CROWLEY\'S RIDGE (also CROWLEYS RIDGE) is an unusual geological
formation that rises 250 to 550 feet (170 m) above the alluvial plain
Mississippi embayment in a 150-mile (240 km) line from
Most of the major cities of the Arkansas Delta region lie along Crowley's Ridge. It was named after Benjamin Crowley , known as the first European-American settler to reach the area, sometime around 1820. The Civil War Battle of Chalk Bluff was fought on Crowley's Ridge on May 1–2, 1863.
* 1 Composition and origin * 2 Soils and vegetation * 3 Fossils * 4 Namesake * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links
COMPOSITION AND ORIGIN
The ridge is primarily composed of the windblown glacially derived
sediment known as loess . It contrasts greatly with the flat table
land around it and with the black soil that makes up the delta. The
ridge varies from half a mile to 12 miles (19 km) wide and reaches an
elevation of 550 feet (170 m) near its northern extremity. The
formation is generally thought to have originally been an island
There is evidence that the area's elevation has increased over the years, suggesting that uplift is still taking place. This alternative explanation posits a link between the ridge and the nearby New Madrid Seismic Zone .
SOILS AND VEGETATION
The flora and fauna of the ridge seem more closely related to the
The soils in this area are moderately fertile and sometimes rich. The
land is moderately rugged, discouraging row-crop agriculture. These
soils are easily eroded. There is some commercial agriculture in the
loessal plains area of the ridge. The ridge is surrounded by the
fertile lands of the delta region . The vegetation is predominantly
oak and hickory forests, similar to vegetation found in the
The region adjacent to the ridge is covered with thick deltaic soils,
and few fossils are found except in gravel pits. These pits sometimes
reveal the teeth of large mastodons, mammoths and horses, which roamed
the continent as recently as 10,000 years ago.
contains important exposures of fossiliferous Tertiary sediments and
contains the only documented
Crowley's Ridge is named after Benjamin Crowley (1758–1842), the first European-American settler of the Ridge near Paragould, Arkansas . Crowley is buried in the Shiloh Cemetery in Greene County, Arkansas , and a monument marks the spot. The cemetery is part of Crowley\'s Ridge State Park . Next to Crowley's grave, other early settlers of the ridge are buried in unmarked graves.
* Ridges of
* ^ National Scenic Byways - Scenic Byways and Highways - Arkansas
* ^ A B Roy B. Van Arsdale, Robert A. Williams, Eugene S. Schweig,
Kaye M. Shedlock, Jack K. Odum and Kenneth W.King, "The origin of
Crowley's Ridge, northeastern Arkansas: Erosional remnant or tectonic
uplift?" Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America; August
1995; v. 85; no. 4; p. 963-985. Abstract
* ^ Bettis, E.A., III, D.R. Muhs, H.M. Roberts, and A.G. Wintle,
2003, "Last glacial loess in the conterminous U.S.A.", Quaternary
Science Reviews , vol. 22, pp. 1907-1946.
* ^ Muhs, D.R., and E.A. Bettis, III, 2003, Quaternary
loess-paleosol sequences as examples of climate-driven sedimentary
Geological Society of America