250 hectares
Agriculture Farms 1,200 hectares
Parkland Home Park /Great Park 1,600 hectares
Forestry Woodland areas 3,100 hectares
The Crown Estate's marine holdings consist of:
Territorial seabed The Crown Estate owns virtually all of the UK's seabed from mean low water to the 12-nautical-mile (22 km) limit.
Continental shelf and extraterritorial rights Sovereign rights of the UK in the seabed and its resources vested by the Continental Shelf Act 1964 (sub-soil and substrata below the surface of the seabed, but excluding oil, gas and coal), the Energy Acts 2004 (renewable energy) and 2008 (gas and carbon storage).
The Crown Estate plays a major role in the development of the offshore wind energy industry in the UK. Other commercial activity managed by the Crown Estate on the seabed includes wave and tidal energy, carbon capture and storage, aggregates, submarine cables and pipelines and the mining of potash . In terms of the foreshore, the Crown Estate issue licences or leases for around 850 aquaculture sites and owns marina space for approximately 18,000 moorings.
Other Rights And Interests
Other rights and interests include:
CrownGate Shopping Centre
Westgate Shopping Centre in
Crown Point Shopping Park in
Princes Street, London W1B (near
Savoy Estate apportionment Right to receive 23% of the income from the Duchy of Lancaster's Savoy Estate in London.
Native mussels and oysters in Scotland Wild crustaceans (does not include cultivated crustaceans)
Reversionary and contingent interests Some properties are sold by the Crown Estate for public benefit (such as educational or religious use) with a reverter clause, which means ownership may revert to the Crown Estate in the event of a change of use.
Hereditary properties of the monarch currently in government use will revert to the Crown Estate in the event of the government use ceasing.
Land that has no owner other than the Crown as lord paramount of
the whole soil of the country. Escheat can result from bankruptcy or
the dissolution of companies. Freehold land owned by dissolved
companies which were registered in England or
Licences and right granted at nil rent Includes: water mains, cables, substations and war memorials.
In the 2015/2016 fiscal year, the Crown Estate's property evaluation was £12 billion with a £304.1 million net revenue profit (up 6.7%).
Previous officials responsible for managing what is now the Crown Estate were:
Surveyor General of Woods, Forests, Parks, and Chases
CHAIRMEN AND CHIEF EXECUTIVES OF THE CROWN ESTATE COMMISSIONERS
CHAIRMEN (FIRST COMMISSIONER)
* 1955–62 – Sir Malcolm Trustram Eve (later Lord Silsoe)
* 1962–77 – The Earl of Perth (1907–2002)
* 1977–80 – Lord Thomson of Monifieth (1921–2008)
* 1980–85 – The Earl of Crawford and Balcarres (born 1927)
* 1985–95 – The Earl of Mansfield and Mansfield (1930–2015)
* 1995–2002 – Sir Denys Hartley Henderson (1932–2016)
* 2002–2009 – Sir
Ian David Grant (born 1943)
* 2010–2016 – Sir
CHIEF EXECUTIVES (SECOND COMMISSIONER)
* 1955–60 – Sir Ronald Montague Joseph Harris (1913–1995) * 1960–68 – Sir Jack Alexander Sutherland-Harris (1908–1986) * 1968–78 – Sir William Alan Wood (1916–2010) * 1978–83 – Sir John Michael Moore (born 1921) * 1983–89 – Dr Keith Dexter (1928–1989) * 1989-2001– Sir Christopher Howes (born 1942) * 2001–2011 Roger Martin Francis Bright (born 1951) * 2012– Alison Nimmo (born 1964)
The chairman (formally titled "first commissioner") is part-time. The chief executive (the "second commissioner") is the only full-time executive member of the Crown Estate's board.
Crown Estate Paving Commission
Duchy of Lancaster
* ^ A B C The House of Commons Treasury Committee (2010). The
management of the
Crown Estate (PDF). London: House of Commons. pp.
* ^ A B "Sovereign Grant Bill – Further background information
provided to Members of Parliament in advance of the Bill\'s Second
Reading Debate on 14 July 2011" (PDF). Her Majesty's Treasury. July
2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-01-29. Retrieved 28
* ^ "Who owns The Crown Estate?". The Crown Estate. Retrieved 29
* ^ A B "Sovereign Grant Act,2011: Guidance". Her Majesty's
Treasury (gov.uk). 2011. Retrieved 29 December 2015.
* ^ A B "
Crown Estate Act, 1961" (PDF). Her Majesty's Stationery
Office and Queen's Printer of Acts of Parliament. 1961. pp. 5–7.
Retrieved 31 December 2015.
* ^ "The
Crown Estate – Who We Are". The Crown Estate. Retrieved
29 December 2015.
* ^ "Gracious Message from the Queen to the House of Commons re:
Sovereign Grant" (PDF). Buckingham Palace. 2011. Archived from the
original (PDF) on 2013-01-29. Retrieved 29 December 2015.
* ^ A B "FAQs". The Crown Estate. Archived from the original on 3
September 2011. Retrieved 20 October 2008.
* ^ "
Crown Estate makes record £304m Treasury payout". BBC News.
28 June 2016. Retrieved 28 June 2016.
* ^ "Integrated Annual Report 2015/16" (PDF). The Crown Estate.
Retrieved 19 October 2016.
* ^ "Schedule of The Crown Estate\'s properties rights and
interests June 2015" (PDF). The Crown Estate. Retrieved 19 October
* ^ "Our Portfolio". The Crown Estate. Retrieved 19 October 2016.
* ^ "Commercial Development of Mines Royal". The Crown Estate.
Retrieved 19 October 2016.
* ^ Pugh, p 3
* ^ Pugh. pp. 3–4
* ^ Commissioners of Enquiry, s. 38
* ^ Pugh, p. 5
* ^ Commissioners of Enquiry, s. 26
* ^ A B C H M Treasury "Blue Note", Class X, 2, 1912
* ^ A B C Best, p. 1
* ^ A B C Best, p. 2
* ^ The Guardian, "The royal family and the public purse", March 6,
* ^ A Student\'s Manual of English Constitutional History by Dudley
Julius Medley, pg. 501, 1902
* ^ Ilbert, C. P.,