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A crown-cardinal (Italian: cardinale della corona)[1] was a cardinal protector of a Roman Catholic nation, nominated or funded by a Catholic monarch to serve as their representative within the College of Cardinals[2][3] and, on occasion, to exercise the right claimed by some monarchs to veto a candidate for election to the papacy.[4] More generally, the term may refer to any cardinal significant as a secular statesman or elevated at the request of a monarch. Francis Burkle-Young defines a crown cardinal as one "elevated to the cardinalate solely on the recommendation of the European kings and without, in many cases, having performed any service at all for the advance of the Church."[5] According to conclave historian Frederic Baumgartner, the crown-cardinals "rarely came to Rome except for the conclaves, if then, and they were largely unknown to the majority of the College. Usually unable to take part in the pratiche, they were not papabili and rarely received more than one or two votes".[6] Crown-cardinals generally opposed the election of crown-cardinals from other kingdoms, although they tended to unite against the election of cardinal-nephews.[6] Opposition to national cardinal protectors arose in the fifteenth century due to the perceived conflict of interest, and Pope
Pope
Martin V attempted to forbid them entirely in 1425.[7] A reform of Pope
Pope
Pius II dated 1464 regards national cardinal protectors as generally inconsistent with curial responsibility, with several exceptions.[7] Such protectorships were first openly permitted by popes Innocent VIII and Alexander VI, both of whom required the explicit written consent of the pontiff for a cardinal to take up a "position of service to a secular prince".[8] An unnamed cardinal even suggested elevating national cardinal protectors to a full and official position in the Roman Curia, equivalent to an ambassador.[8]

Contents

1 History 2 Role in conclaves 3 List of cardinal protector crown-cardinals

3.1 Of Hungary 3.2 Of Austria 3.3 Of England 3.4 Of Ireland 3.5 Of Scotland 3.6 Of France 3.7 Of the Holy Roman Empire 3.8 Of Poland 3.9 Of Sweden 3.10 Of Portugal 3.11 Of Savoy/Kingdom of Sardinia 3.12 Of Naples 3.13 Of Sicily 3.14 Of the Kingdom of Two Sicilies 3.15 Of Castile/Spain 3.16 Of Aragon 3.17 Of Flanders

4 List of other national cardinal protectors

4.1 Of Switzerland 4.2 Of Republic of Genoa

5 List of non-cardinal protector crown-cardinals 6 See also 7 References

History[edit] The institution of a cardinal protector of a nation-state may have originated in the 14th century, serving as a predecessor for the diplomatic institutions of the Holy See
Holy See
developed in the 16th century.[9] The institution of the crown-cardinal first became a dominant one within the College of Cardinals
College of Cardinals
with the consistory of Pope
Pope
Eugene IV on December 18, 1439 (on the heels of the election of Antipope Felix V
Antipope Felix V
by the Council of Basel), which nominated an unprecedented number of cardinals with strong ties to European monarchs and other political institutions.[10]

Monarch/Nation Cardinal Notes

Charles VII of France Renaud de Chartres Chancellor of France

Charles VII of France Guillaume d'Estouteville Royal cousin, constructor of Mont Saint-Michel

Henry VI of England Louis de Luxembourg de Beaurevoir Chancellor for France

Henry VI of England John Kemp former chancellor of England and archbishop of York

Afonso V of Portugal António Martins de Chaves Bishop of Porto

Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Hungary
(interregnum) Dénes Szécsi Primate-designate of Hungary

Władysław III of Poland Zbigniew Oleśnicki Archbishop
Archbishop
of Kraków

Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
(interregnum) Petrus de Schaumburg Imperial Counsellor

René I of Naples Niccolo d'Acciapaccio Archbishop
Archbishop
of Capua

Milan Gerardo Landriani Capitani Bishop of Como

Genoa Giorgio Fieschi di Lavagna Archbishop
Archbishop
of Genoa

Philip the Good Jean Le Jeune Ambassador to the Council of Ferrara-Florence

Zbigniew Oleśnicki, one of the first crown-cardinals

The first explicit reference to protectorship pertaining to a nation-state dates to 1425 (the Catholic Encyclopedia
Catholic Encyclopedia
says 1424[11]) when Pope
Pope
Martin V forbade cardinals to "assume the protection of any king, prince or commune ruled by a tyrant or any other secular person whatsoever."[12] This prohibition was renewed in 1492 by Pope Alexander VI. This prohibition was not renewed by Pope
Pope
Leo X in the ninth session of the Lateran Council of 1512.[11] Some crown-cardinals were cardinal-nephews or members of powerful families; others were selected solely on the recommendation of European monarchs, in many cases with little previous ecclesiastical experience.[13] During the reigns of Avignon Pope
Pope
Clement VI and Pope Urban VI in particular, it was acknowledged that monarchs could select retainers and expect them to be elevated to the College of Cardinals.[13] The going rate for the creation of a crown-cardinal was about 2,832 scudi.[2] Pope
Pope
Alexander VII had to elevate crown-cardinals in pectore.[14] Pope Urban VI (1378–1389) forbade crown-cardinals from receiving gifts from their respective sovereigns.[11] World War I cemented the decline of the institution of the crown cardinal, as many monarchies either became extinct or declined in power.[13] Role in conclaves[edit] Main article: Jus exclusivae In the case of Spain, France, and Austria, from the 16th to 20th centuries, crown-cardinals had the prerogative to exercise the jus exclusivae (a veto for "unacceptable" candidates) during a Papal conclave on behalf of their patron monarch. Crown-cardinals usually arrived with a list of such unacceptable candidates but often had to confer with their patrons during conclaves via messengers, and attempt (sometimes unsuccessfully) to delay the conclave until a response arrived. For example, Pope
Pope
Innocent X
Innocent X
(elected 1644) and Pope
Pope
Innocent XIII (elected 1721) survived late arriving veto orders from France and Spain respectively.[1] Austrian crown-cardinal Carlo Gaetano Gaisruck arrived too late to the Papal conclave
Papal conclave
of 1846 to exercise the veto against Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti (who had already been elected and taken the name Pius IX). List of cardinal protector crown-cardinals[edit] The following includes a complete list of crown cardinal-protectors in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries:[15] Of Hungary[edit]

Pietro Isvalies (1507–1511) Giulio de Medici (?– 1523)

Of Austria[edit]

Jan Puzyna de Kosielsko, crown-cardinal of Austria, was the last to exercise the jus exclusivae.

Protectors:

1523–1531: Lorenzo Pucci 1532–1535: Giovanni Salviati 1540–1542: Girolamo Aleander 1542–1555: Marcello Cervini 1555–1580: Giovanni Girolamo Morone 1580–1600: Andreas von Österreich 1603–1634: Franz von Dietrichstein 1635–1638: Ippolito Aldobrandini 1638–1642: Maurizio di Savoia 1655–1667: Ernst Adalbert von Harrach

Federico Sforza
Federico Sforza
(1664–1666, substitute protector of Habsburg hereditary lands)[16]

1673–1689: Carlo Pio di Savoia 1689–1701: Francesco Maria de' Medici 1701–1707: Leopold Karl von Kollonitsch 1707–1712: Johann Philipp von Lamberg 1712–1725: Christian von Sachsen-Zeitz 1726–1738: Wolfgang von Schrattenbach 1738–1751: Sigismund von Kollonitsch 1751–1758: Ferdinand Julius von Troyer 1779–1800: František Herczan 1823–1834: Giuseppe Albani 1858–1867: Pietro Silvestri

Vice-protectors and co-protectors

1536–1541: Alessandro Cesarini 1560–1565: Cristoforo Madruzzo 1571: Marcantonio Colonna 1574/ 1580/81: Tolomeo Galli 1581–1603: Alfonso Gesualdo 1584–1587: Antonio Carafa 1604–1607: Alfonso Visconti 1607–1611: Ottavio Paravicini 1612–1621: Pietro Aldobrandini 1621–1632: Ludovico Ludovisi 1629–1631: Cosimo de Torres 1635–1641: Carlo Emanuele di Savoia 1642–1644: Alfonso de la Cueva 1644–1655: Ernst von Harrach 1645–1664: Girolamo Colonna 1664–1667: Fedrigo Sforza 1667–1675: Friedrich von Hessen-Darmstadt 1690–1693: José Saenz d'Aguirre 1694–1700: Francesco del Guidice 1701/02/ 1706–1710: Vincenzo Grimani 1703–05/ 1708–12: Fabrizio Paolucci 1713–1719: Wolfgang von Schrattenbach 1719–1722: Michael Friedrich von Althan 1722–1726: Alvaro Cienfuegos 1735–1743: Niccolò del Giudice 1743–1779: Alessandro Albani

Of England[edit] Main article: Cardinal protector
Cardinal protector
of England Of Ireland[edit]

Girolamo Ghinucci
Girolamo Ghinucci
(1539–1541) Rodolfo Pio di Carpi
Rodolfo Pio di Carpi
(1545–1554) Giovanni Girolamo Morone
Giovanni Girolamo Morone
(1555? – 1574?) Francesco Alciati (1574–1580)[17] Flavio Orsini (1580–1581) Nicholas Pelleve (1582–1594) Girolamo Mattei
Girolamo Mattei
(1594? – 1603) Pompeo Arrigoni (1605–1616) Fabrizio Veralli (1616? – 1624) Ludovico Ludovisi
Ludovico Ludovisi
(1625–1632)[18] Antonio Barberini
Antonio Barberini
(1633? – 1671) Paluzzo Paluzzi Altieri degli Albertoni
Paluzzo Paluzzi Altieri degli Albertoni
(1671–1698) Giuseppe Renato Imperiali
Giuseppe Renato Imperiali
(1706–1737) Neri Maria Corsini
Neri Maria Corsini
(1737–1770) Mario Marefoschi (1771–1780) Gregorio Salviati
Gregorio Salviati
(1781–1794) Carlo Livizzani (1794–1802)

Of Scotland[edit]

Antoniotto Pallavicini (1504–1507) Pietro Accolti (1514–1532) Benedetto Accolti (1532–1538) Rodolfo Pio di Carpi
Rodolfo Pio di Carpi
(1538–1549) Giovanni Domenico de Cupis
Giovanni Domenico de Cupis
(1550–1553)[19] Niccolo Caetani Sermoneta (1570–1585) Camillo Borghese (1603–1605) Maffeo Barberini (1608–1623) Francesco Barberini (1623–1679) Phillip Howard of Norfolk
Phillip Howard of Norfolk
(1680–1694) Taddeo da Verme (1706–1717) Alessandro Falconieri (1727–1734) Domenico Riviera (1734–1752) Giuseppe Spinelli
Giuseppe Spinelli
(1754–1763) Giovanni Francesco Albani (1763–1803) Charles Erskine (1804–1811)

Of France[edit]

François de Joyeuse, cardinal protector of France, anointing Queen Dowager Marie de Medici
Marie de Medici
in 1610

The King of France
King of France
historically had only one cardinal protector at a time,[16] chosen by a complicated process that involved the King, the secretary of state for foreign affairs, the French ambassador to Rome, and other French power brokers, but not the pope.[20] The crown-cardinal of France was also abbot commendatario of several French abbeys.[21] There was traditionally at least one resident French cardinal in the Roman Curia
Roman Curia
during the first half of the sixteenth century, but Louis XII and Francis I chose three successive Italian cardinals as protector of France thereafter.[7]

1513–1516: Federico di Sanseverino 1516–1523: Giulio de Medici 1523–1548: Agostino Trivulzio

Niccolò Gaddi
Niccolò Gaddi
(vice-protector from 1533)[22]

1549–1572: Ippolito II d'Este[23][24] 1573–1586: Luigi d'Este 1587–1615: François de Joyeuse

Vice-protector Arnaud d'Ossat (1599–1604) Vice-protector François de La Rochefoucald
François de La Rochefoucald
(October 1609–May 1611)[25]

1616–1620: Alessandro Orsini

Guido Bentivoglio
Guido Bentivoglio
(vice-protector from 1621 until 1636)[20]

1621–1636: Maurizio di Savoia 1636–1644: Antonio Barberini 1645–1672: Rinaldo d'Este

Alessandro Bichi
Alessandro Bichi
(vice-protector 1645 until 1657)

1672–1676: Virginio Orsini (from 1646 acted as co-protector) 1676–1701: César d'Estrées 1702–1709: Francesco Maria de’Medici 1709–1740: Pietro Ottoboni

Pierre Guérin de Tencin, acting protector until 1758

1758–1765: Prospero Colonna di Sciarra 1769–1792/4: François-Joachim de Pierre de Bernis

Of the Holy Roman Empire[edit]

Ludovico Madruzzo, crown-cardinal of the Holy Roman Empire

The protector of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
was often the protector of the Austrian hereditary lands.[16]

1492–1503: Francesco Piccolomini[26] 1518–1539: Lorenzo Campeggio 1540: Pedro Manriquez 1540–1542: Girolamo Aleander 1542–1550: Innocenzo Cibo 1550–1557: Juan Álvarez de Toledo 1557–1573: Otto Truchsess von Waldburg 1573–1600: Ludovico Madruzzo 1603–1611: Ottavio Paravicini 1611–1633: Scipione Borghese 1635/36: Franz von Dietrichstein[27] 1636–1642: Moritz von Savoyen 1644–1666: Girolamo Colonna 1666–1682: Friedrich von Hessen-Darmstadt 1682–1689: Carlo Pio di Savoia 1689–1701: Francesco Maria de' Medici[28] 1701–1707: Leopold von Kollonitsch 1707–1712: Johann Philipp von Lamberg 1712–1725: Christian August von Sachsen-Zeitz 1726–1738: Wolfgang von Schrattenbach 1738–1751: Sigismund von Kollonitsch 1751–1758: Ferdinand Julius von Troyer 1758–1765: vakant 1765–1779: Alessandro Albani 1779–1800: Franziskus von Paula Herzan von Harras

Vice-protectors and co-protectors

1517–1530: Lorenzo Pucci 1530–1532: Wilhelm van Enkevoirt 1534–1539: Alessandro Cesarini 1538–1540: Girolamo Ghinucci 1540–1542: Alessandro Farnese 1542–1550: Juan Álvarez de Toledo 1550–1553: Bernardo Maffei 1557–1559: Pedro Pacheco 1558–1568: Clemente Dolera 1587–1593: Filippo Spinola 1594–1600: Ottavio Paravicini 1621–1625: Eitel Friedrich von Hohenzollern 1625–1644: Giulio Savelli 1644: Girolamo Colonna

1664–1666: Federico Sforza
Federico Sforza
(substitute protector)[16]

1666–1682: Carlo Pio di Savoia 1690–1693: José Saenz d'Aguirre 1694–1700: Francesco del Guidice 1701/02/ 1706–1710: Vincenzo Grimani 1703–05/ 1708–12: Fabrizio Paolucci 1713–1719: Wolfgang von Schrattenbach 1719–1722: Michael Friedrich von Althan 1722–1726: Alvaro Cienfuegos 1735–1743: Niccolò del Giudice 1745–1765: Alessandro Albani

Of Poland[edit]

Pedro Isvalies (ca. 1506 — 1511) Achille de Grassi (1512–1523) Lorenzo Pucci
Lorenzo Pucci
(1523–1531)[29] Antonio Pucci (1532–1544) Alessandro Farnese (1544–1589)[30]

Bernardino Maffei (vice-protector 1550–1553) Giacomo Puteo (vice-protector 1555–1563) Giacomo Savelli (vice-protector 1563–1587)

Alessandro Peretti di Montalto
Alessandro Peretti di Montalto
(1589–1623) Cosimo de Torres (vice-protector 1622–1623, protector 1623–1642) Giulio Savelli (1642–1644)

Gianbattista Pamphilj (vice-protector until 1644)

Gaspare Mattei (1644–1650) Virginio Orsini (co-protector 1647–1650, protector 1650–1676) Pietro Vidoni
Pietro Vidoni
(co-protector 1676, protector 1676–1681) Carlo Barberini (1681–1704) Annibale Albani
Annibale Albani
(1712–1751) Gian Francesco Albani
Gian Francesco Albani
(1751–1795)

Of Sweden[edit] Cardinal-protectors of Sweden were appointed by king of Poland Zygmunt III Waza, who had claimed the rights to the Swedish Crown.[31]

Odoardo Farnese (1601–1626) Lorenzo Magalotti (1626–1637)

Of Portugal[edit]

1517–1531: Lorenzo Pucci 1533–1544: Antonio Pucci 1545–1564: Guido Ascanio Sforza 1565–1572: Carlo Borromeo 1573–1589: Alessandro Farnese 1591–1603: Alfonso Gesualdo 1604–1626: Odoardo Farnese 1626–1634: Francesco Barberini 1635–1638: Ippolito Aldobrandini 1657–1676: Virginio Orsini 1676–1714: César d'Estrées 1714–1721: Michelangelo Conti 1739–1770: Neri Maria Corsini 1859–1884: Camillo di Pietro 1887–1888: Włodzimierz Czacki 1891–1910/30: Vincenzo Vannutelli

Of Savoy/Kingdom of Sardinia[edit] Protectors of the Duchy of Savoy

1534–1537: Paolo Cesi[19] 1576–1594: Michele Bonelli 1594–1621: Pietro Aldobrandini 1621–1632: Ludovico Ludovisi 1633–1671: Antonio Barberini 1671–1704: Carlo Barberini

Protectors of the Kingdom of Sardinia

1727–1779: Alessandro Albani 1819? – 1834: Giuseppe Albani 1835–1853: Luigi Lambruschini

Of Naples[edit]

1530–1542: Alessandro Cesarini 1544–1549: Alessandro Farnese 1556–1564: Guido Ascanio Sforza 1566–1574: Alessandro Sforza 1574–1603: Alfonso Gesualdo 1605–1608: Ascanio Colonna 1608–1642: Girolamo Doria 1644–1650: Gaspare Mattei 1657–1663: Camillo Astalli 1664–1676: Federico Sforza[16] 1689–1699: José Saenz d'Aguirre

Of Sicily[edit]

1524–1542: Alessandro Cesarini 1542–1589: Alessandro Farnese 1592–1626: Odoardo Farnese 1626–1634: Francesco Barberini 1635–1642: Luigi Caetani 1645–1656: Pier Donato Cesi 1664–1687: Lorenzo Raggi

Federico Sforza
Federico Sforza
(1664–1666, substitute protector)[16]

1687–1699: José Saenz d'Aguirre 1699–1725: Francesco del Giudice

Of the Kingdom of Two Sicilies[edit]

1738–1747: Troiano Acquaviva d'Aragona[32] 1747–1789: Domenico Orsini 1789–1795: Ferdinando Spinelli 1799–1806?: Fabrizio Dionigi Ruffo

Of Castile/Spain[edit]

Ferdinando de' Medici, crown-cardinal of Spain from 1582 to 1584

Giulio Alberoni

The King of Spain
King of Spain
could have as many as five or six cardinal protectors (Spanish: Protector de España) simultaneously, although traditionally the protector of Castile was the most frequently turned to.[16]

1516–1517: Francisco Remolins 1517–1529: Lorenzo Pucci 1529–1534: Andrea della Valle 1534–1563: Ercole Gonzaga 1563–1566: Francesco Gonzaga 1566–1574: Francisco Pacheco de Toledo[33] 1574–1581: Alessandro Sforza[17] 1582–1588: Ferdinando de' Medici[34] Francesco Alciati (Vice-protector circa 1569)[17] 1588–1592: Juan Hurtado Mendoza[35] 1592–1599: Pedro de Deza Manuel[36] 1599–1601: Alessandro d'Este 1601–1606: Francisco de Ávila[37] 1606–1617: Antonio Zapata y Cisneros 1617–1632: Gaspar de Borja y Velasco 1632–1645: Gil Carrillo de Albornoz 1645–1666: Carlo de' Medici

Federico Sforza
Federico Sforza
(1664–1667, substitute protector)[16]

1667–1672: Friedrich von Hessen-Darmstadt 1673–1677: Luis Manuel Portocarrero 1677–1689: Carlo Pio di Savoia 1689–1702: Francesco Maria de' Medici 1702–1713?: Francesco del Giudice 1713–1725: Francesco Acquaviva d'Aragona[38] 1725–1743: Luis Antonio Belluga y Moncada 1743–1747: Troiano Acquaviva d'Aragona[32] 1748–1760: Joaquin Fernandez Portocarrero

Of Aragon[edit]

1517–1531: Lorenzo Pucci 1531–1542: Alessandro Cesarini 1542–1589: Alessandro Farnese 1592–1626: Odoardo Farnese 1626–1634: Francesco Barberini 1635–1641: Carlo Emanuele Pio di Savoia 1645–1666: Girolamo Colonna 1666–1682: Friedrich von Hessen-Darmstadt 1682–1689: Carlo Pio di Savoia 1689–1702: Francesco Maria de’Medici

Of Flanders[edit]

1561–1572: Carlo Borromeo 1573–1597: Marcantonio Colonna 1597–1608: Ascanio Colonna 1608–1633: Scipione Caffarelli-Borghese 1633–1642: Pietro Maria Borghese 1644–1666: Girolamo Colonna

Federico Sforza
Federico Sforza
(1664–1666, substitute protector)[16]

1669–1676: Friedrich von Hessen-Darmstadt 1677–1689: Carlo Pio di Savoia 1689–1702: Francesco Maria de' Medici

List of other national cardinal protectors[edit] Of Switzerland[edit]

Carlo Borromeo
Carlo Borromeo
(1560–1572)[39] Paolo Emilio Sfondrati
Paolo Emilio Sfondrati
(1591–1618) Odoardo Farnese (1618–1626) Francesco Barberini (1626–1679)[16] Carlo Barberini (1680–1704) Fabrizio Spada (1712–1717) Annibale Albani
Annibale Albani
(1717–1751)

Of Republic of Genoa[edit]

Giandomenico Spinola (1626–1630)[40] Laudivio Zacchia (1631–1637)[41] Pietro Maria Borghese
Pietro Maria Borghese
(1638–1642)[42]

List of non-cardinal protector crown-cardinals[edit]

Francisco Jiménez de Cisneros

Of Austria

Andrew of Austria, son of Archduke Ferdinand[43] Joseph Dominicus von Lamberg (December 20, 1737 – August 30, 1761)[44] Rudolf of Austria (June 4, 1819 – July 24, 1831), Archbishop
Archbishop
of Olomouc, Archduke Carlo Gaetano Gaisruck ( Papal conclave
Papal conclave
circa 1846) Jan Maurycy Pawel Puzyna de Kosielsko
Jan Maurycy Pawel Puzyna de Kosielsko
( Papal conclave
Papal conclave
circa 1903)

Of Bavaria

Philipp Wilhelm (22 September 1576 – 18 May 1598), Bishop of Regensburg from 1595, Cardinal from 1597[45] Johann Casimir v. Häffelin (6 April 1818 – 27 August 1827), Ambassador of Bavaria to the Holy See
Holy See
(since 18 November 1803), probably a de facto court bishop since 11 November 1787 (as general vicar of the Bavarian Priory of the Order of Malta)

Of England

Charles of Guise, uncle of Mary, Queen of Scots[43]

Of France

Armand Jean du Plessis, Cardinal Richelieu

Cardinal Mazarin

Jean Jouffroy, continued role as procurator after elevation as cardinal[7] Jean Balue, continued role as procurator after elevation as cardinal; styled as "French protector" in Rome[7][46] André d'Espinay (March 9, 1489 – November 10, 1500)[47] Armand Jean de Richelieu (November 3, 1622 – December 4, 1642), Bishop of Luçon, Prime Minister Jules Mazarin
Jules Mazarin
(1641–1661) Jean Siffrein Maury
Jean Siffrein Maury
(1794–1806), Archbishop
Archbishop
of Montefiascone, representative of the Bourbon pretender, sided with Napoleon I
Napoleon I
in 1806 Joseph Fesch
Joseph Fesch
(2 December 1804 – 22 June 1815), Archbishop
Archbishop
of Lyons, step-uncle to Napoleon I, Ambassador of France to the Holy See (1803–1806, but in 1803 there wasn't as yet a crown) and Imperial Grand Almoner
Almoner
(1805–1814); his role as crown-cardinal ended with the end of the Napoleonic reign, whereas he remained Cardinal and Archbishop

Of the Holy Roman Empire

Albert of Austria, son of Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor[43]

Of Poland

Jerzy Radziwiłł (1556–1600) Jan Aleksander Lipski (December 20, 1737 – February 20, 1746)[44]

Of Portugal

Cardinal-Infante Afonso of Portugal Henry of Portugal Tomás de Almeida
Tomás de Almeida
(December 20, 1737 – February 27, 1754)[44][48]

Of Spain

Pedro González de Mendoza
Pedro González de Mendoza
(May 7, 1473 – January 11, 1495)[47] Francisco Jiménez de Cisneros Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand Luis Antonio Jaime de Borbón y Farnesio
Luis Antonio Jaime de Borbón y Farnesio
(December 19, 1735 – December 18, 1754)[49] Francisco de Solís Folch de Cardona (April 5, 1756 – March 21, 1775)[50]

Of Tuscany

Ferdinando I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany

See also[edit]

Prince of the Church Prince-Bishop Lord Bishop Cardinal-nephew Lay cardinal Henry Benedict Stuart, Called Cardinal Duke of York, recognized by the Jacobites as King Henry IX.

References[edit]

^ a b Chadwick, Owen (1981). The Popes and European Revolution. Oxford University Press. pp. 265–267. Retrieved 5 December 2017.  ^ a b  Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Cardinal". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.  ^ Reinerman, Alan J. 1989. Austria and the Papacy in the Age of Metternich. Washington, D.C.: Catholic University of America Press. p. 59. ^  Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Right of Exclusion". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.  ^ Francis A. Burkle-Young. 1998. "The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church: Papal elections in the Fifteenth Century: The election of Pope Eugenius IV (1431)." ^ a b Baumgartner, 2003, p. 150. ^ a b c d e Wilkie, 1974, p. 8. ^ a b Wilkie, 1974, p. 9. ^ Bireley, Robert. 2007. Book Review. The Catholic Historical Review. 93, 1: 172–173. A manuscript list of cardinals appointed at the request of Crowns can be found in the Vatican Library in the Borghese collection, Borg. lat. 376, pp. 131-141: Pietro Francesco de Rossi, De cardinalibus electis ad preces Principum, ab anno 1294 usque in finem pontificatus Pauli III. ^ Burkle-Young, Francis A. 1998. "The election of Pope
Pope
Nicholas V (1447)." ^ a b c  Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Cardinal Protector". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.  ^ Signorotto and Visceglia, 2002, p. 161 ^ a b c Miranda, Salvator. 1998. "The election of Pope
Pope
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