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The Croatian Defence Forces
Croatian Defence Forces
(Croatian: Hrvatske obrambene snage, HOS) were the paramilitary arm of the Croatian Party of Rights
Croatian Party of Rights
(HSP) from 1991 to 1992, during the first stages of the Yugoslav wars. During the Croatian War of Independence, the HOS organized several early companies and participated in Croatia's defense. At the peak of the war in Croatia, the HOS was several battalions in size. The first HOS units were headed by Ante Paradžik, an HSP member who was killed by Croatian police in September 1991. After the November 1991 general mobilization in Croatia
Croatia
and the January 1992 cease-fire, the HOS was absorbed by the Croatian Army. The HOS units in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
consisted of Croats, Bosniaks and foreign volunteers led by Blaž Kraljević.[4] On 9 August 1992, Kraljević and eight staff members were assassinated by Croatian Defence Council (HVO) soldiers under the command of Mladen Naletilić.[5] The HOS was disbanded shortly afterwards, and absorbed by the HVO and the Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
at the beginning of the Croat-Bosniak War.[4] The last HOS unit was dissolved on 5 April 1993 in central Bosnia.[6]

Contents

1 Name 2 History

2.1 Croatia

2.1.1 Origin 2.1.2 Battles

2.2 Bosnia and Herzegovina

3 Symbols 4 Units 5 Gallery 6 See also 7 Footnotes 8 References

Name[edit] The frequently used Croatian abbreviation of the organization, "HOS" (Hrvatske obrambene snage), is identical to the abbreviation for the military of the World War II
World War II
Nazi puppet state, the Independent State of Croatia. The military of the Independent State of Croatia
Croatia
were the Croatian Armed Forces (Hrvatske oružane snage), also abbreviated "HOS" in Croatian. History[edit] Croatia[edit] Origin[edit] The Croatian Party of Rights
Croatian Party of Rights
was reestablished in Croatia
Croatia
on 26 February 1990, with Dobroslav Paraga president and Ante Paradžik vice-president. The Croatian civilian population began arming itself, and on 21 December 1990 the Serbs of Croatia
Croatia
rose up; soon, the Yugoslav People's Army
Yugoslav People's Army
combined with the insurgent Serbs and the Croatian Party of Rights
Croatian Party of Rights
considered forming its own military wing. Although the first HOS squad was established in January, the HOS was officially founded on 25 June 1991 by Dobroslav Paraga, Ante Paradžik, Alija Šiljak and other leaders of the HSP. Soon after the establishment of the HOS general staff, Paradžik became its chief. The general staff was at Starčević Center, the HSP headquarters in Zagreb. At first, the HOS was poorly armed and its soldiers used their own weapons. However, they performed well in conflicts with Serb forces and attracted the attention of Croatian public. The HSP received donations from the Croatian diaspora and HSP branches in Australia and Canada, enabling them to buy weapons and increase their membership. Not every HSP member supported a military wing, and secretary Krešimir Pavelić left the party in protest. Many HOS recruits came from the diaspora: Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
and overseas. In addition, HOS attracted trained soldiers from abroad. Battles[edit] At the beginning of the Croatian War of Independence, the HOS consisted of about 6,000 soldiers. Although they were members of the Croatian National Guard
Croatian National Guard
(ZNG), they obeyed orders from HOS officers. Because of an unwritten rule that HOS members could only be members of the HSP, the HOS was considered a party paramilitary organization. The HOS and the ZNG were involved in the Battle of the Barracks
Battle of the Barracks
and other minor battles in Croatia. The HOS increased in popularity within the HSP, and soon the HOS were in nearly every town where the HSP was active. On 10 September 1991, Paraga and Paradžik organized a demonstration of an HOS company for 10,000 spectators in Jelačić Square. Shortly after the demonstration, the company was involved in the Battle of Vukovar
Battle of Vukovar
under Robert Šilić. At this time, HOS units were founded in Dalmatia. Until May 1991, Dalmatian HOS units were company-sized. In an agreement between Paraga and the Slovene Minister of Defense Janez Janša, the units were sent to Slovenia
Slovenia
for training. By October 1991 the unit had grown to battalion size; it was called the 9th Battalion
Battalion
(the Rafael "Knight" Boban Battalion) and was commanded by Jozo Radanović, president of the HSP branch in Split. This unit became one of the most popular Croatian units; in early December 1991, Radanović was promoted to colonel in the HOS. Paradžik was shot at a police checkpoint near Zagreb
Zagreb
on 21 September 1991, in what was described by the authorities as an accident. On 23 November the Croatian government began a general mobilization, and most HOS militiamen joined Croatian Army
Croatian Army
units. Shortly after the cease-fire in January 1992, the HOS ceased operations in Croatia. Bosnia and Herzegovina[edit]

HOS soldiers in Čapljina, 1992

The Croatian Defence Forces
Croatian Defence Forces
in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
had its headquarters in Ljubuški
Ljubuški
and mostly operated in the southern area of the country. Their commander was Blaž Kraljević. In the beginning of the Bosnian War
Bosnian War
they fought against the Serb forces together with the HVO and ARBiH.[6] The strength of HOS forces in Bosnia and Herzegovina was estimated at up to 5000 members armed with infantry weapons.[7] They included many Bosnian Muslims in their ranks and advocated a confederation between Croatia
Croatia
and Bosnia and Herzegovina,[8] frequently using the slogan " Croatia
Croatia
to the Drina, Bosnia to the Adriatic".[7] The HOS participated in breaking the JNA-VRS siege of Mostar
Mostar
in June 1992, when the HV and HVO forces pushed the Serb forces towards eastern Herzegovina.[8] Relations between the HVO and HOS eventually worsened, though HOS did not function integrally throughout the country. In the area of Novi Travnik it was closer to the HVO, while in the Mostar
Mostar
area there were increasingly tense relations between the HOS and the HVO.[9] On 9 August Kraljević was killed in unclear circumstances at a police checkpoint in the village of Kruševo,[6] by HVO soldiers under the command of Mladen Naletilić.[5] On 23 August 1992 HVO and HOS leaders in Herzegovina agreed to incorporate the HOS into the HVO. The remaining HOS forces were later recognized by the Sarajevo
Sarajevo
government as part of the ARBiH. The HOS forces in central Bosnia merged with the HVO in April 1993.[6] Most of the Bosniaks
Bosniaks
that were members of the HOS joined the Muslim Armed Forces (MOS).[10] Symbols[edit] The HOS had a black flag with its emblem in the centre: a circle of triple wattle containing a chequered shield (with white first square) over a four-sided blue-and-white triple-wattle symbol; above, the inscription "HOS"; below, "HSP, Za dom spremni", which was the Ustaše salute during WW2, in the Independent State of Croatia.[11] Units[edit]

Name Symbol Headquarters Commander

1st Battalion
Battalion
Ivan "The Knight" Brdar (1. bojna Ivan Vitez
Vitez
Brdar)

Livno, Bosnia and Herzegovina Mate Šukan

2nd Battalion
Battalion
Stojan Vujnović "The Serb" (2. bojna Stojan Vujnović Srbin)

Domaljevac, Bosnia and Herzegovina Stojan Vujnović

4th HOS Battalion (4. bojna HOS-a)

6th Battalion
Battalion
Marijan Baotić (6. bojna Marijan Baotić)

Vinkovci, Croatia

9th Battalion
Battalion
Rafael "The Knight" Boban (9. bojna Rafael vitez Boban)

Split, Croatia Marko Skejo

1st Company Ante Paradžik (1. satnija Ante Paradžik)

Jasenovac, Croatia

Vukovar
Vukovar
HOS Company (Vukovarska satnija HOS-a)

Vukovar, Croatia Robert Šilić

13th Battalion
Battalion
Jure "The Knight" Francetić (13. bojna Jure vitez Francetić)

Tomislavgrad, Bosnia and Herzegovina Ivan Mamić

The Knights (Vitezovi)

Vitez, Bosnia and Herzegovina

101st Battalion
Battalion
To Drina (101. bojna Do Drine)

Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina

19th Battalion
Battalion
"The Knight" Jure Francetić (19. bojna Vitez
Vitez
Jure Francetić)

Gospić, Croatia Valentin Rajković

Black Wolves (Crni vukovi)

Kalesija, Bosnia and Herzegovina

Marked Ones (Žigosani)

Novi Travnik, Bosnia and Herzegovina

Hunter Company (Satnija Lovci)

Ljubuški, Bosnia and Herzegovina

Independent Security Company (Samostalna satnija osiguranja)

Zagreb, Croatia

Mostar
Mostar
HOS Battalion (Mostarska bojna HOS-a)

Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina

Ljubuški
Ljubuški
HOS Company (Ljubuška satnija HOS-a)

Ljubuški, Bosnia and Herzegovina

Zenica
Zenica
HOS Company (Zenička satnija HOS-a)

Zenica, Bosnia and Herzegovina

Tuzla
Tuzla
HOS Company (Tuzlanska satnija HOS-a)

Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina

Čapljina
Čapljina
HOS Company (Čapljinska satnija HOS-a)

Čapljina, Bosnia and Herzegovina

Gallery[edit]

Standard HOS patch

HOS soldiers after the war

Jozo Radanović, founder and first commander of the HOS 9th battalion

Patch of HOS 9th battalion, 114th brigade

Croatian flag
Croatian flag
used by HOS soldiers

Patch of HOS 9th battalion, 4th brigade

Rare HOS patch from Herzegovina

HOS soldiers after the war

HOS-a patch from Prozor-Rama

HOS patch for Muslims

Patch used by some HOS soldiers in Bosnia and Herzegovina

See also[edit]

Blaž Kraljević Croatian Party of Rights

Footnotes[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Croatian Defence Forces.

^ Absorbed into the Croatian ground army ^ Absorbed into the Croatian Defence Council
Croatian Defence Council
and Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina ^ Veselinović 2014, p. 70-71. ^ a b Nigel Thomas, Nigel Thomas (2006). The Yugoslav Wars: Bosnia, Kosovo and Macedonia 1992–2001. Osprey Publishing. p. 21. ISBN 1-84176-964-9.  ^ a b Ramet 2006, p. 343. ^ a b c d Shrader 2003, p. 46. ^ a b Veselinović 2014, p. 71. ^ a b Hewitt 1998, p. 71. ^ Marijan 2004, p. 270. ^ Shrader 2003, p. 48. ^ "HOS, Croatian Defence Forces". crwflags. 2008. Retrieved 11 March 2008. The HOS used a black flag with the emblem in the middle, with a circle of triple-wattle within which is a chequy shield over a four-sided blue-white triple wattle (similar to the one used as Ustasha symbol, on flags of the Independent State of Croatia
Croatia
in World War II), above the inscription HOS, below HSP, ZA DOM SPREMNI (For Homeland. Ready!). 

References[edit]

Hewitt, Dawn M. (1998). From Ottawa to Sarajevo: Canadian Peacekeepers in the Balkans. Kingston, Ontario: Centre for International Relations, Queen's University. ISBN 978-0-88911-788-4.  Marijan, Davor (2004). "Expert Opinion: On the War Connections of Croatia
Croatia
and Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
(1991 – 1995)". Journal of Contemporary History. Zagreb, Croatia: Croatian Institute of History. 36: 249–289.  Ramet, Sabrina P. (2006). The Three Yugoslavias: State-Building and Legitimation, 1918–2005. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0-253-34656-8.  Shrader, Charles R. (2003). The Muslim-Croat Civil War in Central Bosnia: A Military History, 1992–1994. College Station, Texas: Texas A&M University Press. ISBN 978-1-58544-261-4.  Veselinović, Velimir (2014). "Obnavljanje i djelovanje Hrvatske stranke prava, 1990-1992" [Restoration and activities of the Croatian Party of Rights, 1990-1992]. Croatian Political Science Review. Zagreb, Croatia: Fakultet političkih znanosti Sveučilišta u Zagrebu. 51: 55–87. 

v t e

Yugoslav Wars

Overview Participants People

Wars and conflicts

Slovenian War of Independence (1991) Croatian War of Independence
Croatian War of Independence
(1991–95) Bosnian War
Bosnian War
(1992–95)

Croat–Bosniak War
Croat–Bosniak War
(1992–94)

Kosovo War
Kosovo War
(1998–99) Insurgency in the Preševo Valley
Insurgency in the Preševo Valley
(1999–2001) 2001 insurgency in the Republic of Macedonia
2001 insurgency in the Republic of Macedonia
(2001)

Background:

Timeline of Yugoslav breakup Josip Broz Tito Brotherhood and unity League of Communists of Yugoslavia Croatian Spring SANU Memorandum Contributions for the Slovenian National Program Anti-bureaucratic revolution JBTZ-trial Gazimestan speech RAM Plan Breakup of Yugoslavia Karađorđevo agreement Graz agreement Joint Criminal Enterprise Role of the media in the Yugoslav wars

Consequences:

Brioni Agreement Dayton Agreement Agreement on Sub-Regional Arms Control International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY)

List of ICTY indictees

Human rights in Croatia Human rights in Serbia

Articles on nationalism:

Ethnic cleansing Greater Albania Greater Croatia United Macedonia Greater Serbia United Slovenia Anti-Serbian sentiment Islamophobia Albanian nationalism Bosnianism Croatian nationalism Macedonian nationalism Montenegrin nationalism Serbian nationalism Serbian–Montenegrin unionism Slovenian nationalism Yugoslavism

Ex-Yugoslav republics:

 Yugoslavia (SFRY)

 Croatia  Slovenia  Bosnia and Herzegovina  Macedonia  Yugoslavia (FRY)

Unrecognized entities:

  Republic of Serbian Krajina
Republic of Serbian Krajina
(RSK)

SAO Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Syrmia SAO Krajina SAO Western Slavonia

  Republika Srpska
Republika Srpska
(RS)

SAO Bosanska Krajina SAO Herzegovina SAO North-Eastern Bosnia SAO Romanija

 Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia (HRHB) Autonomous Province of Western Bosnia (APZB)

United Nations
United Nations
protectorate:

United Nations
United Nations
Transitional Authority for Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Sirmium (UNTAES) United Nations
United Nations
Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK)

Armies:

Yugoslav People's Army
Yugoslav People's Army
(JNA) Yugoslav Territorial Defence (TO) Slovenian Territorial Defence
Slovenian Territorial Defence
(TORS) Yugoslav Army (VJ) Croatian Army
Croatian Army
(HV) BiH Territorial Defence (TORBIH) Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
(ARBiH) Army of Republika Srpska
Republika Srpska
(VRS) Army of the Republic of Serb Krajina
Army of the Republic of Serb Krajina
(SVK) Croatian Defence Council
Croatian Defence Council
(HVO)

Military formations and volunteers:

Croatian Defence Forces
Croatian Defence Forces
(HOS) White Eagles Serb Guard (SG) Serb Volunteer Guard
Serb Volunteer Guard
(SDG) Scorpions Yellow Wasps Greek Volunteer Guard Wolves of Vučjak

External factors:

NATO United Nations
United Nations
(UN)

United Nations
United Nations
Protection Force (UNPROFOR) United Nations
United Nations
Confidence Restoration Operation (UNCRO)

Politicians:

Ante Marković Borisav Jović Slobodan Milošević Momir Bulatović Milo Đukanović Vuk Drašković Milan Kučan Lojze Peterle Janez Janša Franjo Tuđman Stjepan Mesić Ante Paradžik
Ante Paradžik
† Dobroslav Paraga Alija Izetbegović Mate Boban Fikret Abdić Radovan Karadžić Biljana Plavšić Momčilo Krajišnik Mirko Jović Jovan Rašković
Jovan Rašković
† Milan Babić Goran Hadžić Milan Martić Vojislav Šešelj

Top military commanders:

Veljko Kadijević Života Panić Momčilo Perišić Janko Bobetko Martin Špegelj Gojko Šušak Mile Novaković Mile Mrkšić Ratko Mladić Rasim Delić Sefer Halilović Atif Dudaković Dragoljub Ojdanić Nebojša Pavković Vladimir Lazarević

Other notable commanders:

Blago Zadro
Blago Zadro
 † Blaž Kraljević
Blaž Kraljević
† Ante Gotovina Jovan Divjak Naser Orić Veselin Šljivančanin Milan Tepić
Milan Tepić
 † Đorđe Božović  † Vukašin Šoškoćanin
Vukašin Šoškoćanin
Veljko Milanković
Veljko Milanković
† Ljubiša Savić Dragan Vasiljković Željko Ražnatović Milorad Ulemek

Key foreign figures:

Lord Carrington Cyrus Vance Lord Owen Richard Holbrooke Robert Badinter

v t e

Croatian War of Independence

Part of the Yugoslav Wars

Prelude

Log Revolution SAO Krajina

1991

Pakrac clash Plitvice Lakes incident 1991 siege of Kijevo Battle of Borovo Selo 1991 riot in Zadar 1991 protest in Split SAO Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Syrmia Operation Stinger Dalj massacre Operation Labrador SAO Western Slavonia Battle of Vukovar Battle of Osijek Battle of Gospić Battle of Kusonje Battle of the Barracks Siege of Varaždin Barracks Siege of Bjelovar Barracks Battle of Zadar Battle of Šibenik 1991 Yugoslav campaign in Croatia Siege of Dubrovnik Bombing of Banski dvori Široka Kula massacre Lovas massacre Gospić
Gospić
massacre Baćin massacre Saborsko massacre Operation Otkos 10 Battle of Logorište Erdut massacre Battle of the Dalmatian channels Kostrići massacre Škabrnja massacre Vukovar
Vukovar
massacre Vance plan Operation Whirlwind Paulin Dvor massacre Gornje Jame massacre Operation Orkan 91 Voćin massacre Joševica massacre Operation Devil's Beam Bruška massacre

1992

Sarajevo
Sarajevo
Agreement 1992 European Community Monitor Mission helicopter downing Operation Baranja Operation Jackal Battle of the Miljevci Plateau Operation Tiger (1992) Operation Liberated Land Battle of Konavle Operation Vlaštica

1993–94

Operation Maslenica Daruvar Agreement Operation Backstop Operation Medak Pocket Z-4 Plan Operation Winter '94

1995

Operation Leap 1 Operation Flash Zagreb
Zagreb
rocket attack Operation Leap 2 Operation Summer '95 Operation Storm Operation Maestral 2 Varivode massacre

Timeline of the Croatian War of Independence

Internment camps

Begejci camp Bučje camp Knin camp Lora prison camp Ovčara camp Sremska Mitrovica prison camp Stajićevo camp Velepromet camp

Other

Independence of Croatia Persecution of Croats
Croats
in Serbia during the war in Croatia

Category Commons

v t e

Bosnian War

Part of the Yugoslav Wars

Belligerents

Bosnian side

Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina

1st Corps 2nd Corps 3rd Corps 4th Corps 5th Corps 6th Corps 7th Corps

Paramilitary

Patriotic League Green Berets Black Swans Mujahideen Croatian Defence Forces

Croat side

Croatian Defence Council

1OZ 2OZ 3OZ 4OZ

Paramilitary

Croatian Defence Forces Knights

Serb side

Army of Republika Srpska

1st Krajina Corps 2nd Krajina Corps 3rd Corps East Bosnia Corps Herzegovina Corps Sarajevo-Romanija Corps Drina
Drina
Corps

Paramilitary

Wolves of Vučjak White Eagles Serb Volunteer Guard Scorpions Yellow Wasps

Prelude

Karađorđevo meeting Zulfikarpašić–Karadžić agreement RAM Plan Serb Autonomous Regions

Bosanska Krajina Herzegovina North-East Bosnia Romanija

Establishment of Republika Srpska Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
independence referendum Sarajevo
Sarajevo
wedding shooting Declaration of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina Battle of Bosanski Brod Sijekovac killings Bijeljina massacre 1992 anti-war protests in Sarajevo

1992

Battle of Kupres Siege of Sarajevo Foča massacres Siege of Srebrenica Zvornik massacre Doboj Snagovo massacre Prijedor ethnic cleansing Sarajevo
Sarajevo
column incident Siege of Goražde Graz agreement Glogova massacre Lašva Valley ethnic cleansing Tuzla
Tuzla
column incident Zaklopača massacre Vilina Vlas Siege of Doboj Bijeli Potok massacre Pionirska Street fire Operation Jackal Višegrad massacres

Bosanska Jagodina Paklenik Barimo Sjeverin

Čemerno massacre Siege of Bihać Ahatovići massacre Croat–Bosniak War Operation Vrbas '92 Operation Corridor 92  Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia Agreement on Friendship and Cooperation between Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia Korićani Cliffs massacre

1993

Kravica attack Duša killings Skelani massacre Štrpci Siege of Mostar Srebrenica shelling Ahmići massacre Trusina killings Sovići and Doljani massacres Vranica case Dobrinja mortar attack Battle of Žepče

Operation Irma Operation Neretva '93 Grabovica massacre Mokronoge massacre Stupni Do massacre Autonomous Province of Western Bosnia Operation Deny Flight Križančevo Selo killings

1994

Operation Tvigi 94 First Markale massacre Banja Luka incident Washington Agreement  Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina Operation Bøllebank Attack on Spin magazine journalists Operation Tiger Battle of Kupres Operation Amanda Operation Spider Operation Winter '94

1995

Operation Leap 1 Battle of Orašje Operation Leap 2 Split Agreement Operation Summer '95 Pale air strikes Tuzla
Tuzla
shelling Battle of Vrbanja Bridge Srebrenica massacre

Kravica

Battle for Vozuća Operation Miracle Operation Storm Second Markale massacre NATO
NATO
bombing campaign Operation Mistral 2 Operation Sana Operation Una Operation Southern Move Exodus of Sarajevo
Sarajevo
Serbs Dayton Agreement  Bosnia and Herzegovina

Internment camps

Silos Manjača Liplje Luka Omarska Keraterm Trnopolje Sušica Čelebići Batković Dretelj Uzamnica Heliodrom Gabela Vojno

Aspects

Ethnic cleansing
Ethnic cleansing
and massacres

Bosnian genocide

Internment camps Rape Peace plans NATO
NATO
intervention Foreign support Foreign fighters

Timeline of the Bosnian War
Bosnian War
(Timeline of the Croat–Bosniak War)

Category Commons

Categ