The CROATIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES AND ARTS (Latin : Academia
Scientiarum et Artium Croatica, Croatian : Hrvatska akademija znanosti
i umjetnosti, abbrev. HAZU) is the national academy of
Croatia . It
was founded in 1866 as the YUGOSLAV ACADEMY OF SCIENCES AND ARTS
(Jugoslavenska akademija znanosti i umjetnosti, abbrev. JAZU), and was
known by that name for most of its existence.
* 1.1 Name changes
* 2 Departments
* 2.1 The Institute for Historical Sciences
* 3 Membership
* 4 Chairmen
* 5 Criticism
* 6 See also
* 7 Notes and references
* 8 External links
The institution was founded in
Zagreb on 29 April 1861 by the
decision of the
Croatian Parliament (Sabor) as the Yugoslav Academy of
Sciences and Arts. The bishop and benefactor Josip Juraj Strossmayer
, a prominent advocate of higher education during the 19th century
Croatian national romanticism , set up a trust fund for this purpose
and in 1860 submitted a large donation to the then viceroy (ban ) of
Josip Šokčević for the cause of being able to
bring together the best minds and find a way in which books in the
national languages could be produced in the Slavic South; the Academy
should also take under its aegis all the areas of human science
Academy Palace in the 1890s
After some years of deliberations by the
Croatian Parliament and the
Franz Joseph , it was finally sanctioned by law in 1866. The
official sponsor was Josip Juraj Strossmayer, while the first Chairman
of the Academy was the distinguished Croatian historian Franjo Rački
Đuro Daničić was elected for secretary general of the Academy,
where he played a key role in preparing the Academy's Dictionary,
"Croatian or Serbian Dictionary of JAZU".
The Academy's creation was the logical extension of the University of
Zagreb , the institution initially created in 1669 and also renewed by
bishop Strossmayer in 1874. Bishop Strossmayer also initiated the
building of the Academy Palace in the Zrinjevac park of Zagreb, and
the Palace was completed in 1880. In 1884, the Palace also became a
The Strossmayer Gallery of Old Masters that contained 256
works of art (mostly paintings). The same is today one of the most
prominent art galleries in Zagreb.
The Academy started publishing the academic journal Rad in 1867. In
1882, each of the individual scientific classes of the Academy started
printing their own journals. In 1887, the Academy published the first
"Ljetopis" as a year book, as well as several other publications in
history and ethnology .
Ivan Supek ,
Mihailo Petrović ,
Dragutin Gorjanović-Kramberger and
Lavoslav Ružička were JAZU members.
The Academy briefly changed name from "Yugoslav" to "Croatian"
between 1941 and 1945 during the Axis client regime of the Independent
It has again been renamed "Croatian" in 1991 after
independence from Yugoslavia.
Interior of the Academy Palace
The Academy is divided into nine departments (classes):
* Department of Social Sciences
* Department of Mathematical, Physical and Chemical Sciences
* Department of Natural Sciences
* Department of Medical Sciences
* Department of Philological Sciences
* Department of Literature
* Department of Fine Arts
* Department of Music and Musicology
* Department of Technical Sciences
THE INSTITUTE FOR HISTORICAL SCIENCES
One of the research units of the Academy is the Institute for
Historical Sciences. It is located in a
Renaissance villa in Dubrovnik
, and holds a rich manuscript and library collection. Two
peer-reviewed journals are published by the Institute, which are fully
available online: Anali in Croatian and
Dubrovnik Annals in English.
See also: List of members of the Croatian Academy of Sciences and
There are four classes of members:
* Full members
* Associate members
* Honorary members
* Corresponding members
The number of full members and corresponding members is limited to
160 each, while the maximum number of associate members is 100.
Number of full members per department is limited to 24. Only the full
members may carry the title of "academician " (English: F.C.A.,
Croatian : akademik (male members) or akademkinja (female members)).
The Academy has recently been criticized to the effect that
membership and activities are based on academic cronyism and political
favor rather than on scientific and artistic merit. In 2006
matters came to a head with the Academy's refusal to induct Dr.
Miroslav Radman , an accomplished biologist , a member of the French
Academy of Sciences , and an advocate of a higher degree of
meritocracy and accountability in Croatian academia . His supporters
within the Academy and the media decried the decision as reinforcing a
politically motivated, unproductive status quo.
Ivo Banac , a
Yale University professor and then a deputy in the
Croatian parliament , addressed the chamber in a speech decrying a
"dictatorship of mediocrity" in the Academy, while Globus columnist
Boris Dežulović satirized the institution as an "Academy of
stupidity and obedience." Dr.
Vladimir Paar and others defended the
Academy's decision, averring that it did take pains to include
accomplished scientists but that, since Dr. Radman's work has mostly
taken place outside Croatia, it was appropriate that he remain a
Corresponding rather than a Full Member of the Academy.
Nenad Ban , a distinguished molecular biologist from
ETH Zurich and a
member of the
German Academy of Sciences Leopoldina is only a
corresponding member of HAZU.
Ivan Đikić , an accomplished Croatian
scientist, working at the
Goethe University Frankfurt
Goethe University Frankfurt , and also a
member of Leopoldina since 2010, has not been able to join HAZU even
as a corresponding member, despite having more citations than the
Academy's 18-member Department of Medical Sciences combined.
From 2005 to 2007, the Department of Philological Sciences at the
Academy released several declarations on the linguistic situation in
Croatia, which were criticised for being nationalistically motivated
rather than linguistically based.
NOTES AND REFERENCES
* ^ "Presidency of the Academy". Croatian Academy of Sciences and
Arts. Retrieved 2009-01-15.
* ^ "Izmjene i dopune financijskog plana Hrvatske akademije
znanosti i umjetnosti za 2016." (PDF) (in Croatian). Croatian Academy
of Sciences and Arts. 30 November 2016. Retrieved 2016-12-14.
* ^ The adjective "Yugoslav" was coined in mid-19th century by the
movement that sought national unity of the
South Slavs from
Austria-Hungary with their eastern neighbors. Its extent was likely
ambiguous, e.g. in whether or not it meant to include
Macedonians . Later the term became associated specifically with the
country and peoples of
* ^ A B C D "The Founding of the Academy". Croatian Academy of
Sciences and Arts. Retrieved 2009-01-17.
* ^ "Classes of Academy". Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts.
* ^ About the Institute
* ^ A B "Members of Academy". Croatian Academy of Sciences and
Arts. Retrieved 2009-01-14.
* ^ Jindra, Jelena (20 July 2010). "HAZU: najskuplji starački dom"
(in Croatian). Zagreb: Nacional . Archived from the original on 12
December 2012. Retrieved 12 December 2012.
* ^ Pavliša, Mija (9 February 2011). "Nevjerodostojnom biografijom
do članstva u HAZU: nepostojeće knjige Dunje Brozović" (in
Croatian). Zagreb: T-portal. ISSN 1334-3130 . Archived from the
original on 7 September 2012. Retrieved 27 September 2014.
* ^ Opačić, Tamara (9 February 2011). "Čija je Dunja Brozović
Rončević?" (in Croatian). Zagreb: H-alter. ISSN 1847-3784 . Archived
from the original on 12 December 2012. Retrieved 12 December 2013.
* ^ Detelj, Branko (14 February 2011). "Hrvatska akademija
zadrtosti i učmalosti" (in Croatian). Varaždin: E-Varaždin.hr.
Archived from the original on 12 December 2012. Retrieved 12 December
* ^ Popović, Sofija (6 December 2011). "HAZU treba ukinuti a
jezične puritance bojkotirati jer zarađuju na nacionalizmu: razgovor
sa Snježanom Kordić" (in Croatian). Zagreb: Nacional . pp. 64–68.
Archived (PDF) from the original on 7 July 2012. Retrieved 23 August
* ^ "Dictatorship of Mediocrity" debate, Feral Tribune, 2006. Banac
speech, Paar reply, Banac response Retrieved 2009-10-21 (in Croatian)
* ^ "Uspjeh: Đikića priznali i Nijemci, a u HAZU nije prošao" .
Večernji list . 2010-09-29. Retrieved 2010-10-18. Dodao je i da je
još jedan Hrvat, inače jedan od vodećih strukturalnih biologa u
svijetu, Nenad Ban, takoder član Leopoldine u Razredu za biokemiju i
* ^ "Đikić: Počašćen sam izborom u prestižnu akademiju, ali
to je i obvezujuće" . Nacional (in Croatian). 29 September 2010.
Archived from the original on 24 July 2012. Retrieved 2014-10-18.
* ^ "Đikić citiraniji od cijelog medicinskog razreda HAZU-a".
Slobodna Dalmacija (in Croatian). 27 March 2010. Archived from the
original on 22 February 2014. Retrieved 7 February 2015.
* ^ Kordić, Snježana (2005). "Komentar Izjave HAZU" (PDF).
Književna republika (in Croatian). Zagreb. 3 (3–4): 226–231. ISSN
1334-1057 . ZDB-ID 2122129-7. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2
September 2012. Retrieved 17 October 2014. (NSK).
* ^ Kordić, Snježana (2007). "Akademičke bajke" (PDF).
Književna republika (in Croatian). Zagreb. 5 (5–6): 150–173. ISSN
1334-1057 . Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 September 2012.
Retrieved 6 November 2013. (NSK).
* ^ Kordić, Snježana (2007). "Kako HAZU pravi jezičnu paniku"
(PDF). Književna republika (in Croatian). Zagreb. 5 (7–9):
224–229. ISSN 1334-1057 . Archived (PDF) from the original on 2
September 2012. Retrieved 6 May 2015. (NSK).
Wikimedia Commons has media related to CROATIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
AND ARTS .
* Official website (in