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Decisive English Parliamentarian victory

English Parliamentarian conquest of Ireland End of the Confederation of Kilkenny Act for the Settlement of Ireland
Ireland
1652

Belligerents

Irish Catholic
Catholic
Confederation English Royalists

English Parliamentarian

New Model Army

Protestant
Protestant
colonists

Commanders and leaders

James Butler, Marquess of Ormonde (Aug. 1649 – Dec. 1650) Ulick Burke, Earl of Clanricarde (Dec. 1650 – Apr. 1653) Oliver Cromwell
Oliver Cromwell
(Aug. 1649 – May 1650) Henry Ireton
Henry Ireton
(May 1650 – Nov. 1651) Charles Fleetwood
Charles Fleetwood
(Nov. 1651 – Apr. 1653)

Strength

Up to 60,000 incl. guerrilla fighters, but only around 20,000 at any one time ~30,000 New Model Army
New Model Army
troops, ~10,000 troops raised in Ireland
Ireland
or based there before campaign

Casualties and losses

Unknown; 15,000–20,000 battlefield casualties, over 200,000 civilian casualties (from war-related famine or disease)[1] ~50,000 deported as indentured labourers[2][3] 8,000 New Model Army
New Model Army
soldiers killed, ~7,000 locally raised soldiers killed

v t e

Irish Confederate Wars
Irish Confederate Wars
or Eleven Years' War

Timeline

1641–1642 Julianstown Portadown 1st Drogheda Kilrush

1642–1649 Glenmaquin Liscarroll 1st Limerick 1st Galway Portlester New Ross Duncannon Benburb Dungan's Hill Cashel Knocknanuss Dublin Rathmines

1649–1653 2nd Drogheda Wexford Waterford Arklow Lisnagarvey Clonmel Macroom Tecroghan Scarrifholis 2nd Limerick Charlemont Meelick Island Knocknaclashy 2nd Galway

The Cromwellian conquest of Ireland
Ireland
or Cromwellian war in Ireland (1649–53) refers to the conquest of Ireland
Ireland
by the forces of the English Parliament, led by Oliver Cromwell, during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. Cromwell invaded Ireland
Ireland
with his New Model Army
New Model Army
on behalf of England's Rump Parliament
Rump Parliament
in August 1649. Following the Irish Rebellion of 1641, most of Ireland
Ireland
came under the control of the Irish Catholic
Catholic
Confederation. In early 1649, the Confederates allied with the English Royalists, who had been defeated by the Parliamentarians in the English Civil War. By May 1652, Cromwell's Parliamentarian army had defeated the Confederate and Royalist coalition in Ireland
Ireland
and occupied the country—bringing to an end the Irish Confederate Wars
Irish Confederate Wars
(or Eleven Years' War). However, guerrilla warfare continued for a further year. Cromwell passed a series of Penal Laws against Roman Catholics
Roman Catholics
(the vast majority of the population) and confiscated large amounts of their land. The Parliamentarian reconquest of Ireland
Ireland
was brutal, and Cromwell is still a hated figure in Ireland.[4] The extent to which Cromwell, who was in direct command for the first year of the campaign, was responsible for the atrocities is debated to this day. Some historians[5] argue that the actions of Cromwell were within the then-accepted rules of war, or were exaggerated or distorted by later propagandists; these claims have been challenged by others.[6] The impact of the war on the Irish population was unquestionably severe, although there is no consensus as to the magnitude of the loss of life. The war resulted in famine,[7][8][9][10] which was worsened by an outbreak of bubonic plague. Estimates of the drop in the Irish population resulting from the Parliamentarian campaign range from 15 to 83 percent.[11] The Parliamentarians also transported about 50,000 people as indentured labourers. Some estimates cover population losses over the course of the Conquest Period (1649–52) only,[12] while others cover the period of the Conquest to 1653 and the period of the Cromwellian Settlement from August 1652 to 1659 together.

Contents

1 Background 2 The Battle of Rathmines
Battle of Rathmines
and Cromwell's landing in Ireland 3 The Siege of Drogheda 4 Wexford, Waterford
Waterford
and Duncannon 5 Clonmel
Clonmel
and the conquest of Munster 6 The collapse of the Royalist alliance 7 Scarrifholis and the destruction of the Ulster
Ulster
Army 8 The Sieges of Limerick
Limerick
and Galway 9 Guerrilla warfare, famine and plague 10 The Cromwellian Settlement 11 Historical debate 12 Long-term results 13 See also 14 Notes 15 References 16 Further reading

Background[edit] The English Rump Parliament, victorious in the English Civil War, and having executed King Charles in January 1649, had several reasons for sending the New Model Army
New Model Army
to Ireland
Ireland
in 1649.

An alliance was signed in 1649 between the Irish Confederate Catholics, Charles II (the exiled son of the executed Charles I) and the English Royalists. This allowed for Royalist troops to be sent to Ireland
Ireland
and put the Irish Confederate Catholic
Catholic
troops under the command of Royalist officers led by James Butler, Earl of Ormonde. Their aim was to invade England
England
and restore the monarchy there. This was a threat which the new English Commonwealth
English Commonwealth
could not afford to ignore. Even if the Confederates had not allied themselves with the Royalists, it is likely that the English Parliament
English Parliament
would have eventually tried to reconquer Ireland. They had sent Parliamentary forces to Ireland throughout the Wars of the Three Kingdoms
Wars of the Three Kingdoms
(most of them under Michael Jones in 1647). They viewed Ireland
Ireland
as part of the territory governed by right by the Kingdom of England
England
and only temporarily out of its control since the Irish Rebellion of 1641. In addition many Parliamentarians wished to punish the Irish for atrocities against English Protestant
Protestant
settlers during the 1641 Uprising. Some Irish towns (notably Wexford
Wexford
and Waterford) had acted as bases from which privateers had attacked English shipping during the 1640s.[13] Parliament had raised loans of £10 million under the Adventurers Act to subdue Ireland
Ireland
since 1642, on the basis that its creditors would be repaid with land confiscated from Irish Catholic
Catholic
rebels. To repay these creditors, it would be necessary to conquer Ireland
Ireland
and confiscate such land. Army mutinies at Banbury and Bishopsgate in April and May 1649 were unsettling, and the soldiers' demands would probably increase if they were left idle. Cromwell and many of his army were Puritans
Puritans
who considered all Roman Catholics to be heretics, and so for them the conquest was partly a crusade. The Irish Confederates had been supplied with arms and money by the Papacy
Papacy
and had welcomed the papal legate Pierfrancesco Scarampi and later the Papal Nuncio
Papal Nuncio
Giovanni Battista Rinuccini
Giovanni Battista Rinuccini
in 1643–49.

The Battle of Rathmines
Battle of Rathmines
and Cromwell's landing in Ireland[edit] Main article: Battle of Rathmines By the end of the period, known as Confederate Ireland, in 1649 the only remaining Parliamentarian outpost in Ireland
Ireland
was in Dublin, under the command of Colonel Michael Jones. A combined Royalist and Confederate force under the Marquess of Ormonde gathered at Rathmines, south of Dublin, to take the city and deprive the Parliamentarians of a port in which they could land. Jones, however, launched a surprise attack on the Royalists while they were deploying on 2 August, putting them to flight. Jones claimed to have killed around 4,000 Royalist or Confederate soldiers and taken 2,517 prisoners.[14] Oliver Cromwell
Oliver Cromwell
called the battle "an astonishing mercy, so great and seasonable that we are like them that dreamed",[15] as it meant that he had a secure port at which he could land his army in Ireland, and that he retained the capital city. With Admiral Robert Blake blockading the remaining Royalist fleet under Prince Rupert of the Rhine in Kinsale, Cromwell landed on 15 August with thirty-five ships filled with troops and equipment. Henry Ireton
Henry Ireton
landed two days later with a further seventy-seven ships.[16] Ormonde's troops retreated from around Dublin
Dublin
in disarray. They were badly demoralised by their unexpected defeat at Rathmines
Rathmines
and were incapable of fighting another pitched battle in the short term. As a result, Ormonde hoped to hold the walled towns on Ireland's east coast to hold up the Cromwellian advance until the winter, when he hoped that "Colonel Hunger and Major Sickness" (i.e. hunger and disease) would deplete their ranks.[17] The Siege of Drogheda[edit] Main article: Siege of Drogheda Upon landing, Cromwell proceeded to take the other port cities on Ireland's east coast, to facilitate the efficient landing of supplies and reinforcements from England. The first town to fall was Drogheda, about 50 km north of Dublin. Drogheda
Drogheda
was garrisoned by a regiment of 3,000 English Royalist and Irish Confederate soldiers, commanded by Arthur Aston. After a week-long siege, Cromwell's forces breached the walls protecting the town. Aston refused Cromwell's request that he surrender.[18] In the ensuing battle for the town, Cromwell ordered that no quarter be given,[19] and the majority of the garrison and Catholic
Catholic
priests were killed. Many civilians also died in the sack. Aston was beaten to death by the Roundheads with his own wooden leg.[20] The massacre of the garrison in Drogheda, including some after they had surrendered and some who had sheltered in a church, was received with horror in Ireland
Ireland
and is used today as an example of Cromwell's extreme cruelty.[21] Tom Reilly in Cromwell, an Honourable Enemy (Dingle 1999), argues that what happened at Drogheda
Drogheda
was not unusually severe by the standards of 17th century siege warfare. In Cromwell was Framed (2014), he claims that civilians were not targeted.[22] Having taken Drogheda, Cromwell took most of his army south to secure the south western ports. He sent a detachment of 5,000 men north under Robert Venables
Robert Venables
to take eastern Ulster
Ulster
from the remnants of a Scottish Covenanter
Covenanter
army that had landed there in 1642. They defeated the Scots at the Battle of Lisnagarvey (6 December 1649) and linked up with a Parliamentarian army composed of English settlers based around Derry in western Ulster, which was commanded by Charles Coote. Wexford, Waterford
Waterford
and Duncannon[edit]

Kilkenny
Kilkenny
Castle. The Irish Confederate capital of Kilkenny
Kilkenny
fell to Cromwell in 1650.

Main articles: Sack of Wexford and Siege of Waterford The New Model Army
New Model Army
then marched south to secure the ports of Wexford, Waterford
Waterford
and Duncannon. Wexford
Wexford
was the scene of another infamous atrocity, when Parliamentarian troops broke into the town while negotiations for its surrender were ongoing, and sacked it, killing about 2,000 soldiers and 1,500 townspeople and burning much of the town.[23] Cromwell's responsibility for the sack of Wexford
Wexford
is disputed. He did not order the attack on the town, and had been in the process of negotiating its surrender when his troops broke into the town. On the other hand, his critics point out that he made little effort to restrain his troops or to punish them afterwards for their conduct. Arguably, the sack of Wexford
Wexford
was somewhat counter-productive for the Parliamentarians. The destruction of the town meant that the Parliamentarians could not use its port as a base for supplying their forces in Ireland. Secondly, the effects of the severe measures adopted at Drogheda
Drogheda
and at Wexford
Wexford
were mixed. To some degree they may have been effective in discouraging future resistance. The Royalist commander Ormonde thought that the terror of Cromwell's army had a paralysing effect on his forces. Towns like New Ross
New Ross
and Carlow
Carlow
subsequently surrendered on terms when besieged by Cromwell's forces. On the other hand, the massacres of the defenders of Drogheda and Wexford
Wexford
prolonged resistance elsewhere, as they convinced many Irish Catholics that they would be killed even if they surrendered. Such towns as Waterford, Duncannon, Clonmel, Limerick
Limerick
and Galway
Galway
only surrendered after determined resistance. Cromwell was unable to take Waterford
Waterford
or Duncannon
Duncannon
and the New Model Army
New Model Army
had to retire to winter quarters, where many of its men died of disease, especially typhoid and dysentery. The port city of Waterford
Waterford
and Duncannon
Duncannon
town eventually surrendered after prolonged sieges in 1650. Clonmel
Clonmel
and the conquest of Munster[edit] Main article: Siege of Clonmel

Henry Ireton. Cromwell passed the command of Parliamentarian forces in Ireland
Ireland
to Ireton
Ireton
in 1650. He died of disease at the Siege of Limerick in 1651

The following spring, Cromwell mopped up the remaining walled towns in Ireland's southeast—notably the Confederate capital of Kilkenny, which surrendered on terms: see Siege of Kilkenny. The New Model Army met its only serious reverse in Ireland
Ireland
at the Siege of Clonmel, where its attacks on the towns walls were repulsed at a cost of up to 2,000 men. The town nevertheless surrendered the following day. Cromwell's treatment of Kilkenny
Kilkenny
and Clonmel
Clonmel
is in contrast to that of Drogheda
Drogheda
and Wexford. Despite the fact that his troops had suffered heavy casualties attacking the former two, Cromwell respected surrender terms which guaranteed the lives and property of the townspeople and the evacuation of armed Irish troops who were defending them. The change in attitude on the part of the Parliamentarian commander may have been a recognition that excessive cruelty was prolonging Irish resistance. However, in the case of Drogheda
Drogheda
and Wexford
Wexford
no surrender agreement had been negotiated, and by the rules of continental siege warfare prevalent in the mid-17th century, this meant no quarter would be given; thus it can be argued that Cromwell's attitude had not changed. Ormonde's Royalists still held most of Munster, but were outflanked by a mutiny of their own garrison in Cork. The British Protestant
Protestant
troops there had been fighting for the Parliament up to 1648 and resented fighting with the Irish Confederates. Their mutiny handed Cork and most of Munster
Munster
to Cromwell and they defeated the local Irish garrison at the Battle of Macroom. The Irish and Royalist forces retreated behind the River Shannon
River Shannon
into Connacht
Connacht
or (in the case of the remaining Munster
Munster
forces) into the fastness of Kerry. The collapse of the Royalist alliance[edit] In May 1650, Charles II repudiated his father's (Charles I's) alliance with the Irish Confederates in preference for an alliance with the Scottish Covenanters
Covenanters
(see Treaty of Breda). This totally undermined Ormonde's position as head of a Royalist coalition in Ireland. Cromwell published generous surrender terms for Protestant
Protestant
Royalists in Ireland
Ireland
and many of them either capitulated or went over to the Parliamentarian side. This left in the field only the remaining Irish Catholic
Catholic
armies and a few diehard English Royalists. From this point onwards, many Irish Catholics, including their bishops and clergy, questioned why they should accept Ormonde's leadership when his master, the King, had repudiated his alliance with them. Cromwell left Ireland
Ireland
in May 1650 to fight the Third English Civil War
English Civil War
against the new Scottish-Royalist alliance. He passed his command onto Henry Ireton. Scarrifholis and the destruction of the Ulster
Ulster
Army[edit] Main article: Battle of Scarrifholis The most formidable force left to the Irish and Royalists was the 6,000 strong army of Ulster, formerly commanded by Owen Roe O'Neill, who died in 1649. However the army was now commanded by an inexperienced Catholic
Catholic
bishop named Heber MacMahon. The Ulster
Ulster
Army met a Parliamentarian army, composed mainly of British settlers and commanded by Charles Coote, at the Battle of Scarrifholis in County Donegal in June 1650. The Ulster
Ulster
army was routed and as many as 2,000 of its men were killed.[24] In addition, MacMahon and most of the Ulster
Ulster
Army's officers were either killed at the battle or captured and executed after it. This eliminated the last strong field army opposing the Parliamentarians in Ireland
Ireland
and secured for them the northern province of Ulster. Coote's army, despite suffering heavy losses at the Siege of Charlemont, the last Catholic
Catholic
stronghold in the north, was now free to march south and invade the west coast of Ireland. The Sieges of Limerick
Limerick
and Galway[edit] Main articles: Siege of Limerick
Limerick
(1650–51) and Siege of Galway

King John's Castle and Thomond
Thomond
Bridge, Limerick
Limerick
city. Ireton
Ireton
took Limerick
Limerick
in 1651 after a long siege

The Parliamentarians crossed the Shannon into the western province of Connacht
Connacht
in October 1650. An Irish army under Clanricarde had attempted to stop them but this was surprised and routed at the Battle of Meelick Island. Ormonde was discredited by the constant stream of defeats for the Irish and Royalist forces and no longer had the confidence of the men he commanded, particularly the Irish Confederates. He fled for France in December 1650 and was replaced by an Irish nobleman Ulick Burke of Clanricarde as commander. The Irish and Royalist forces were penned into the area west of the river Shannon and placed their last hope on defending the strongly walled cities of Limerick
Limerick
and Galway
Galway
on Ireland's west coast. These cities had built extensive modern defences and could not be taken by a straightforward assault as at Drogheda
Drogheda
or Wexford. Ireton
Ireton
besieged Limerick
Limerick
while Charles Coote surrounded Galway, but they were unable to take the strongly fortified cities and instead blockaded them until a combination of hunger and disease forced them to surrender. An Irish force from Kerry attempted to relieve Limerick
Limerick
from the south, but this was intercepted and routed at the Battle of Knocknaclashy. Limerick
Limerick
fell in 1651 and Galway
Galway
the following year. Disease however killed indiscriminately and Ireton, along with thousands of Parliamentarian troops, died of plague outside Limerick
Limerick
in 1651.[25] Guerrilla warfare, famine and plague[edit]

The heavily fortified city of Galway
Galway
in 1651. It was the last Irish stronghold to fall to the Parliamentarians, surrendering in 1652.

The fall of Galway
Galway
saw the end of organised resistance to the Cromwellian conquest, but fighting continued as small units of Irish troops launched guerrilla attacks on the Parliamentarians. The guerrilla phase of the war had been going since late 1650 and at the end of 1651, despite the defeat of the main Irish or Royalist forces, there were still estimated to be 30,000 men in arms against the Parliamentarians. Tories (from the Irish word tóraidhe meaning, "pursued man") operated from difficult terrain such as the Bog of Allen, the Wicklow Mountains
Wicklow Mountains
and the drumlin country in the north midlands, and within months, made the countryside extremely dangerous for all except large parties of Parliamentarian troops. Ireton
Ireton
mounted a punitive expedition to the Wicklow mountains in 1650 to try to put down the tories there, but without success. By early 1651, it was reported that no English supply convoys were safe if they travelled more than two miles outside a military base. In response, the Parliamentarians destroyed food supplies and forcibly evicted civilians who were thought to be helping the Tories. John Hewson systematically destroyed food stocks in counties Wicklow and Kildare, Hardress Waller did likewise in the Burren in County Clare, as did Colonel Cook in County Wexford. The result was famine throughout much of Ireland, aggravated by an outbreak of bubonic plague.[26] As the guerrilla war ground on, the Parliamentarians, as of April 1651, designated areas such as County Wicklow
County Wicklow
and much of the south of the country as what would now be called free-fire zones, where anyone found would be, "taken slain and destroyed as enemies and their cattle and good shall be taken or spoiled as the goods of enemies".[27] This tactic had succeeded in the Nine Years' War. This phase of the war was by far the most costly in terms of civilian loss of life. The combination of warfare, famine and plague caused a huge mortality among the Irish population. William Petty
William Petty
estimated (in the 1655-56 Down Survey) that the death toll of the wars in Ireland since 1641 was over 618,000 people, or about 40% of the country's pre-war population. Of these, he estimated that over 400,000 were Catholics, 167,000 killed directly by war or famine, and the remainder by war-related disease.[28] Modern estimates put the toll at closer to 20%.[29] In addition, some fifty thousand[2] Irish people, including prisoners of war, were sold as indentured labourers under the English Commonwealth regime.[30][31] They were often sent to the English colonies in North America
North America
and the Caribbean
Caribbean
where they subsequently comprised a substantial portion of certain Caribbean
Caribbean
colony populations in the late 17th century.[32] In Barbados, some of their descendants are known as Redlegs.[33] Eventually, the guerrilla war was ended when the Parliamentarians published surrender terms in 1652 allowing Irish troops to go abroad to serve in foreign armies not at war with the Commonwealth of England. Most went to France or Spain. The largest Irish guerrilla forces under John Fitzpatrick (in Leinster), Edmund O'Dwyer (in Munster) and Edmund Daly (in Connacht) surrendered in 1652, under terms signed at Kilkenny
Kilkenny
in May of that year. However, up to 11,000 men, mostly in Ulster, were still thought to be in the field at the end of the year. The last Irish and Royalist forces (the remnants of the Confederate's Ulster
Ulster
Army, led by Philip O'Reilly) formally surrendered at Cloughoughter
Cloughoughter
in County Cavan
County Cavan
on 27 April 1653. However, low-level guerrilla warfare continued for the remainder of the decade and was accompanied by widespread lawlessness. Undoubtedly some of the tories were simple brigands, whereas others were politically motivated. The Cromwellians distinguished in their rewards for information or capture of outlaws between "private tories" and "public tories".[34] The Cromwellian Settlement[edit] Main articles: Act for the Settlement of Ireland 1652
Act for the Settlement of Ireland 1652
and Act of Settlement 1662 Cromwell imposed an extremely harsh settlement on the Irish Catholic population. This was because of his deep religious antipathy to the Catholic
Catholic
religion and to punish Irish Catholics for the rebellion of 1641, in particular the massacres of Protestant
Protestant
settlers in Ulster. Also he needed to raise money to pay off his army and to repay the London merchants who had subsidised the war under the Adventurers Act back in 1640.[citation needed] Anyone implicated in the rebellion of 1641 was executed. Those who participated in Confederate Ireland
Confederate Ireland
had all their land confiscated and thousands were transported to the West Indies
West Indies
as indentured labourers. Those Catholic
Catholic
landowners who had not taken part in the wars still had their land confiscated, although they were entitled to claim land in Connacht
Connacht
as compensation. In addition, no Catholics were allowed to live in towns. Irish soldiers who had fought in the Confederate and Royalist armies left the country in large numbers to find service in the armies of France and Spain— William Petty
William Petty
estimated their number at 54,000 men. The practice of Catholicism was banned and bounties were offered for the capture of priests, who were executed when found.[citation needed] The Long Parliament
Long Parliament
had passed the Adventurers Act
Adventurers Act
in 1640 (the act received royal assent in 1642), under which those who lent money to Parliament for the subjugation of Ireland
Ireland
would be paid in confiscated land in Ireland. In addition, Parliamentarian soldiers who served in Ireland
Ireland
were entitled to an allotment of confiscated land there, in lieu of their wages, which the Parliament was unable to pay in full. As a result, many thousands of New Model Army
New Model Army
veterans were settled in Ireland. Moreover, the pre-war Protestant
Protestant
settlers greatly increased their ownership of land (see also: The Cromwellian Plantation). Before the wars, Irish Catholics had owned 60% of the land in Ireland, whereas by the time of the English Restoration, when compensations had been made to Catholic
Catholic
Royalists, they owned only 20% of it. During the Commonwealth period, Catholic
Catholic
landownership had fallen to 8%. Even after the Restoration of 1660, Catholics were barred from all public office, but not from the Irish Parliament.[35] Historical debate[edit] The Parliamentarian campaign in Ireland
Ireland
was the most ruthless of the Civil War period. In particular, Cromwell's actions at Drogheda
Drogheda
and Wexford
Wexford
earned him a reputation for cruelty. However, pro-Cromwell accounts argue that Cromwell's actions in Ireland
Ireland
were not excessively cruel by the standards of the day. Cromwell himself argued that his severity when he was in Ireland applied only to "men in arms" who opposed him. Accounts of his massacres of civilians are still disputed. Formally, Cromwell's command issued in Dublin
Dublin
shortly after his arrival states the following:

I do hereby warn ... all Officers, Soldiers and others under my command not to do any wrong or violence toward Country People or any persons whotsoever, unless they be actually in arms or office with the enemy ... as they shall answer to the contrary at their utmost peril.[citation needed]

The purpose of this order was, at least in part, to ensure that the local population would sell food and other supplies to his troops. It is worth noting that the Parliamentarian Colonel Daniel Axtell was court-martialled by Ireton
Ireton
in 1650 as a result of atrocities committed by his soldiers during the Battle of Meelick Island. Cromwell's critics point to his response to a plea by Catholic
Catholic
Bishops to the Irish Catholic
Catholic
people to resist him in which he states that although his intention was not to "massacre, banish and destroy the Catholic
Catholic
inhabitants", if they did resist "I hope to be free from the misery and desolation, blood and ruin that shall befall them, and shall rejoice to exercise the utmost severity against them".[36][a] It has also recently been argued, by Tom Reilly in Cromwell, an Honourable Enemy,[37] that what happened at Drogheda
Drogheda
and Wexford
Wexford
was not unusually severe by the standards of 17th century siege warfare, in which the garrisons of towns taken by storm were routinely killed to discourage resistance in the future. John Morrill commented, "A major attempt at rehabilitation was attempted by Tom Reilly, Cromwell: An Honourable Enemy (London, 1999) but this has been largely rejected by other scholars."[38] Morrill himself argued, that what happened at Drogheda, "was without straightforward parallel in 17th century British or Irish history... So the Drogheda
Drogheda
massacre does stand out for its mercilessness, for its combination of ruthlessness and calculation, for its combination of hot- and cold-bloodiness".[39] Moreover, historians critical of Cromwell point out that at the time the killings at Drogheda
Drogheda
and Wexford
Wexford
were considered atrocities. They cite such sources as Edmund Ludlow, the Parliamentarian commander in Ireland
Ireland
after Ireton's death, who wrote that the tactics used by Cromwell at Drogheda
Drogheda
showed "extraordinary severity". Cromwell's actions in Ireland
Ireland
occurred in the context of a mutually cruel war. In 1641–42 Irish insurgents in Ulster
Ulster
killed between 4,000 and 12,000 Protestant
Protestant
settlers who had settled on land where the former Catholic
Catholic
owners had been evicted to make way for them. These events were magnified in Protestant
Protestant
propaganda as an attempt by Irish Catholics to exterminate the English Protestant
Protestant
settlers in Ireland. In turn, this was used as justification by English Parliamentary and Scottish Covenant forces to take vengeance on the Irish Catholic population. A Parliamentary tract of 1655 argued that, "the whole Irish nation, consisting of gentry, clergy and commonality are engaged as one nation in this quarrel, to root out and extirpate all English Protestants from amongst them".[40] Atrocities were subsequently committed by all sides. When Murrough O'Brien, the Earl of Inchiquin and Parliamentarian commander in Cork, took Cashel in 1647, he slaughtered the garrison and Catholic
Catholic
clergy there (including Theobald Stapleton), earning the nickname "Murrough of the Burnings". Inchiquin switched allegiances in 1648, becoming a commander of the Royalist forces. After such battles as Dungans Hill and Scarrifholis, English Parliamentarian forces executed thousands of their Irish Catholic
Catholic
prisoners. Similarly, when the Confederate Catholic
Catholic
general Thomas Preston took Maynooth
Maynooth
in 1647, he hanged its Catholic
Catholic
defenders as apostates. Seen in this light, some have argued that the severe conduct of the Parliamentarian campaign of 1649–53 appears unexceptional.[41] Nevertheless, the 1649–53 campaign remains notorious in Irish popular memory as it was responsible for a huge death toll among the Irish population. The main reason for this was the counter-guerrilla tactics used by such commanders as Henry Ireton, John Hewson and Edmund Ludlow
Edmund Ludlow
against the Catholic
Catholic
population from 1650, when large areas of the country still resisted the Parliamentary Army. These tactics included the wholesale burning of crops, forced population movement, and killing of civilians. The policy caused famine throughout the country that was "responsible for the majority of an estimated 600,000 deaths out of a total Irish population of 1,400,000".[42] In addition, the whole post-war Cromwellian settlement of Ireland
Ireland
has been characterised by historians such as Mark Levene and Alan Axelrod as ethnic cleansing, in that it sought to remove Irish Catholics from the eastern part of the country, others such as the historical writer Tim Pat Coogan have described the actions of Cromwell and his subordinates as genocide.[43] The aftermath of the Cromwellian campaign and settlement saw extensive dispossession of landowners who were Catholic, and a huge drop in population. In the event, the much larger number of surviving poorer Catholics were not moved westwards; most of them had to fend for themselves by working for the new landowners. Long-term results[edit] The Cromwellian conquest completed the British colonisation of Ireland, which was merged into the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland
Ireland
in 1653–59. It destroyed the native Irish Catholic land-owning classes and replaced them with colonists with a British identity. The bitterness caused by the Cromwellian settlement was a powerful source of Irish nationalism
Irish nationalism
from the 17th century onwards. After the Stuart Restoration in 1660, Charles II of England
England
restored about a third of the confiscated land to the former landlords in the Act of Settlement 1662, but not all, as he needed political support from former parliamentarians in England. A generation later, during the Glorious Revolution, many of the Irish Catholic
Catholic
landed class tried to reverse the remaining Cromwellian settlement in the Williamite War in Ireland
Ireland
(1689–91), where they fought en masse for the Jacobites. They were defeated once again, and many lost land that had been regranted after 1662. As a result, Irish and English Catholics did not become full political citizens of the British state again until 1829 and were legally barred from buying valuable interests in land until the Papists Act 1778. See also[edit]

Wars of the Three Kingdoms Irish Confederate Wars British military history Early Modern Ireland
Ireland
1536-1691

Notes[edit]

^ The wording of this version is taken from a London edition, Thomas Carlyle notes that another contemporary version copied from the original Cork edition, ends with the phrase "and shall rejoice to act severity against them" and that he states "is probably the true reading" (Carlyle 2010, p. 132).

^ Mícheál Ó Siochrú/RTÉ ONE, Cromwell in Ireland
Ireland
Part 2. Broadcast 16 September 2008. ^ a b O'Callaghan 2000, p. 85. ^ Higman 1997, pp. 107,108. ^ "Of all these doings in Cromwell's Irish Chapter, each of us may say what he will. Yet to everyone it will at least be intelligible how his name came to be hated in the tenacious heart of Ireland". John Morley, Biography of Oliver Cromwell. Page 298. 1900 and 2001. ISBN 978-1-4212-6707-4.; "Cromwell is still a hate figure in Ireland
Ireland
today because of the brutal effectiveness of his campaigns in Ireland. Of course, his victories in Ireland
Ireland
made him a hero in Protestant
Protestant
England." "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 28 September 2007. Retrieved 2009-05-25.  British National Archives web site. Accessed March 2007; "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 11 December 2004. Retrieved 2006-01-17.  From a history site dedicated to the English Civil War. "... making Cromwell's name into one of the most hated in Irish history". Accessed March 2007. Site currently offline. WayBack Machine holds archive here ^ Philip McKeiver in his, 2007, A New History of Cromwell's Irish Campaign ISBN 978-0-9554663-0-4 and Tom Reilly, 1999, Cromwell: An Honourable Enemy ISBN 0-86322-250-1 ^ Coyle, Eugene (Winter 1999). "Cromwell: An Honourable Enemy, Tom Reilly [review of]". Book Reviews. History Ireland. 7 (4). Retrieved 10 October 2014.  ^ The Cromwellian Settlement of Ireland
Ireland
by John Patrick Prendergast ^ http://mandalaprojects.com/ice/ice-cases/cromwells-famine.htm ^ http://downsurvey.tcd.ie/history.html ^ Padraig Lenihan, Confederate Catholics at War (2001) p112, 'As late as 1650, provisions were cheaper in Ireland
Ireland
than in England; the famine of 1651 onwards was a man made response to stubborn guerrilla warfare. Collective reprisals against the civilian population included forcing them out of designated no man's lands and the systematic destruction of foodstuffs'. ^ 15–25%

Padraig Lenihan, Confederate Catholics at War, p112

50%:

The History and Social Influence of the Potato, Redcliffe N. Salaman, Edited by JG Hawkes, 9780521316231, Cambridge University Press How many died during Cromwell’s campaign?

83%:

The Cromwellian Settlement of Ireland
Ireland
by John Patrick Prendergast

^ "Down Survey". Trinity College Dublin
Dublin
Department of History. Retrieved 19 March 2016.  ^ O'Siochru, God's Executioner, p.69 & 96. ^ McKeiver, A New History of Cromwell's Irish Campaign, page.59 ^ Antonia Fraser, Cromwell, our Chief of Men (1973), p. 324 ^ Fraser, Cromwell our Chief of Men, p.326 ^ Padraig Lenihan, Confederate Catholics at War, p.113 ^ Reilly, Tom (1999). Cromwell, An Honourable Enemy. London: Phoenix Press. p. 61. ISBN 1-84212-080-8.  ^ Reilly, Tom (1999). Cromwell, An Honourable Enemy. London: Phoenix Press. p. 71. ISBN 1-84212-080-8.  ^ Fraser, pp.336–339. Kenyon & Ohlmeyer 1998, p. 98. ^ O Siochru, God's Executioner, pp. 82–91. Faber & Faber (2008) ^ Tom Reilly, Opinion - Cromwell was Framed The Irish Story ^ Kenyon & Ohlmeyer 1998, p. 100. ^ McKeiver, A New History of Cromwell's Irish Campaign, p.167. ^ Micheal O Siochru, God's Executioner, Oliver Cromwell
Oliver Cromwell
and Conquest of Ireland, p.187. ^ Lenihan, p.122 ^ James Scott Wheeler, Cromwell in Ireland ^ Kenyon & Ohlmeyer 1998, p. 278. Scott Wheeler, Cromwell in Ireland. ^ http://www.theirishstory.com/2014/01/22/from-catastrophe-to-baby-boom-population-change-in-early-modern-ireland-1641-1741/ ^ Kenyon & Ohlmeyer 1998, p. 134. ^ Higman 1997, pp. 107, 108. ^ Mahoney, Michael. "Irish indentured labour in the Caribbean". UK National Archive. UK National Archive. Retrieved 13 March 2016.  ^ Irish Times staff 2009. ^ Prendergast, John Patrick (1868). The Cromwellian Settlement of Ireland. P M Haverty New York. p. 178,187. Retrieved 14 March 2016.  ^ Lenihan, p. 111 ^ Carlyle 2010, p. 132. ^ Reilly, Dingle 1999[page needed] ^ John Morrill. "Rewriting Cromwell: A Case of Deafening Silences." Canadian Journal of History. Dec 2003: 19. ^ Morrill pp. 263–265 ^ Richard Lawrence, The Interest of England
England
in Irish transplantation (1655), quoted in Lenihan, Confederate Catholics at War, p.111. ^ John Morrill. "Rewriting Cromwell: A Case of Deafening Silences." Canadian Journal of History. December 2003: 19. ^ Frances Stewart Archived 16 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine. (2000). War and Underdevelopment: Economic and Social Consequences of Conflict v. 1 (Queen Elizabeth House Series in Development Studies), Oxford University Press. 2000. p. 51. ^

Albert Breton (Editor, 1995). Nationalism and Rationality. Cambridge University Press. Page 248. " Oliver Cromwell
Oliver Cromwell
offered Irish Catholics a choice between genocide and forced mass population transfer". Ukrainian Quarterly. Ukrainian Society of America, 1944. "Therefore, we are entitled to accuse the England
England
of Oliver Cromwell
Oliver Cromwell
of the genocide of the Irish civilian population". David Norbrook (2000).Writing the English Republic: Poetry, Rhetoric and Politics, 1627–1660. Cambridge University Press. 2000. In interpreting Andrew Marvell's contemporarily expressed views on Cromwell Norbrook says; "He (Cromwell) laid the foundation for a ruthless programme of resettling the Irish Catholics which amounted to large scale ethnic cleansing". Frances Stewart Archived 16 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine. (2000). War and Underdevelopment: Economic and Social Consequences of Conflict v. 1 (Queen Elizabeth House Series in Development Studies), Oxford University Press. p. 51. "Faced with the prospect of an Irish alliance with Charles II, Cromwell carried out a series of massacres to subdue the Irish. Then, once Cromwell had returned to England, the English Commissary, General Henry Ireton, adopted a deliberate policy of crop burning and starvation, which was responsible for the majority of an estimated 600,000 deaths out of a total Irish population of 1,400,000." Alan Axelrod (2002). Profiles in Leadership, Prentice-Hall. 2002. Page 122. "As a leader Cromwell was entirely unyielding. He was willing to act on his beliefs, even if this meant killing the king and perpetrating, against the Irish, something very nearly approaching genocide". Tim Pat Coogan (2002). The Troubles: Ireland's Ordeal and the Search for Peace. ISBN 978-0-312-29418-2. p. 6. "The massacres by Catholics of Protestants, which occurred in the religious wars of the 1640s, were magnified for propagandist purposes to justify Cromwell's subsequent genocide." Peter Berresford Ellis (2002). Eyewitness to Irish History, John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-471-26633-4. p. 108. "It was to be the justification for Cromwell's genocidal campaign and settlement." John Morrill (2003). "Rewriting Cromwell: A Case of Deafening Silences", Canadian Journal of History. December 2003. "Of course, this has never been the Irish view of Cromwell. Most Irish remember him as the man responsible for the mass slaughter of civilians at Drogheda
Drogheda
and Wexford
Wexford
and as the agent of the greatest episode of ethnic cleansing ever attempted in Western Europe as, within a decade, the percentage of land possessed by Catholics born in Ireland
Ireland
dropped from sixty to twenty. In a decade, the ownership of two-fifths of the land mass was transferred from several thousand Irish Catholic
Catholic
landowners to British Protestants. The gap between Irish and the English views of the seventeenth-century conquest remains unbridgeable and is governed by G. K. Chesterton's mirthless epigram of 1917, that 'it was a tragic necessity that the Irish should remember it; but it was far more tragic that the English forgot it'." James M. Lutz Archived 16 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine., Brenda J Lutz (2004). Global Terrorism, Routledge: London. p.193: "The draconian laws applied by Oliver Cromwell
Oliver Cromwell
in Ireland
Ireland
were an early version of ethnic cleansing. The Catholic
Catholic
Irish were to be expelled to the northwestern areas of the island. Relocation rather than extermination was the goal." Mark Levene (2005). Genocide in the Age of the Nation State: Volume 2. ISBN 978-1-84511-057-4. Pages 55–57. A sample quote describes the Cromwellian campaign and settlement as "a conscious attempt to reduce a distinct ethnic population". Mark Levene (2005). Genocide in the Age of the Nation-State. London: I.B. Tauris.

[The Act of Settlement of Ireland], and the parliamentary legislation which succeeded it the following year, is the nearest thing on paper in the English, and more broadly British, domestic record, to a programme of state-sanctioned and systematic ethnic cleansing of another people. The fact that it did not include "total" genocide in its remit, or that it failed to put into practice the vast majority of its proposed expulsions, ultimately, however, says less about the lethal determination of its makers and more about the political, structural and financial weakness of the early modern English state.

References[edit]

Coyle Eugene,"A review". Archived from the original on 31 October 2006. Retrieved 16 July 2007. CS1 maint: Unfit url (link) , of Cromwell: An Honourable Enemy, by Tom Reilly, Brandon Press, 1999, ISBN 0-86322-250-1 Carlyle, Thomas (2010), Traill, Henry Duff; Cromwell, Oliver, eds., The Works of Thomas Carlyle, 2, Cambridge University Press, p. 132, ISBN 9781108022309  Fraser, Antonia. Cromwell Our Chief of Men, Panther, St Albans 1975, ISBN 0-586-04206-7 Ó Siochrú, Mícheál. RTÉ ONE, Cromwell in Ireland
Ireland
Part 2. Broadcast 16 September 2008. O'Callaghan, Sean (2000). To Hell or Barbados. Brandon. p. 85. ISBN 978-0-86322-272-6.  Higman, B. W. (1997). Knight, Franklin W., ed. General History of the Caribbean: The slave societies of the Caribbean. 3 (illustrated ed.). UNESCO. pp. 107,108]. ISBN 978-0-333-65605-1.  Irish Times staff (12 December 2009). "Remnants of an indentured people". Irish Times.  (subscription required) Kenyon, John; Ohlmeyer, Jane, eds. (1998). The Civil Wars. Oxford. ISBN 0-19-866222-X.  Lenihan, Padraig, Confederate Catholics at War, Cork 2001. ISBN 1-85918-244-5 Morrill, John. Rewriting Cromwell: A Case of Deafening Silences. Canadian Journal of History. Dec 2003. Reilly, Tom. Cromwell, an Honourable Enemy, Dingle 1999, ISBN 0-86322-250-1 Scott-Wheeler, James, Cromwell in Ireland, Dublin
Dublin
1999, ISBN 978-0-7171-2884-6

Further reading[edit]

Canny, Nicholas P. Making Ireland
Ireland
British 1580–1650, Oxford 2001, ISBN 0-19-820091-9 Gentles, Ian. The New Model Army, Cambridge 1994, ISBN 0-631-19347-2 O'Siochru, Micheal, God's Executioner- Oliver Cromwell
Oliver Cromwell
and the Conquest of Ireland, Faber & Faber, London, 2008. Plant, David. Cromwell in Ireland: 1649–52, British Civil Wars, Retrieved 22 September 2008 Stradling, R.A. The Spanish monarchy and Irish mercenaries, Irish Academic Press, Dublin
Dublin
1994. Excerpts, support for and a critique of Tom Reilly's Cromwell, an Honourable Enemy (1999)

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