The Info List - Croatian Democratic Union

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The Croatian Democratic Union
Croatian Democratic Union
(Croatian: Hrvatska demokratska zajednica or HDZ, literally translated: Croatian Democratic Community) is a conservative political party and the main centre-right political party in Croatia. It is one of the two major contemporary political parties in Croatia, along with the centre-left Social Democratic Party (SDP). It is currently the largest party in the Sabor
with 55 seats.[10] The HDZ ruled Croatia
from 1990 after the country gained independence from Yugoslavia until 2000 and, in coalition with junior partners, from 2003 to 2011, and since 2016. The party is a member of the European People's Party
European People's Party
(EPP).[11] HDZ's leader, Andrej Plenković, is the current Prime Minister of Croatia, having taken office following the 2016 Parliamentary Election.


1 History

1.1 Origins 1.2 1990 - 2000 1.3 Transition to capitalism 1.4 HDZ after Tuđman's death 1.5 First Sanader
government 2003–2008 1.6 Second Sanader
government 2008–2009 1.7 Government of Jadranka Kosor 1.8 In the opposition

2 Ideology 3 Election history

3.1 Legislative 3.2 Presidential 3.3 European parliament

4 Party presidents since 1989 5 See also 6 References 7 External links

History[edit] Origins[edit] The HDZ was founded on 17 June 1989 by Croatian dissidents led by Franjo Tuđman. It was officially registered on 25 January 1990. The HDZ held its first convention on 24–25 February 1990, when Franjo Tuđman was elected its president. When the party was founded, the government of the Socialist Republic of Croatia
just introduced a multi-party system in Croatia
and scheduled elections for the Croatian Parliament.[12] The HDZ began as a nationalist party, but also included former Partisans and members of the Communist establishmet, such as Josip Manolić and Josip Boljkovac.[13] President Tuđman and other HDZ officials traveled abroad and gathered large financial contributions from Croatian expatriates. On the eve of the 1990 parliamentary elections, the ruling League of Communists of Croatia
saw such tendencies within the HDZ as an opportunity to remain in power. At the beginning of democracy the communists called HDZ "the party of dangerous intentions".The HDZ won a majority in the Croatian Parliament, and Croatia
became one of the few countries of Eastern Europe where Communist single party rule was replaced by anti-Communist single party rule. May 30, 1990 - the day the HDZ formally took power - was later celebrated as Statehood Day, a public holiday in Croatia. 1990 - 2000[edit]

Franjo Tuđman, former Croatian President and HDZ Founder

The presidential elections took place in 1992 and Tuđman, who would remain as undisputed party leader until his death in 1999, was elected president. The party ruled Croatia
throughout the 1990s and under its leadership, Croatia
became independent (1991), was internationally recognized (1992), and consolidated all of its pre-war territory (by 1998). During that period, the HDZ won both the 1992 and 1995 parliamentary elections. As it strongly advocated Croatian independence, the HDZ was quite unpopular with the Serb
minority, and others who preferred to see Croatia
remain inside the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. This was one of the factors contributing to the creation of the Republic of Serbian Krajina
Republic of Serbian Krajina
and the subsequent armed conflict in neighboring Bosnia-Herzegovina. The role of the HDZ in those events is matter of controversy, even in Croatia, where some tend to view HDZ policy in the early stages of the conflict as extremist and a contributing factor in the escalation of violence, while others (such as Marko Veselica's Croatian Democratic Party) see the HDZ as having appeased Serbia
and the Yugoslav People's Army, and therefore, being responsible for Croatia
being unprepared for defense.[14] However, the policies of Tuđman and the HDZ shifted according to the circumstances.[citation needed] Transition to capitalism[edit] The HDZ also began to lead Croatia
toward political and economic transition from communism to capitalism. Notably, HDZ governments implemented privatization in the country, in a manner that critics consider sub-optimal, and at times possibly illegal, due to the selective nature of the nationalizations (see Croatian privatization controversy). According to the HDZ, this process proved a useful distraction from dealing with the baggage of post World War II communist nationalizations. In fact it was the HDZ in 1992 which enacted into law the right of corporations (the vast majority of which were under state ownership) the right to finally formally register themselves as the owners of nationalized property, thus completing their own version of a process of quasi-nationalization started by the communist regime after WWII, in different targeted areas for their own gain. As a result of these, and other, schemes, that had been planned before the break-up of Yugoslavia, many "tycoons" emerged in a pattern of state-sponsored loans brokered with HDZ influence, with the purpose of dissolving state ownership. This model was widely abused, not only by the HDZ, but also by other political parties. Not all of the nationalized property was dealt with in this way. The property of those who could lobby the HDZ, or who had substantial influence in Croatian politics, was returned without much delay, while others had to wait for justice. Property returned included possessions nationalized from the Catholic Church or from widely known individuals such as Gavrilović, the owner of a major meat-producing factory in Petrinja, south of Zagreb. Restitution for land seized during the break-up of Yugoslavia is still of great public concern.[citation needed] HDZ after Tuđman's death[edit]


This article is part of a series on the politics and government of Croatia



President (list)

Kolinda Grabar-Kitarović

Cabinet (list)

Prime Minister: Andrej Plenković



Speaker: Gordan Jandroković Current members


Leader: Davor Bernardić


Supreme Court Constitutional Court State's Attorney Office National Judicial Council

Political parties in Sabor

Social Democratic Party (SDP) Croatian Democratic Union
Croatian Democratic Union

Croatian People's Party – Liberal Democrats (HNS-LD)

Croatian Democratic Alliance of Slavonia and Baranja (HDSSB)

Istrian Democratic Assembly (IDS) Croatian Party of Pensioners
Croatian Party of Pensioners
(HSU) Croatian Peasant Party
Croatian Peasant Party
(HSS) Bridge of Independent Lists
Bridge of Independent Lists
(MOST) Croatian Social Liberal Party
Croatian Social Liberal Party
(HSLS) Independent Democratic Serb
Party (SDSS) People's Party - Reformists (NS-R) Human Shield (ŽZ) Milan Bandić 365 - The Party of Labour and Solidarity
Milan Bandić 365 - The Party of Labour and Solidarity
(MB 365) Democratic Union of Hungarians of Croatia

Elections and referendums Recent elections

Presidential: 2009–10 2014–15

Parliamentary: 2015 2016

Local: 2013 2017

European: 2013 2014

Recent referendums

1991 (independence) 2012 (EU membership) 2013 (constitution)

Administrative divisions

Counties (Županija)

Foreign relations

Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs

Diplomatic missions Passport

Visa requirements

Other countries Atlas

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All this, together with Tuđman's death in December 1999, affected the 2000 parliamentary elections. Although the HDZ remained the largest single party, it was defeated by a left-centre coalition of six opposition parties and many saw the large turnout as a referendum against the HDZ, just as the 1990 elections had been seen as a referendum on Communism
and Yugoslavia. This impression was underlined at the subsequent presidential election, when the HDZ candidate Mate Granić, heavily favored to win, finished third and therefore failed to enter the second round of voting, won by Stipe Mesić. In the period from 2000 and 2003, several businessmen who became tycoons under the initial HDZ rule were trialed and convicted for alleged abuses, though in general the privatization process implemented by the HDZ remained unaltered. This period proved to be a low point for the HDZ and many thought that party could not recover. Those included Mate Granić, who, together with Vesna Škare-Ožbolt, left to form the centre-right Democratic Centre (DC). The HDZ began to recover when the International Criminal Tribunal began to prosecute Croatian Army
Croatian Army
commanders, thus provoking a major backlash among the Croatian public. Popular discontent manifested itself in mass rallies as the public came to terms with the changes in the party and its policies. Although the HDZ, and its new leader Ivo Sanader, took part in those events and supported the protests, they gradually began to distance themselves from the more extreme rhetoric, becoming perceived as moderates. This tendency continued when the Croatian Social Liberal Party
Croatian Social Liberal Party
shifted rightwards, making Sanader's HDZ appear centrist in comparison. This process was completed in 2002 when Ivić Pašalić, leader of the HDZ hardliners and perceived to be associated with the worst excesses of Tuđman's era, challenged Sanader
for the party leadership, accusing him of betraying Tuđman's nationalist legacy. At first it looked that Sanader
would lose, but with the help of Branimir Glavaš and the tacit support of liberal sections of Croatian public opinion, he won at the party convention. Pašalić then left the HDZ to form the Croatian Bloc party. First Sanader
government 2003–2008[edit]

Ivo Sanader, president of the HDZ from 2000 - 2009; expelled from party membership on 4 October 2010

At the legislative elections of November 2003, the party won 33.9% of the popular vote and 66 out of 151 seats. Although it failed to win a clear majority in the Croatian Parliament, even with the help of the allied DC and HSLS, it formed a government with the nominally left-wing Independent Democratic Serb
Party and the Croatian Party of Pensioners. With such a broad and diverse mandate, the Sanader-led government vigorously pursued policies that amounted to the implementation of the basic criteria for joining the European Union, such as the return of refugees to their homes, rebuilding houses damaged in the war, improving minority rights by including minority representatives in the government, cooperating with the ICTY, and continuing to consolidate the Croatian economy. Despite this, the EU's Council of Ministers postponed Croatia's membership negotiations with the union on the grounds of its non-cooperation with the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia over the case of indicted general Ante Gotovina. This setback brought an increase in Eurosceptic
views among the Croatian public, which also affected support for the HDZ. Since accession to the EU was a key part of Sanader's reformist course, opposition to his leadership within and outside HDZ was on the rise. This opposition manifested itself at the 2005 local elections and the defection of Glavaš, who not only successfully challenged Sanader's authority but also managed to nominally deprive Sanader
of his parliamentary majority. Second Sanader
government 2008–2009[edit] Despite this defeat, the first Sanader
led government was able to survive until the end of the legislature. The subsequent parliamentary election in late November 2007 saw the HDZ hard-pressed both by the SDP-led leftist coalition and by the extreme right wing Croatian Party of Rights and Croatian Democratic Assembly of Slavonia and Baranja. During the electoral campaign a vigorous and sometimes ruthless reaction from the party and Sanader
himself, together with some capital errors from SDP, convinced part of the far right electorate to support the HDZ in order to prevent what they perceived as the heirs of the former communist party to return to power.[15][16] The party won a majority of both seats and votes in the election, and the first session of the newly elected parliament was called for 11 January 2008. However, the SDP repeatedly refused to acknowledge defeat, claiming that they had the most votes if the Diaspora
ballot was not taken into account. The HDZ gained the support of the "yellow green coalition" (HSS-HSLS) and of the HSU and national minorities representatives, and so a second government, still led by Ivo Sanader, was formed. Although that government had a larger majority than the former one, its existence remained troubled, because of the worsening of the previously good economic situation and a weariness of Croatian public opinion about what was felt to be an overly long HDZ rule.[citation needed] Another major drawback was the Slovenian blocking of several chapters of Croatia's EU accession terms, until border disputes between the two countries had been settled.[citation needed] Although this ultimately lead to an indefinite suspension of the Croatian EU accession negotiations, it did not affect the government's popularity. In this case, as would be expected, considering Croatian staunch patriotism and national self-consciousness, all parties and nearly every Croatian citizen were absolutely adamant in refusing at any cost any concessions over matters of national interest.[citation needed] In the general local elections held in May 2009, the HDZ, against all expectations, managed to grow again, coming ahead of the SDP.[17] However, HDZ support did weaken in the larger cities. On 1 July 2009, Ivo Sanader
Ivo Sanader
abruptly announced his resignation from politics and appointed Jadranka Kosor
Jadranka Kosor
as his successor. She was confirmed as the new leader of the party on 4 July, and was appointed by president Stipe Mesic as the prime minister-designate. Two days later the Sabor
confirmed Kosor as the new prime minister, the first woman to hold the position. In the same resignation speech, Sanader
also appointed Andrija Hebrang, who had formerly held the posts of defence minister and health minister, as HDZ candidate for the incoming presidential election, so decreasing any speculation about his own ambitions for that position. Government of Jadranka Kosor[edit]

Jadranka Kosor, president of the HDZn from 2009 until 2012; expelled from party membership on 18 April 2013

The HDZ was faced with bad poll ratings and a large clean-up task that was still underway when Sanader
left. The officials used the 2009 convention to elect Jadranka Kosor
Jadranka Kosor
the party president by acclamation, and proceeded to make various unpopular measures to tackle the economic crisis. Andrija Hebrang accepted his designation as the presidential candidate only at the end of July, after he underwent a thorough medical examination, to exclude any remaining trace of a previous carcinoma. The Kosor government remained mostly unchanged from the previous Sanader
government, but the HDZ suffered some internal turmoil as ministers Berislav Rončević
Berislav Rončević
and Damir Polančec
Damir Polančec
left their posts after allegations of corruption. In the next presidential elections, Croatia
was looking for a replacement for Stipe Mesić
Stipe Mesić
who had held the position for ten years. But Hebrang finished third, failing to reach the second stage in which SDP candidate Ivo Josipović
Ivo Josipović
overwhelmingly defeated former SDP member Milan Bandić. However, many Croatian people were dissatisfied with the government, and protested on the streets against the HDZ government, demanding that new elections be held as soon as possible. The police placed a guard on St. Mark's Square, to prevent civilians from entering.[18] From 26 October 2011 USKOK
expanded its investigation about "Slush Funds" on Croatian Democratic Union
Croatian Democratic Union
as legal entity.[19] Previously, investigation included only Ivo Sanader, treasurers Milan Barišić and Branka Pavošević, general secretaries Branko Vukelić
Branko Vukelić
and Ivan Jarnjak and spokesman Ratko Maček.[19] Jadranka Kosor, president of the party, stated that this is one of the most critical moments of Croatian Democratic Union.[19] HDZ became the first political party in Croatia
to be convicted of corruption.[20] In the opposition[edit]

Tomislav Karamarko, president of the HDZ from 2012 until 2016

After the parliamentary election, held in December 2011, HDZ become the opposition after 8 years spent in government. Since its foundation, HDZ won its smallest number of votes, 563,215. On 20 May 2012, HDZ held a presidential election in which, a day later, Tomislav Karamarko
Tomislav Karamarko
become the winner[21] and thus replaced Kosor as leader of the opposition. Karamarko announced that he would reestablish connections between Croatia
and the Croatian diaspora.[21] Karamarko earlier announced that, after a process of the detudjmanization of the HDZ, he would return to the policies of Franjo Tuđman. He also stated that he could be "neither for Ante Pavelić
Ante Pavelić
or Josip Broz Tito", as both of them represented totalitarian systems.[22] On 1 July 2013, HDZ received full member status of the European People's Party
European People's Party
(EPP).[23] On 11 March 2014, HDZ and Ivo Sanader
were found guilty of corruption.[24] Ideology[edit] In terms of ideology, HDZ leaders at first described their party as right-wing, and Tuđman himself stated that he was inspired by Thatcherism. Later, the party described itself as centre-right and Christian democrat. However, the only official ideology was nationalism. In practice, this policy saw the powerful defence minister Gojko Šušak, head of the HDZ hardline faction, win Tuđman's favour. Stjepan Mesić
Stjepan Mesić
and Josip Manolić, Tuđman's associates opposed to such tendencies, left the party in 1994 and formed the Croatian Independent Democrats. These tendencies were toned down after the end of the war and the HDZ, concerned with more domestic aspects of politics, became a mainly social conservative party. The end of war and reintegration of Croatian territory also switched Croatian people's attention from independence and foreign relations to domestic issues like the local economy and living standards. In the late 1990s this coincided with Tuđman's illness, which sparked bitter succession struggles between various factions within the HDZ. These factions fought using friendly media and by leaking compromising information about their opponents' roles in the shadier aspects of privatisation. This, as well as Tuđman's mishandling of the Zagreb Crisis, did much to undermine HDZ credibility. Election history[edit] Legislative[edit] The following is a summary of the party's results in legislative elections for the Croatian Parliament. The "Total votes" and "Percentage" columns include sums of votes won by pre-election coalitions HDZ had been part of. After the preferential votes were included in the election system, the votes column also includes the sum of votes for HDZ's candidates on the coalition lists. The "Total seats" column includes sums of seats won by HDZ in election constituencies plus representatives of ethnic minorities affiliated with HDZ.

Election In coalition with Votes won Percentage Seats won Change Government

(Coalition totals) (HDZ only)

1990 (April–May) None 1,201,122 41.90 (#1)

205 / 351


1992 (August) None 1,176,437 44.68 (#1)

85 / 138

120 Government

1995 (October) None 1,093,403 45.23 (#1)

75 / 127

10 Government

2000 (January) None 790,728 26.88 (#2)

46 / 151

29 Opposition

2003 (November) None 840,692 33.90 (#1)

66 / 151

20 Government

2007 (November) None 907,743 36.60 (#1)

66 / 153


2011 (December) HGS–DC 563,215 23.50 (#2)

44 / 151

22 Opposition

2015 (November) HSS-HSP AS-HSLS-HRAST-BUZ-HDS-ZDS 771,070 (478,107[25]) 33.46 (#1)

51 / 151

7 Government

2016 (September) HSLS-HDS-HRAST 682,687 36.27 (#1)

57 / 151

6 Government

Presidential[edit] The following is a list of presidential candidates endorsed by HDZ in elections for President of Croatia.

Election year(s) Candidate 1st round 2nd round

# of overall votes % of overall votes # of overall votes % of overall votes Result

1992 Franjo Tuđman 1.519.100 56.73 (#1)


1997 Franjo Tuđman 1.337.990 61.41 (#1)


2000 Mate Granić 601.588 22.47 (#3)


2005 Jadranka Kosor 452.218 20.31 (#2) 751.692 34.07 (#2) Lost

2009-10 Andrija Hebrang 237.998 12.04 (#3)


2014-15 Kolinda Grabar-Kitarović 665.379 37.22 (#2) 1.114.945 50.74 (#1) Won

European parliament[edit]

Election In coalition with Votes won (Coalition totals) Percentage Total seats won (HDZ only) Change

April 2013[26] HSP AS-BUZ 243,654 32,86%

5 / 12

May 2014[27] HSP AS-BUZ-HSS-HDS-ZDS 381.844 41,42%

4 / 11


Party presidents since 1989[edit] The chart below shows a timeline of the Croatian Democratic Union presidents and the Prime Ministers of Croatia. The left bar shows all the president of the HDZ, and the right bar shows the corresponding make-up of the Croatian government at that time. The red (HDZ) and blue (SDP) colours correspond to which party led the government. The last names of the respective prime ministers are shown, the Roman numeral stands for the cabinets.

See also[edit]

Elections in the Croatian Democratic Union Croatian Democratic Union
Croatian Democratic Union
of Bosnia and Herzegovina


^ "Plenković: Započinjemo novo poglavlje - HDZ će postati središnja snaga razvoja Hrvatske". Croatian Radiotelevision
Croatian Radiotelevision
(in Croatian). 17 July 2016.  ^ Stojarova, Vera (2013). Party Politics in the Western Balkans. Routledge. p. 1.  ^ a b Wolfram Nordsieck. "Parties and Elections in Europe". Retrieved 3 July 2015.  ^ Stojic, Marko (2017). Party Responses to the EU in the Western Balkans: Transformation, Opposition or Defiance?. Springer. p. 136.  ^ " Croatia
Is Starting Preparations To Join Eurozone". euinside. 6 November 2017.  ^ Jansen, Thomas; Van Hecke, Steven (2011), At Europe's Service: The Origins and Evolution of the European People's Party, Springer, p. 79, retrieved 2012-07-26  ^ Pavelic, Boris (18 March 2014), Croatia
PM Accuses Right-Wingers of Ethnic Hate, Balkan Transitional Justice, retrieved 2014-01-19  ^ "Croatian Democratic Union", Encyclopædia Britannica, 2014, retrieved 2014-01-19  ^ "HDZ Croatia: Communist totalitarianism should be clearly condemned". Oslobođenje - Bosanskohercegovačke nezavisne novine. Retrieved 3 July 2015.  ^ "Zastupnici 9. saziva Hrvatskoga sabora - Raspodjela mandata".  ^ "MEP MEMBER INDEX". epp group in the european parliament. Retrieved 19 January 2017.  ^ Šime Dunatov (December 2010). "Začetci višestranačja u Hrvatskoj 1989. godine" [The Origins of the Multi-Party System in Croatia
in 1989]. Radovi Zavoda za povijesne znanosti HAZU u Zadru (in Croatian). Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts (52): 381–397. ISSN 1330-0474. Retrieved 15 November 2011.  ^ Tanner, Marcus (2001). Croatia: A Nation Forged in War. New Haven: Yale University Press. p. 223. ISBN 978-0-300-09125-0.  ^ Špegelj, Martin (2001). Sjećanja vojnika (1. izd. ed.). Zagreb: Znanje. ISBN 953-195-190-X.  ^ "Vote for HSP Is Vote for SDP – Sanader". Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 3 July 2015.  ^ "PM: Nobody Will Take Away Votes from Diaspora". Retrieved 3 July 2015.  ^ Croatia's local elections head to second round (SETimes.com) ^ Hrvatska ključa - spremaju se novi prosvjedi - Danas.hr ^ a b c Capar, Luka; Toma, Ivanka. J. Kosor: Neću dati ostavku i nećemo dopustiti da se HDZ uruši. Večernji list. 2011-10-27. Retrieved 2011-10-27 (in Croatian) ^ E., A. (16 April 2012). "Kosor: Ne postoje tajni dogovori o nagodbi s DORH-om" (in Croatian). Dnevnik Nove TV. Retrieved 21 April 2012.  ^ a b Grubišić, petar; Ivanković, Davor; Balija, Petra; Kožul, Dijana; Capar Luka (21 May 2012). "'Prošlo je vrijeme komocije i eksperimentiranja s Hrvatskom'". Večernji list
Večernji list
(in Croatian). Retrieved 21 May 2012.  ^ Opačak-Klobučar, Tamara (8 May 2012). "Karamarko: Ni za Pavelića ni za Tita, moramo se vratiti Tuđmanu". Večernji list
Večernji list
(in Croatian). Retrieved 21 May 2012.  ^ "Croatia's EU accession brings stability to the region; HDZ becomes full member party of the EPP". 1 July 2013.  ^ "Former Croatia
PM Ivo Sanader
Ivo Sanader
convicted of corruption". 11 March 2014.  ^ Suzana Barilar (13 November 2015). "Preferencijalni glasovi". Jutarnji list
Jutarnji list
(in Croatian).  ^ European Parliament
European Parliament
election, 2013 (Croatia)#Results[circular reference] ^ "Prebrojani svi glasovi: DIP službeno objavio imena 11 europarlamentaraca". Novi list online portal. Retrieved 3 July 2015. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Croatian Democratic Union.

Media related to Croatian Democratic Union
Croatian Democratic Union
at Wikimedia Commons

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Political parties in Croatia


Government (61)

Croatian Democratic Union (56) Croatian People's Party – Liberal Democrats
Croatian People's Party – Liberal Democrats

Government support (16)

Independent Democratic Serb
Party (3) Croatian Christian Democratic Party
Croatian Christian Democratic Party
(2) Croatian Social Liberal Party
Croatian Social Liberal Party
(1) People's Party - Reformists (1) Bandić Milan 365 - Labour and Solidarity Party
Bandić Milan 365 - Labour and Solidarity Party
(2) Croatian Democratic Alliance of Slavonia and Baranja
Croatian Democratic Alliance of Slavonia and Baranja
(1) Independent (6)

Opposition (74)

Social Democratic Party of Croatia
(36) Bridge of Independent Lists (15) Croatian Peasant Party
Croatian Peasant Party
(5) Civic Liberal Alliance
Civic Liberal Alliance
(4) Human Blockade (3) Istrian Democratic Assembly (3) Let's Change Croatia
(3) Independents for Croatia
(2) Power - Party of People's and Civic engagement (1) Croatian Party of Pensioners
Croatian Party of Pensioners
(1) Independent (1)

European Parliament

Croatian Democratic Union
Croatian Democratic Union
(4) Social Democratic Party of Croatia
(2) Istrian Democratic Assembly (1) Civic Liberal Alliance
Civic Liberal Alliance
(1) Croatian Conservative
Party (1) Independent Davor Škrlec
Davor Škrlec
(1) Independent Marijana Petir (1)

Politics of Croatia List of political parties by country Politics portal

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European People's Party
European People's Party

Parliamentary group: European People's Party
European People's Party


Member parties (EU)


Associated parties (non-EU)


Observer parties


Party Presidents

Leo Tindemans Piet Bukman Jacques Santer Wilfried Martens Joseph Daul

European Parliament Group Presidents

Maan Sassen Pierre Wigny Alain Poher Joseph Illerhaus Hans Lücker Alfred Bertrand Egon Klepsch Paolo Barbi Egon Klepsch Leo Tindemans Wilfried Martens Hans-Gert Pöttering Joseph Daul Manfred Weber see European Parliament

European Commissioners

José Manuel Barroso
José Manuel Barroso
(President) Andris Piebalgs
Andris Piebalgs
(Development) Jyrki Katainen
Jyrki Katainen
(Economic and Monetary Affairs and the Euro) Michel Barnier
Michel Barnier
(Internal Market and Services) Algirdas Šemeta
Algirdas Šemeta
(Taxation and Customs Union, Audit and Anti-Fraud) Tonio Borg
Tonio Borg
(Health and Consumer Policy) Jacek Dominik (Financial Programming and the Budget) Kristalina Georgieva
Kristalina Georgieva
(International Cooperation, Humanitarian Aid and Crisis Response) Günther Oettinger
Günther Oettinger
(Energy) Johannes Hahn
Johannes Hahn
(Regional Policy) Connie Hedegaard
Connie Hedegaard
(Climate Action) Dacian Cioloș
Dacian Cioloș
(Agriculture and Rural Development) see Barroso II Commission

Heads of government at the European Council

Nicos Anastasiades
Nicos Anastasiades
(Cyprus) Alexander Stubb
Alexander Stubb
(Finland) Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
(Germany) Antonis Samaras
Antonis Samaras
(Greece) Viktor Orbán
Viktor Orbán
(Hungary) Enda Kenny
Enda Kenny
(Ireland) Laimdota Straujuma
Laimdota Straujuma
(Latvia) Pedro Passos Coelho
Pedro Passos Coelho
(Portugal) Traian Băsescu
Traian Băsescu
(Romania) Mariano Rajoy
Mariano Rajoy
(Spain) see European Council

Eurofoundation: Wilfried Martens
Wilfried Martens
Centre for European Studies

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International Democrat Union

Alliance of European Conservatives and Reformists Asia Pacific Democrat Union Caribbean Democrat Union Democrat Union of Africa European Democrat Union European People's Party International Women's Democrat Union International Young Democrat Union Union of Latin American Parties

Member parties


Democratic Party Liberal Party Austrian People's Party National Independence Party Social Democrat Movement Party of Democratic Action Democrats Union of Democratic Forces Conservative
Party Independent Democratic Union National Renewal Kuomintang Conservative
Party Democratic Union Democratic Rally Civic Democratic Party Conservative
People's Party National Progressive Force

Social Christian Party Nationalist Republican Alliance Pro Patria and Res Publica Union National Coalition Party The Republicans Christian-Democratic Movement United National Movement Christian Democratic Union Christian Social Union in Bavaria New Patriotic Party New Democracy Unionist Party National Party Fidesz Independence Party Bharatiya Janata Party National Awakening Party Jamaica
Labour Party VMRO–DPMNE

Maldivian Democratic Party Liberal Democratic Party Democratic Party National Party Conservative
Party Conservative
Party Christian People's Party CDS–PP Democratic Party of Serbia Slovenian Democratic Party Liberty Korea Party People's Party United National Party Moderate Party Forum for Democratic Change Conservative
Party Republican Party Proje