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In Greek mythology, Cronus, Cronos, or Kronos (/ˈkroʊnəs/ or /ˈkroʊnɒs/ from Greek: Κρόνος, Krónos), was the leader and youngest of the first generation of Titans, the divine descendants of Uranus, the sky, and Gaia, the earth. He overthrew his father and ruled during the mythological Golden Age, until he was overthrown by his own son Zeus
Zeus
and imprisoned in Tartarus. According to Plato, the deities Phorcys, Cronus, and Rhea were the eldest children of Oceanus and Tethys.[1] Cronus
Cronus
was usually depicted with a harpe, scythe or a sickle, which was the instrument he used to castrate and depose Uranus, his father. In Athens, on the twelfth day of the Attic month of Hekatombaion, a festival called Kronia was held in honour of Cronus
Cronus
to celebrate the harvest, suggesting that, as a result of his association with the virtuous Golden Age, Cronus
Cronus
continued to preside as a patron of the harvest. Cronus
Cronus
was also identified in classical antiquity with the Roman deity Saturn.

Contents

1 Mythology

1.1 Libyan account by Diodorus Siculus 1.2 Sibylline Oracles

2 Name and comparative mythology

2.1 Antiquity 2.2 From the Renaissance
Renaissance
to the present 2.3 El, the Phoenician Cronus 2.4 Roman mythology
Roman mythology
and later culture

3 Astronomy 4 Genealogy 5 Notes 6 References

Mythology[edit] In an ancient myth recorded by Hesiod's Theogony, Cronus
Cronus
envied the power of his father, the ruler of the universe, Uranus. Uranus drew the enmity of Cronus's mother, Gaia, when he hid the gigantic youngest children of Gaia, the hundred-handed Hecatonchires
Hecatonchires
and one-eyed Cyclopes, in Tartarus, so that they would not see the light. Gaia created a great stone sickle and gathered together Cronus
Cronus
and his brothers to persuade them to castrate Uranus.[2]

Giorgio Vasari: The Mutilation of Uranus by Saturn (Cronus)

Only Cronus
Cronus
was willing to do the deed, so Gaia gave him the sickle and placed him in ambush.[3] When Uranus met with Gaia, Cronus attacked him with the sickle, castrating him and casting his testicles into the sea. From the blood that spilled out from Uranus and fell upon the earth, the Gigantes, Erinyes, and Meliae were produced. The testicles produced a white foam from which the goddess Aphrodite emerged. For this, Uranus threatened vengeance and called his sons Titenes (Τιτῆνες; according to Hesiod
Hesiod
meaning "straining ones," the source of the word "titan", but this etymology is disputed) for overstepping their boundaries and daring to commit such an act (in an alternate version of this myth, a more benevolent Cronus
Cronus
overthrew the wicked serpentine Titan Ophion
Ophion
and in doing so he released the world from bondage and for a time ruled it justly). After dispatching Uranus, Cronus
Cronus
re-imprisoned the Hecatonchires, and the Cyclopes and set the dragon Campe to guard them. He and his sister Rhea took the throne of the world as king and queen. The period in which Cronus
Cronus
ruled was called the Golden Age, as the people of the time had no need for laws or rules; everyone did the right thing, and immorality was absent.

Painting by Peter Paul Rubens
Peter Paul Rubens
of Cronus
Cronus
devouring one of his children

Cronus
Cronus
learned from Gaia and Uranus that he was destined to be overcome by his own sons, just as he had overthrown his father. As a result, although he sired the gods Demeter, Hestia, Hera, Hades
Hades
and Poseidon
Poseidon
by Rhea, he devoured them all as soon as they were born to prevent the prophecy. When the sixth child, Zeus, was born Rhea sought Gaia to devise a plan to save them and to eventually get retribution on Cronus
Cronus
for his acts against his father and children. Rhea secretly gave birth to Zeus
Zeus
in Crete, and handed Cronus
Cronus
a stone wrapped in swaddling clothes, also known as the Omphalos
Omphalos
Stone, which he promptly swallowed, thinking that it was his son. Rhea kept Zeus
Zeus
hidden in a cave on Mount Ida, Crete. According to some versions of the story, he was then raised by a goat named Amalthea, while a company of Kouretes, armored male dancers, shouted and clapped their hands to make enough noise to mask the baby's cries from Cronus. Other versions of the myth have Zeus
Zeus
raised by the nymph Adamanthea, who hid Zeus
Zeus
by dangling him by a rope from a tree so that he was suspended between the earth, the sea, and the sky, all of which were ruled by his father, Cronus. Still other versions of the tale say that Zeus
Zeus
was raised by his grandmother, Gaia. Once he had grown up, Zeus
Zeus
used an emetic given to him by Gaia to force Cronus
Cronus
to disgorge the contents of his stomach in reverse order: first the stone, which was set down at Pytho under the glens of Mount Parnassus to be a sign to mortal men, and then his two brothers and three sisters. In other versions of the tale, Metis gave Cronus
Cronus
an emetic to force him to disgorge the children,[4] or Zeus
Zeus
cut Cronus's stomach open.[citation needed] After freeing his siblings, Zeus
Zeus
released the Hecatoncheires, and the Cyclopes who forged for him his thunderbolts, Poseidon's trident and Hades' helmet of darkness. In a vast war called the Titanomachy, Zeus and his brothers and sisters, with the help of the Hecatonchires
Hecatonchires
and Cyclopes, overthrew Cronus
Cronus
and the other Titans. Afterwards, many of the Titans were confined in Tartarus. However, Oceanus, Helios, Atlas, Prometheus, Epimetheus and Menoetius were not imprisoned following the Titanomachy. Gaia bore the monster Typhon
Typhon
to claim revenge for the imprisoned Titans. Accounts of the fate of Cronus
Cronus
after the Titanomachy
Titanomachy
differ. In Homeric and other texts he is imprisoned with the other Titans in Tartarus. In Orphic poems, he is imprisoned for eternity in the cave of Nyx. Pindar describes his release from Tartarus, where he is made King of Elysium
Elysium
by Zeus. In another version,[citation needed] the Titans released the Cyclopes from Tartarus, and Cronus
Cronus
was awarded the kingship among them, beginning a Golden Age. In Virgil's Aeneid,[citation needed] it is Latium
Latium
to which Saturn (Cronus) escapes and ascends as king and lawgiver, following his defeat by his son Jupiter (Zeus). One other account referred by Robert Graves[5], who claims to be following the account of the Byzantine mythographer Tzetzes, it is said that Cronus
Cronus
was castrated by his son Zeus
Zeus
just like he had done with his father Uranus before. However the subject of a son castrating his own father, or simply castration in general, was so repudiated by the Greek mythographers of that time that they suppressed it from their accounts until the Christian era (when Tzetzes
Tzetzes
wrote).

The Fall of the Titans, Cornelis Cornelisz van Haarlem, 1596-1598

Libyan account by Diodorus Siculus[edit] In a Libyan account related by Diodorus Siculus
Diodorus Siculus
(Book 3), Uranus and Titaea were the parents of Cronus
Cronus
and Rhea and the other Titans. Ammon, a king of Libya, married Rhea (3.18.1) but Rhea abandoned Ammon married her brother Cronus
Cronus
and, at Rhea's urging, with the other Titans made war upon Ammon, who fled to Crete
Crete
(3.71.1-2). Cronus
Cronus
ruled harshly and Cronus
Cronus
in turn is defeated by Ammon's son Dionysus (3.71.3-3.73) who appoints Cronus' and Rhea's son, Zeus, as king of Egypt
Egypt
(3.73.4). Dionysus
Dionysus
and Zeus
Zeus
then join their forces to defeat the remaining Titans in Crete, and on the death of Dionysus, Zeus
Zeus
inherits all the kingdoms, becoming lord of the world (3.73.7-8). Sibylline Oracles[edit] Cronus
Cronus
is mentioned in the Sibylline Oracles, particularly in book three, which makes Cronus, 'Titan' and Iapetus, the three sons of Uranus and Gaia, each to receive a third division of the Earth, and Cronus
Cronus
is made king over all. After the death of Uranus, Titan's sons attempt to destroy Cronus's and Rhea's male offspring as soon as they are born, but at Dodona, Rhea secretly bears her sons Zeus, Poseidon and Hades
Hades
and sends them to Phrygia
Phrygia
to be raised in the care of three Cretans. Upon learning this, sixty of Titan's men then imprison Cronus and Rhea, causing the sons of Cronus
Cronus
to declare and fight the first of all wars against them. This account mentions nothing about Cronus either killing his father or attempting to kill any of his children. Name and comparative mythology[edit] Antiquity[edit] During antiquity, Cronus
Cronus
was occasionally interpreted as Chronos, the personification of time.[6] The Roman philosopher Cicero
Cicero
(1st century BCE) elaborated on this by saying that the Greek name Cronus
Cronus
is synonymous to chronos (time) since he maintains the course and cycles of seasons and the periods of time, whereas the Latin
Latin
name Saturn denotes that he is saturated with years since he was devouring his sons, which implies that time devours the ages and gorges.[7] The Greek historian and biographer Plutarch
Plutarch
(1st century CE) asserted that the Greeks believed that Cronus
Cronus
was an allegorical name for χρόνος (time).[8] The philosopher Plato
Plato
(3rd century BCE) in his Cratylus gives two possible interpretations for the name of Cronus. The first is that his name denotes "κόρος" (koros), the pure (καθαρόν) and unblemished (ἀκήρατον)[9] nature of his mind.[10] The second is that Rhea and Cronus
Cronus
were given names of streams (Rhea – ῥοή (rhoē) and Cronus
Cronus
– Xρόνος (chronos)).[11] Proclus (5th century CE), the Neoplatonist philosopher, makes in his Commentary on Plato's Cratylus an extensive analysis on Cronus; among others he says that the "One cause" of all things is "Chronos" (time) that is also equivocal to Cronus.[12] In addition to the name, the story of Cronus
Cronus
eating his children was also interpreted as an allegory to a specific aspect of time held within Cronus' sphere of influence. As the theory went, Cronus
Cronus
represented the destructive ravages of time which devoured all things, a concept that was illustrated when the Titan king ate the Olympian gods — the past consuming the future, the older generation suppressing the next generation.[13] From the Renaissance
Renaissance
to the present[edit]

Chronos
Chronos
and his child by Giovanni Francesco Romanelli, National Museum in Warsaw, a 17th-century depiction of Titan Cronus
Cronus
as "Father Time," wielding a harvesting scythe

During the Renaissance, the identification of Cronus
Cronus
and Chronos
Chronos
gave rise to "Father Time" wielding the harvesting scythe. H. J. Rose in 1928[14] observed that attempts to give "Κρόνος" a Greek etymology had failed. Recently, Janda (2010) offers a genuinely Indo-European etymology of "the cutter", from the root *(s)ker- "to cut" (Greek κείρω (keirō), cf. English shear), motivated by Cronus's characteristic act of "cutting the sky" (or the genitals of anthropomorphic Uranus). The Indo-Iranian reflex of the root is kar, generally meaning "to make, create" (whence karma), but Janda argues that the original meaning "to cut" in a cosmogonic sense is still preserved in some verses of the Rigveda
Rigveda
pertaining to Indra's heroic "cutting", like that of Cronus
Cronus
resulting in creation:

RV 10.104.10 ārdayad vṛtram akṛṇod ulokaṃ he hit Vrtra fatally, cutting [> creating] a free path. RV 6.47.4 varṣmāṇaṃ divo akṛṇod he cut [> created] the loftiness of the sky.

This may point to an older Indo-European mytheme reconstructed as *(s)kert wersmn diwos "by means of a cut he created the loftiness of the sky".[15] The myth of Cronus
Cronus
castrating Uranus parallels the Song of Kumarbi, where Anu (the heavens) is castrated by Kumarbi. In the Song of Ullikummi, Teshub
Teshub
uses the "sickle with which heaven and earth had once been separated" to defeat the monster Ullikummi,[16] establishing that the "castration" of the heavens by means of a sickle was part of a creation myth, in origin a cut creating an opening or gap between heaven (imagined as a dome of stone) and earth enabling the beginning of time (chronos) and human history.[17] A theory debated in the 19th century, and sometimes still offered somewhat apologetically,[18] holds that Κρόνος is related to "horned", assuming a Semitic derivation from qrn.[19] Andrew Lang's objection, that Cronus
Cronus
was never represented horned in Hellenic art,[20] was addressed by Robert Brown,[21] arguing that, in Semitic usage, as in the Hebrew Bible, qeren was a signifier of "power". When Greek writers encountered the Semitic deity El, they rendered his name as Cronus.[22] Robert Graves
Robert Graves
remarks that "cronos probably means 'crow', like the Latin
Latin
cornix and the Greek corōne", noting that Cronus
Cronus
was depicted with a crow, as were the deities Apollo, Asclepius, Saturn and Bran.[23] El, the Phoenician Cronus[edit] When Hellenes encountered Phoenicians and, later, Hebrews, they identified the Semitic El, by interpretatio graeca, with Cronus. The association was recorded c. AD 100 by Philo of Byblos' Phoenician history, as reported in Eusebius' Præparatio Evangelica I.10.16.[24] Philo's account, ascribed by Eusebius to the semi-legendary pre-Trojan War Phoenician historian Sanchuniathon, indicates that Cronus
Cronus
was originally a Canaanite ruler who founded Byblos
Byblos
and was subsequently deified. This version gives his alternate name as Elus or Ilus, and states that in the 32nd year of his reign, he emasculated, slew and deified his father Epigeius or Autochthon "whom they afterwards called Uranus". It further states that after ships were invented, Cronus, visiting the 'inhabitable world', bequeathed Attica
Attica
to his own daughter Athena, and Egypt
Egypt
to Taautus the son of Misor and inventor of writing.[25] Roman mythology
Roman mythology
and later culture[edit] Main article: Saturn (mythology)

4th-century Temple of Saturn
Temple of Saturn
in the Roman Forum.

While the Greeks considered Cronus
Cronus
a cruel and tempestuous force of chaos and disorder, believing the Olympian gods had brought an era of peace and order by seizing power from the crude and malicious Titans[citation needed], the Romans took a more positive and innocuous view of the deity, by conflating their indigenous deity Saturn with Cronus. Consequently, while the Greeks considered Cronus
Cronus
merely an intermediary stage between Uranus and Zeus, he was a larger aspect of Roman religion. The Saturnalia
Saturnalia
was a festival dedicated in his honour, and at least one temple to Saturn already existed in the archaic Roman Kingdom. His association with the "Saturnian" Golden Age
Golden Age
eventually caused him to become the god of "time", i.e., calendars, seasons, and harvests—not now confused with Chronos, the unrelated embodiment of time in general. Nevertheless, among Hellenistic scholars in Alexandria and during the Renaissance, Cronus
Cronus
was conflated with the name of Chronos, the personification of "Father Time",[6] wielding the harvesting scythe. As a result of Cronus's importance to the Romans, his Roman variant, Saturn, has had a large influence on Western culture. The seventh day of the Judaeo-Christian week is called in Latin
Latin
Dies Saturni ("Day of Saturn"), which in turn was adapted and became the source of the English word Saturday. In astronomy, the planet Saturn is named after the Roman deity. It is the outermost of the Classical planets
Classical planets
(those that are visible with the naked eye). Astronomy[edit] A star (HD 240430) was named after him in 2017 when it was reported to have swallowed its planets.[26] Genealogy[edit]

Descendants of Cronus
Cronus
and Rhea [27]

Uranus' genitals

CRONUS

Rhea

Zeus

Hera

Poseidon

Hades

Demeter

Hestia

    a [28]

     b [29]

Ares

Hephaestus

Metis

Athena
Athena
[30]

Leto

Apollo

Artemis

Maia

Hermes

Semele

Dionysus

Dione

    a [31]

     b [32]

Aphrodite

Notes[edit]

^ Plato. Timaeus 40e. Translated by W.R.M. Lamb. Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann Ltd. 1925. ^ Hesiod, Theogony
Theogony
154–166. ^ Hesiod, Theogony
Theogony
167–206. ^ Apollodorus, 1.2.1. ^ GRAVES, Robert, Hebrew Myths.21.4 ^ a b Κρόνος: Cronos — Later interpreted as chronos (time): LSJ entry Κρόνος ^ Cicero, De Natura Deorum 25 ^ These men [the Egyptians] are like the Greeks who say that Cronus
Cronus
is but a metaphorical name for χρόνος (time). Plutarch, On Isis and Osiris, 32 ^ Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert (1940) [1843], "ἀκήρ-α^τος", A Greek-English Lexicon (revised and augmented throughout by Sir Henry Stuart Jones with the assistance of Roderick McKenzie ed.), Oxford: Clarendon Press, retrieved 9 August 2016 – via Perseus Digital Library  ^ Plato, Cratylus, 402b ^ Plato, Cratylus, 402b ^ Proclus, Commentary on Plato's Cratylus, 396B7 ^ Dronke, Peter. (edit.) Marenbon, John. Poetry and Philosophy in the Middle Ages, Leiden, The Netherlands. BRILL, 2001; pg. 316 ^ Rose, A Handbook of Greek Mythology 1928:43. ^ Michael Janda, Die Musik nach dem Chaos, Innsbruck, 2010, 54-56. ^ Fritz Graf, Thomas Marier, trans. Thomas Marier, Greek mythology: an introduction, 1996 ISBN 978-0-8018-5395-1, p. 88. ^ Janda 2010, p. 54 and passim. ^ "We would like to consider whether the Semitic stem q r nmight be connected with the name Kronos," suggests A. P. Bos, as late as 1989, in Cosmic and Meta-cosmic Theology in Aristotle's Lost Dialogues, 1989:11 note 26. ^ As in H. Lewy, Die semitischen Fremdwörter in Griechischen, 1895:216. and Robert Brown, The Great Dionysiak Myth, 1877, ii.127. "Kronos signifies 'the Horned one'", the Rev. Alexander Hislop had previously asserted in The Two Babylons; or, The papal worship proved to be the worship of Nimrod and his wife, Hislop, 2nd ed. 1862 (p.46). with the note "From krn, a horn. The epithet Carneus applied to Apollo is just a different form of the same word. In the Orphic Hymns, Apollo is addressed as 'the Two-Horned god'". ^ Lang, Modern Mythology 1897:35. ^ Brown, Semitic Influence in Hellenic Mythology, 1898:112ff. ^ "Philôn, who of course regarded Kronos as an Hellenic divinity, which indeed he became, always renders the name of the Semitic god Îl or Êl ('the Powerful') by 'Kronos', in which usage we have a lingering feeling of the real meaning of the name" (Brown 1898:116) ^ Graves, Robert (1955). "The Castration
Castration
of Uranus". Greek Myths. London: Penguin. p. 38. ISBN 0-14-001026-2.  ^ Walcot, "Five or Seven Recesses?" The Classical Quarterly, New Series, 15.1 (May 1965), p. 79. The quote stands as Philo Fr. 2. ^ Eusebius of Caesarea: Praeparatio Evangelica Book 1, Chapter 10. ^ Sokol, Josh (21 September 2017). "Star nicknamed Kronos after eating its own planetary children". New Scientist. Retrieved 15 October 2017.  ^ This chart is based upon Hesiod's Theogony, unless otherwise noted. ^ According to Homer, Iliad
Iliad
1.570–579, 14.338, Odyssey
Odyssey
8.312, Hephaestus
Hephaestus
was apparently the son of Hera
Hera
and Zeus, see Gantz, p. 74. ^ According to Hesiod, Theogony
Theogony
927–929, Hephaestus
Hephaestus
was produced by Hera
Hera
alone, with no father, see Gantz, p. 74. ^ According to Hesiod, Theogony
Theogony
886–890, of Zeus' children by his seven wives, Athena
Athena
was the first to be conceived, but the last to be born; Zeus
Zeus
impregnated Metis then swallowed her, later Zeus
Zeus
himself gave birth to Athena
Athena
"from his head", see Gantz, pp. 51–52, 83–84. ^ According to Hesiod, Theogony
Theogony
183–200, Aphrodite
Aphrodite
was born from Uranus' severed genitals, see Gantz, pp. 99–100. ^ According to Homer, Aphrodite
Aphrodite
was the daughter of Zeus
Zeus
( Iliad
Iliad
3.374, 20.105; Odyssey
Odyssey
8.308, 320) and Dione ( Iliad
Iliad
5.370–71), see Gantz, pp. 99–100.

References[edit]

Apollodorus, Apollodorus, The Library, with an English Translation by Sir James George Frazer, F.B.A., F.R.S. in 2 Volumes. Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann Ltd. 1921. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library. Gantz, Timothy, Early Greek Myth: A Guide to Literary and Artistic Sources, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996, Two volumes: ISBN 978-0-8018-5360-9 (Vol. 1), ISBN 978-0-8018-5362-3 (Vol. 2). Hesiod, Theogony, in The Homeric Hymns and Homerica with an English Translation by Hugh G. Evelyn-White, Cambridge, MA., Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann Ltd. 1914. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library. Homer, The Iliad
Iliad
with an English Translation by A.T. Murray, Ph.D. in two volumes. Cambridge, MA., Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann, Ltd. 1924. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library. Homer; The Odyssey
Odyssey
with an English Translation by A.T. Murray, PH.D. in two volumes. Cambridge, MA., Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann, Ltd. 1919. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library.

v t e

Ancient Greek deities by affiliation

Primordial deities

Achlys Aether Aion/Chronos Ananke Chaos Erebus Eros/Phanes Gaia Hemera Nyx The Ourea Pontus/Thalassa Tartarus Uranus Fates

Atropos Clotho Lachesis

Titan deities

Titanes (male)

Coeus Crius Cronus Hyperion Iapetus Oceanus Ophion

Titanides (female)

Dione Eurybia Mnemosyne Phoebe Rhea Tethys Theia Themis

Hyperionides

Eos Helios Selene

Koionides

Asteria Leto

Krionides

Astraeus Pallas Perses

Iapetionides

Atlas Epimetheus Menoetius Prometheus

Mousai (Muses)

Aoide Arche Melete Mneme

Olympian deities

Dodekatheon

Aphrodite Apollo Ares Artemis Athena Demeter Dionysus Hephaestus Hera Hermes Hestia Poseidon Zeus

Theoi Olympioi

Asclepius Deimos Ganymede Eileithyia Enyo Eris Iris Harmonia Hebe Heracles Paean Pan Phobos

Mousai (Muses)

Daughters of Zeus

Calliope Clio Euterpe Erato Melpomene Polyhymnia Terpsichore Thalia Urania

Daughters of Apollo

Apollonis Borysthenis Cephisso

Muses
Muses
of the Lyre

Hypate Mese Nete

Muses
Muses
at Sicyon

Polymatheia

Charites
Charites
(Graces)

Aglaea Antheia Euphrosyne Hegemone Pasithea Thalia

Horae
Horae
(Hours)

Dike Eirene Eunomia

Styktides

Bia Kratos Nike Zelos

Aquatic deities

Theoi Halioi

Amphitrite Benthesikyme Brizo Calypso Ceto Glaucus The Ichthyocentaurs Kymopoleia Leucothea Melicertes Nereus Nerites The Nesoi Oceanus Phorcys Pontus/Thalassa Poseidon Proteus Rhodos Tethys Thaumas Thetis Triton

Oceanids

Acaste Admete Adrasteia Amalthea Asia Callirrhoe Ceto Clytie Dione Dodone Doris Electra Eurynome Idyia Melia Metis Nemesis Perse Pleione Plouto Styx Telesto Zeuxo

Nereides

Amphitrite Arethusa Dynamene Galatea Galene Psamathe Thetis

Potamoi

Achelous Almo Alpheus Anapos Asopus Asterion Axius Caanthus Cebren Cephissus Clitumnus Enipeus Kladeos Meander Nilus Numicus Phyllis Peneus Rivers of the Underworld

Cocytus Eridanos Lethe Phlegethon Styx

Sangarius Scamander Simoeis Strymon

Naiads

Aegina Achiroe Aganippe The Anigrides Argyra Bistonis Bolbe Caliadne Cassotis Castalia Cleocharia Creusa Daphne Drosera Harpina The Ionides Ismenis Larunda Lilaea Liriope Melite Metope Minthe Moria Nana Nicaea Orseis Pallas Pirene Salmacis Stilbe The Thriae

Corycia Kleodora Melaina

Tiasa

Chthonic deities

Theoi Chthonioi

Angelos Demeter Gaia Hades Hecate The Lampads Macaria Melinoë Persephone Zagreus

Erinyes
Erinyes
(Furies)

Alecto Megaera Tisiphone

Earthborn

Cyclopes Gigantes Hecatonchires Kouretes Meliae Telchines Typhon

Apotheothenai

Trophonius Triptolemus Orpheus Aeacus Minos Rhadamanthus

Personifications

Children of Nyx

Achlys Apate Dolos Eleos Elpis Epiphron Eris Geras Hesperides Hybris Hypnos Ker The Keres The Moirai

Aisa Clotho Lachesis

Momus Moros Oizys The Oneiroi

Epiales Morpheus Phantasos Phobetor

Nemesis Philotes Sophrosyne Thanatos

Children of Eris

Algos Amphillogiai Ate The Androktasiai Dysnomia Horkos Hysminai Lethe Limos Machai Phonoi Ponos Neikea Pseudea Logoi

Children of other gods

Aergia Aidos Alala Aletheia Angelia Arete Bia Caerus The Younger Charites

Eucleia Eupheme Euthenia Philophrosyne

Corus Deimos The Erotes

Anteros Eros Hedylogos Hermaphroditus Hymen

Eupraxia Hedone Homonoia Iacchus Kratos The Litae Homonoia Nike Peitho Phobos Tyche Zelos

Others

Adephagia Alala Alke Amechania Anaideia Alastor Apheleia Aporia The Arae Dikaiosyne Dyssebeia Ekecheiria Eulabeia Eusebeia Gelos Heimarmene Homados Horme Ioke Kakia Kalokagathia Koalemos Kydoimos Lyssa The Maniae Methe Nomos Palioxis Peitharchia Penia Penthus Pepromene Pheme Philotes Phrike Phthonus Pistis Poine Polemos Poros Praxidike Proioxis Prophasis Roma Soter Soteria Techne Thrasos

Other deities

Sky deities

The Anemoi The Astra Planeti

Stilbon Eosphorus Hesperus Pyroeis Phaethon Phaenon

Aura Chione The Hesperides The Hyades Nephele The Pleiades

Alcyone Sterope Celaeno Electra Maia Merope Taygete

Agricultural deities

Aphaea Ariadne Carmanor Demeter Despoina Eunostus Philomelus Plutus

Health deities

Asclepius Aceso Epione Iaso Hygieia Panacea Telesphorus

Rustic deities

Aetna The Alseids The Auloniads Amphictyonis The Anthousai Aristaeus Attis Britomartis The Cabeiri Comus The Dryades

Erato Eurydice The Hamadryades

Chrysopeleia

The Epimeliades Hecaterus Leuce Ma The Maenades The Meliae The Napaeae The Nymphai Hyperboreioi The Oreads

Adrasteia Echo Helike Iynx Nomia Oenone Pitys

The Pegasides Priapus Rhapso Silenus Telete

Others

Acratopotes Adrasteia Agdistis Alexiares and Anicetus Aphroditus Astraea Circe Eiresione Enyalius Harpocrates Ichnaea Palaestra

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 18020

.