The CROATIAN NATIONAL RESISTANCE (Croatian : Hrvatski narodni odpor, HNO), also referred to as ODPOR, was an Ustaša organization founded in the aftermath of the Second World War in Spain. The HNO ran a terrorist organisation, Drina, which continued to be active well into the 1970s.
The organization operated between legitimate emigre functions and a thuggish underworld. Its leaders tried to distance the organization from the acts of the so-called renegade elements. It embraced a radical nationalist ideology that differed only marginally from Ustaše ideology.
The HNO had stated, in their constitution, that:
regard Yugoslavism and Yugoslavia as the greatest and only evil that has caused the existing calamity... We therefore consider every direct or indirect help to Yugoslavia as treason against the Croatian nation... Yugoslavia must be destroyed—be it with the help of the Russians or the Americans, of Communists, non-Communists or anti-Communists—with the help of anyone willing the destruction of Yugoslavia: destroyed by the dialectic of the word, or by dynamite—but at all costs destroyed.
The organization published its own magazine, Drina. It existed until 1991.
* 1 History * 2 Leadership * 3 Terrorist attacks * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Sources
During WWII, Croatia was able to become an independent nation, called the NDH. During this time, the Croation Leadership was under the Ustache political party and, was headed by Ante Pavlevic. The NDH was supported by the axis powers and participated in the creation and use of concentration camps. While they used anti-semetisim to align with the values of the Axis powers, their true goal for the nation was to drive out all Bosnian-Serbs. It is thought that the various war crimes committed during these times is what spurred the anti-Croat sentiment within Serbian populations. After WWII Yugoslavia became a communist country under Serbian control. With the use of propaganda, Yugoslavia portrayed the Croat diaspora population a group of fascist terrorist with no greater goal than to destroy the state. While this view of the Croat diaspora population was largely slanted, it did describe a small number of loosely organized groups which were in line with the Ustache, the ultra-nationalist terrorist group founded by Ante Pavelic.
Odpor existed for over three decades, and while it never had more than a few thousand members worldwide, it linked a variety of notable Croatian nationalists. Odpor branches on four continents at times splintered, notably the Argentinian one under the leadership of Dinko Šakić . Šakić had lived in Argentina between 1947 and 1956, and then between 1959 and 1998.
In 1991, a former leader of Otpor joined the Croatian Ministry of Defence and used his underground connections to try to obtain weaponry at the time the Croatian War of Independence was starting. In August 1991, the U.S. Customs Service arrested four members of Otpor from Chicago for attempting to procure illegal weapons, including anti-aircraft missiles, and ship them to Croatia.
Ante Pavelic was the leader of the Independent State of Croatia, NDH, from 1941 to 1945. After escaping from Europe for war crimes committed during WWII, he spent some time in Australia before relocating to Argentina with the majority of the remaining NDH leadership and between and estimated 5,000 to 15,000 Ustache sympathizers. He established the Croatian Liberation Movement- HOP in Buenos Aries.
Dinko Sakic was in charge of the Argentinian faction in the 1970's. He was extradited to Croatia in 1999 for war crimes committed during WWII and was sentenced to serve 20 years in prison.
Maks Luburic was one of Pavalic's Lieutenants during WWII. Maks broke splintered into his own group, Odpor-HNO in 1955. This split was apparently due to the fact that Pavalic was willing to give up some historically Croatian land in exchange to reestablish an independent Croatia The working relationship between the two men was a long standing one, beginning in the 1930's with the Ustache movement. In 1969, Luburić was assassinated by the Yugoslav secret police the UDBA .
A number of attacks against Yugoslavia were organized by the Ustasha emigration, including the 1971 killing of ambassador Vladimir Rolović by Mir