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Crimea
Crimea
(/kraɪˈmiːə/; Ukrainian: Крим, Krym; Russian: Крым, Krym; Crimean Tatar: Къырым, translit. Qırım; Turkish: Kırım; Ancient Greek: Κιμμερία/Ταυρική, translit. Kimmería/Taurikḗ) is a peninsula on the northern coast of the Black Sea
Black Sea
in Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
that is almost completely surrounded by both the Black Sea
Black Sea
and the smaller Sea of Azov
Sea of Azov
to the northeast. It is located south of the Ukrainian region of Kherson
Kherson
and west of the Russian region of Kuban. It is connected to Kherson
Kherson
Oblast by the Isthmus of Perekop
Isthmus of Perekop
and is separated from Kuban
Kuban
by the Strait of Kerch. The Arabat Spit
Arabat Spit
is located to the northeast, a narrow strip of land that separates a system of lagoons named Sivash
Sivash
from the Sea of Azov. Across the Black Sea
Black Sea
to its west is Romania
Romania
and to its south Turkey. Crimea
Crimea
(or the Tauric Peninsula, as it was called from antiquity until the early modern period) has historically been at the boundary between the classical world and the Pontic–Caspian steppe. Its southern fringe was colonised by the Greeks, the Persians, the Romans, the Byzantine Empire, the Crimean Goths, the Genoese and the Ottoman Empire, while at the same time its interior was occupied by a changing cast of invading steppe nomads and empires, such as the Cimmerians, Scythians, Sarmatians, Goths, Alans, Bulgars, Huns, Khazars, Kipchaks, Mongols and the Golden Horde. Crimea
Crimea
and adjacent territories were united in the Crimean Khanate
Crimean Khanate
during the 15th to 18th century. In 1783, Crimea
Crimea
became a part of the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
as the result of Russo-Turkish War (1768–1774). Following the Russian Revolution
Russian Revolution
of 1917, Crimea
Crimea
became an autonomous republic within the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic in the USSR. During World War II, Crimea was downgraded to the Crimean Oblast
Crimean Oblast
and then, in 1954, it was transferred to the Ukrainian SSR from the Russian SFSR
Russian SFSR
by Nikita Khrushchev.[3] With the collapse of the Soviet Union, Ukraine
Ukraine
was formed as an independent state in 1991 and most of the peninsula was reorganized as the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, while the city of Sevastopol retained its special status within Ukraine. The 1997 Partition Treaty on the Status and Conditions of the Black Sea
Black Sea
Fleet partitioned the former Soviet Black Sea
Black Sea
Fleet and allowed Russia
Russia
to continue basing its fleet in Crimea: both the Ukrainian Naval Forces
Ukrainian Naval Forces
and Russian's Black Sea
Black Sea
Fleet were to be headquartered in Sevastopol. Ukraine extended Russia's lease of the naval facilities under the 2010 Kharkiv Pact in exchange for further discounted natural gas. In March 2014, following the Ukrainian revolution and subsequent takeover of the territory by pro-Russian separatists and Russian Armed Forces,[4] a referendum, deemed unconstitutional by the Ukrainian Constitutional Court,[5][6][7] was held on the issue of "reunification" with Russia; the official result was that a large majority of Crimeans wished to join with Russia.[8] Russia
Russia
then annexed Crimea
Crimea
to incorporate the Republic of Crimea
Republic of Crimea
and the federal city of Sevastopol
Sevastopol
as federal subjects of Russia.[9] While Russia
Russia
and ten other UN member states recognize Crimea
Crimea
as part of the Russian Federation, Ukraine
Ukraine
continues to claim Crimea
Crimea
as an integral part of its territory, supported by most foreign governments and United Nations General Assembly Resolution 68/262.[10]

Contents

1 Name 2 History

2.1 Ancient history 2.2 Medieval history 2.3 Crimean Khanate
Crimean Khanate
(1449–1783) 2.4 Russian Empire
Russian Empire
(1783–1917) 2.5 Russian Civil War
Russian Civil War
(1917–1921) 2.6 Soviet Union
Soviet Union
(1921–1991)

2.6.1 Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
(1921–1954) 2.6.2 Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (1954–1991)

2.7 Ukrainian Republic (1991–2014) 2.8 Russian Federation
Russian Federation
administration (2014-present)

3 Languages 4 Geography

4.1 Coastline 4.2 Crimean Mountains 4.3 Hydrography 4.4 Steppe 4.5 Crimean Riviera 4.6 Climate 4.7 Strategic value

5 Economy

5.1 Energy 5.2 Infrastructure 5.3 Tourism 5.4 Sanctions

6 Politics 7 Demographics

7.1 Religion

8 Culture

8.1 Sport

9 Gallery 10 See also 11 References 12 External links

Name[edit] Further information: Stary Krym The classical name Tauris or Taurica is from the Greek Ταυρική, after the peninsula's Scytho-Cimmerian inhabitants, the Tauri. Strabo
Strabo
(Geography vii 4.3, xi.2.5), Polybius, (Histories 4.39.4), and Ptolemy
Ptolemy
refer to the Strait of Kerch
Strait of Kerch
as the Κιμμερικὸς Βόσπορος (romanized spellings, Kimmerikos Bosporos, Bosporus Cimmerius), and to Cimmerium as the capital of the Taurida, whence the peninsula, and so also its easternmost part was named Promontorium Cimmerium (Κιμμέριον Ἄκρον).[11][12] In English usage since the early modern period the Crimean Khanate
Crimean Khanate
is referred to as Crim Tartary.[13] The Italian[14] form Crimea
Crimea
(and "Crimean peninsula") also becomes current during the 18th century,[15] gradually replacing the classical name of Tauric Peninsula
Peninsula
in the course of the 19th century. The omission of the definite article in English ("Crimea" rather than "the Crimea") became common during the later 20th century.[citation needed] The name "Crimea" follows the Italian form from the Crimean Tatar name for the city Qırım (today's Stary Krym)[16] which served as a capital of the Crimean province of the Golden Horde. The name of the capital was extended to the entire peninsula at some point during Ottoman suzerainty.[17] The origin of the word Qırım is uncertain. Suggestions argued in various sources include:

a corruption of Cimmerium (Greek, Kimmerikon, Κιμμερικόν).[18][19][20] a derivation from the Turkic term qirum ("fosse, trench"), from qori- ("to fence, protect").[21][22][23]

Other suggestions that have not been supported by sources but are apparently based on similarity in sound include:

a derivation from the Greek Cremnoi (Κρημνοί, in post-classical Koiné Greek
Koiné Greek
pronunciation, Crimni, i.e., "the Cliffs", a port on Lake Maeotis (Sea of Azov) cited by Herodotus
Herodotus
in The Histories 4.20.1 and 4.110.2).[24] However, he identifies the port, not in Crimea, but as being on the west coast of the Sea of Azov. No evidence has been identified that this name was ever in use for the peninsula. The Turkic term is related to the Mongolian appellation kerm "wall", but sources indicate that the Mongolian appellation of the Crimean peninsula of Qaram is phonetically incompatible with kerm/kerem and therefore deriving from another original term.[25][26][27]

The classical name was revived in 1802 in the name of the Russian Taurida Governorate.[28] While it was abandoned in the Soviet Union, and has had no official status since 1921, it is still used by some institutions in Crimea, such as the Taurida National University, or the Tavriya Simferopol
Simferopol
football club. History[edit] Ancient history[edit]

Ruins of ancient Greek colony of Chersonesos

Swallow's Nest, built in 1912 for businessman Baron Pavel von Steingel

Main article: History of Crimea Further information: Bosporan Kingdom
Bosporan Kingdom
and Roman Crimea In the 8th century BCE the Cimmerians
Cimmerians
migrated to the area in retreat from Scythian advances, of whom the later also migrated to the region. Contemporaneously, and possibly because of the migration, the region came within sphere of Greek maritime interest, and became the site of Greek colonies. The most important Greek city was Chersonesos at the edge of today's Sevastopol. The Persian Achaemenid Empire, under Darius I, expanded to Crimea
Crimea
as part of his campaigns against the Scythians
Scythians
in 513 BC. The peninsula, then under the control of the Bosporan Kingdom, later became a client kingdom of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in 63 BC. Medieval history[edit] In the 9th century CE, Byzantium established the Theme of Cherson
Theme of Cherson
to defend against incursions by the Rus' Khaganate. The Crimean peninsula from this time was contested between Byzantium, Rus' and Khazaria. The area remained the site of overlapping interests and contact between the early medieval Slavic, Turkic and Greek spheres. It became a center of slave trade. Slavs
Slavs
were sold to Byzantium and other places in Anatolia
Anatolia
and the Middle-East during this period. Trapezuntine Perateia
Perateia
had already been subjected to pressure from the Genoese and Kipchaks
Kipchaks
by the time Alexios I of Trebizond died in 1222 before the Mongol invasions
Mongol invasions
swept through in 1223. With them, the peninsula's status quo changed in the 1230s, as all but the Perateia of Crimea
Crimea
was incorporated into the territory of the Golden Horde throughout the 14th century CE. In the course of the 13th century CE, portions were controlled by the Republic of Venice
Republic of Venice
and by the Republic of Genoa, the Perateia
Perateia
soon became the Principality of Theodoro
Principality of Theodoro
and Genoese Gazaria, respectively.

Armenian monastery of the Holy Cross (Սուրբ Խաչ, Surb Khach), established in 1358

Crimean Khanate
Crimean Khanate
(1449–1783)[edit] Main article: Crimean Khanate Further information: Crimean-Nogai raids into East Slavic lands
Crimean-Nogai raids into East Slavic lands
and Crimean Goths The Crimean Khanate, a vassal state of the Ottoman Empire, succeeded the Golden Horde
Golden Horde
and lasted from 1449 to 1783.[29] In 1571, the Crimean Tatars
Crimean Tatars
attacked and sacked Moscow, burning everything but the Kremlin.[30] Until the late 18th century, Crimean Tatars
Crimean Tatars
maintained a massive slave trade with the Ottoman Empire, exporting about 2 million slaves from Russia
Russia
and Ukraine
Ukraine
over the period 1500–1700.[31] Russian Empire
Russian Empire
(1783–1917)[edit] See also: New Russia
Russia
and Taurida Governorate In 1774, the Khanate was proclaimed independent under the Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca,[32] and was then conquered by Russian Empire
Russian Empire
in 1783.[33][34] The Taurida Oblast was created by a decree of Catherine the Great
Catherine the Great
on 2 February 1784. The center of the oblast was first in Karasubazar
Karasubazar
but was moved to Simferopol
Simferopol
later in 1784. The establishment decree divided the oblast into 7 uyezds. However, by a decree of Paul I on 12 December 1796, the oblast was abolished and the territory, divided into 2 uyezds (Akmechetsky [Акмечетский] and Perekopsky [Перекопский]) was attached to the second incarnation of the Novorossiysk Governorate.

The eleven-month siege of a Russian naval base at Sevastopol
Sevastopol
during the Crimean War

From 1853 to 1856, the peninsula was the site of the principal engagements of the Crimean War, a conflict fought between the Russian Empire and an alliance of France, Britain, the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and Sardinia.[35] Russian Civil War
Russian Civil War
(1917–1921)[edit] See also: Crimean People's Republic, Taurida Soviet Socialist Republic, Crimean Regional Government, and Crimean Socialist Soviet Republic Following the Russian Revolution
Russian Revolution
of 1917, the military and political situation in Crimea
Crimea
was chaotic like that in much of Russia. During the ensuing Russian Civil War, Crimea
Crimea
changed hands numerous times and was for a time a stronghold of the anti-Bolshevik White Army. The White Army
White Army
controlled Crimea
Crimea
before remnants were finally driven out by the Red Army
Red Army
in November 1920. It was in Crimea
Crimea
that the White Russians
Russians
led by General Wrangel made their last stand against Nestor Makhno and the Red Army. When resistance was crushed, many of the anti-Communist fighters and civilians escaped by ship to Istanbul. Between 56,000 and 150,000 of the Whites were murdered as part of the Red Terror. Soviet Union
Soviet Union
(1921–1991)[edit] See also: Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic
Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic
and Crimean Oblast Crimea
Crimea
became part of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic in 1921 as the Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, which became part of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in 1922. Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
(1921–1954)[edit]

The "Big Three" at the Yalta Conference
Yalta Conference
in Crimea: Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
and Joseph Stalin.

Artek youth camp was created in 1925. During the Second World War the peninsula was invaded by Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
and Romanian troops
Romanian troops
in summer 1941 across the Isthmus of Perekop. Following the capture of Sevastopol
Sevastopol
on 4 July 1942, Crimea
Crimea
was occupied until German and Romanian forces were expelled in an offensive by Soviet forces ending in May 1944. On 25 June 1946, it was downgraded to the Crimean Oblast, and the Crimean Tatars
Crimean Tatars
were deported for alleged collaboration with the Nazi forces. A total of more than 230,000 people – about a fifth of the total population of the Crimean Peninsula
Peninsula
at that time – were deported, mainly to Uzbekistan. 14,300 Greeks, 12,075 Bulgarians, and about 10,000 Armenians
Armenians
were also expelled. Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (1954–1991)[edit] Main article: 1954 transfer of Crimea On 19 February 1954, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet
Supreme Soviet
of the USSR issued a decree on the transfer of the Crimean region of the RSFSR to the Ukrainian SSR.[36] This Supreme Soviet
Supreme Soviet
Decree states that this transfer was motivated by "the commonality of the economy, the proximity, and close economic and cultural relations between the Crimean region and the Ukrainian SSR".[37] At that time no vote or referendum took place, and Crimean population had no say in the transfer (also typical of other Soviet border changes). After the annexation of Crimea
Crimea
by the Russian Federation, doubts have been expressed - from the Russian side by all means, but even by Western historians (Richard Sakwa, "Frontline Ukraine. Crisis In the Borderlands", 2015) - about the very legitimacy of the 1954 transition of Crimea
Crimea
to Ukraine; in the critics' view the transition contradicted even the Soviet law. In post-war years, Crimea
Crimea
thrived as a tourist destination, with new attractions and sanatoriums for tourists. Tourists came from all around the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and neighbouring countries, particularly from the German Democratic Republic.[38] In time the peninsula also became a major tourist destination for cruises originating in Greece and Turkey. Crimea's infrastructure and manufacturing also developed, particularly around the sea ports at Kerch
Kerch
and Sevastopol
Sevastopol
and in the oblast's landlocked capital, Simferopol. Populations of Ukrainians
Ukrainians
and Russians
Russians
alike doubled, with more than 1.6 million Russians
Russians
and 626,000 Ukrainians
Ukrainians
living on the peninsula by 1989.[38] Ukrainian Republic (1991–2014)[edit]

Simferopol's city centre

Main article: Autonomous Republic of Crimea See also: Crimean sovereignty referendum, 1991 In January 1991, a referendum was held in the Crimean Oblast, and voters approved restoring the Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. However, after the dissolution of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
less than a year later, the Autonomous Republic of Crimea
Autonomous Republic of Crimea
was formed as a constituent entity of independent Ukraine,[39][40] with a slight majority of Crimean voters approving Ukrainian independence in a December referendum.[41] On 5 May 1992, the Crimean legislature declared conditional independence,[42] but a referendum to confirm the decision was never held amid opposition from Kiev, elected president of Crimea
Crimea
Yuriy Meshkov, was replaced by Kiev
Kiev
appointed Anatoliy Franchuk, which was done with the intent to rein in Crimean aspirations of autonomy.[40][43] The Verkhovna Rada
Verkhovna Rada
voted to grant Crimea
Crimea
"extensive home rule" during the dispute.[41][42] Russian Federation
Russian Federation
administration (2014-present)[edit] Main article: Republic of Crimea See also: 2014 Ukrainian revolution; Crimean status referendum, 2014; Annexation of Crimea
Crimea
by the Russian Federation; and Political status of Crimea After the 2014 Ukrainian revolution
2014 Ukrainian revolution
and flight of Ukrainian President Viktor Yanukovych
Viktor Yanukovych
from Kiev
Kiev
on 21 February 2014, Russian President, Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
stated to colleagues that "we must start working on returning Crimea
Crimea
to Russia."[44] Within days, unmarked forces with local militias took over the Autonomous Republic of Crimea
Autonomous Republic of Crimea
and Sevastopol, as well as occupying several localities in Kherson
Kherson
Oblast on the Arabat Spit, which is geographically a part of Crimea. Following a controversial referendum, the official results of which showed majority support for joining Russia, Russian President Vladimir Putin signed a treaty of accession with the self-declared Republic of Crimea, annexing it into the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
as two federal subjects: the Republic of Crimea
Republic of Crimea
and the federal city of Sevastopol. Though Russia
Russia
had control over the peninsula, sovereignty was disputed as Ukraine
Ukraine
and the majority of the international community consider the annexation illegal,[45] as was shown by the United Nations General Assembly adopting a non-binding resolution calling upon states not to recognise changes to the integrity of Ukraine.[46][47] A range of international sanctions have remained in place against Russia
Russia
and a number of named individuals as a result of the events of 2014.

June 2015: Tourists in Crimea
Crimea
with Russian flag flying

Russia
Russia
withdrew its forces from southern Kherson
Kherson
in December 2014[48] Since Russian control over Crimea
Crimea
was established in 2014, the peninsula has been administered as part of the Russian Federation except for the northern areas of the Arabat Spit
Arabat Spit
and the Syvash
Syvash
which are still controlled by Ukraine.[49] Within days of the signing of the accession treaty, the process of integrating Crimea
Crimea
into the Russian federation began: in March the Russian ruble
Russian ruble
went into official circulation[50] and clocks were moved forward to Moscow time,[51] in April a new revision of the Russian Constitution was officially released with the Republic of Crimea
Republic of Crimea
and the federal city of Sevastopol
Sevastopol
included in the list of federal subjects of the Russian Federation,[52] and in June the Russian ruble became the only form of legal tender.[53] In July 2015, Russian Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev
Dmitry Medvedev
stated that Crimea
Crimea
had been fully integrated into Russia.[54] Languages[edit] According to Article 10 of the Constitution of the Republic of Crimea, there are three official languages in the republic: Russian, Ukrainian and Crimean Tatar. However, in practice, Russian is by far the main language. The history of Crimea
Crimea
is complex as it lies at a conjunction of European and Asian peoples, with a mosaic of distinct and affiliated ethnic communities. From the ancient period to the medieval period, the principal ethnic communities classed by linguistic origins are: The Indo-European language family:

The Iranian language group comprising the Cimmerians, Scythians, Sarmatians, and the Alans The Greek language
Greek language
group comprising the Greeks, Byzantines, and the Spartocids (hellenized) The Italic language group comprising the Romans, Venetians, and the Genoese The Germanic language group comprising the Goths The Slavic language group comprising the Slavs

The Turkic language family comprising the Bulgars, Khazars, Kipchaks, Tatars, and the Ottomans The Mongolic family is represented by the Mongols The Huns
Huns
were of uncertain linguistic origins. From the medieval period to the early modern period additional ethnic communities migrated to the area, prominent representation includes the Armenian, German, Serbian, and Jewish ethnic communities. Geography[edit] Further information: East European Plain Covering an area of 27,000 km2 (10,425 sq mi), Crimea is located on the northern coast of the Black Sea
Black Sea
and on the western coast of the Sea of Azov, the only land border is shared with Ukraine's Kherson Oblast
Kherson Oblast
from the north. The natural border between the Crimean Peninsula
Peninsula
and the Ukrainian mainland is formed by the Sivash
Sivash
or "Rotten Sea", a large system of shallow lagoons. The peninsula is connected to the Kherson
Kherson
Oblast's Henichesk Raion, and thus the European mainland, via the Isthmus of Perekop, a strip of land about 5–7 kilometres (3.1–4.3 mi) wide, as well as by bridges over the narrow Chongar and Henichesk straits. The northern part of Arabat Spit
Arabat Spit
is administratively part of Henichesk Raion
Henichesk Raion
in Kherson
Kherson
Oblast, including its two rural communities of Shchaslyvtseve and Strilkove. The eastern tip of the peninsula is the Kerch
Kerch
Peninsula, separated from Taman Peninsula
Peninsula
on the Russian mainland by the Kerch
Kerch
Strait, which connects the Black Sea
Black Sea
with the Sea of Azov, at a width of between 3–13 kilometres (1.9–8.1 mi). Geographically, the peninsula is generally divided into three zones: steppe, mountains and southern coast. Coastline[edit] Further information: Black Sea
Black Sea
and Sea of Azov

South coast of Crimea

The Crimean peninsula comprises many smaller peninsulas, such as the mentioned Kerch
Kerch
peninsula, Heracles Peninsula, Tarkhankut Peninsula and many others. Crimea
Crimea
also possesses lots of headlands such as Cape Priboiny, Cape Tarkhankut, Sarych, Cape Fonar, Kazantyp, Cape Akburun, and many others. The Crimean coastline is broken by several bays and harbors. These harbors lie west of the Isthmus of Perekop
Isthmus of Perekop
by the Bay of Karkinit; on the southwest by the open Bay of Kalamita between the port cities of Eupatoria
Eupatoria
and Sevastopol. The Kerch
Kerch
Peninsula
Peninsula
is attached to the Crimean mainland by Isthmus of Yenikale, delimited by the Bay of Arabat
Bay of Arabat
to the north (interrputed by the incoming Arabat Spit), and the Bay of Caffa[55] to the south (arching eastward from the port of Feodosiya). Crimean Mountains[edit] Main article: Crimean Mountains

Eclizee-Burun Mountain

The southeast coast is flanked at a distance of 8–12 kilometres (5.0–7.5 mi) from the sea by a parallel range of mountains, the Crimean Mountains.[56] These mountains are backed by secondary parallel ranges. The main range of these mountains shoots up with extraordinary abruptness from the deep floor of the Black Sea
Black Sea
to an altitude of 600–1,545 metres (1,969–5,069 ft), beginning at the southwest point of the peninsula, called Cape Fiolente. It was believed that this cape was supposedly crowned with the temple of Artemis, where Iphigeneia
Iphigeneia
is said to have officiated as priestess.[57] Uchan-su, on the south slope of the mountains, is the highest waterfall in Crimea.[58] Hydrography[edit] There are 257 rivers and major streams on the Crimean peninsula which are primarily fed by rainwater, with snowmelt playing a very minor role. This means there is significant annual fluctuation in water flow with many streams drying up completely during the summer.[59] The largest rivers are the Salhir (Salğır, Салгир), the Kacha (Кача), the Alma (Альма), and the Belbek (Бельбек). Also important are the Kokozka (Kökköz or Коккозка), the Indole (Indol or Индо́л), the Chorna (Çorğun, Chernaya or Чёрная), the Derekoika (Dereköy or Дерекойка),[60] the Karasu-Bashi (Biyuk-Karasu or Биюк-Карасу) (tributary of Salhir river), the Burulcha (Бурульча) (tributary of Salhir river), the Uchan-su, and the Ulu-Uzen'. The longest river of Crimea is the Salhir at 204 km. The Belbek has the greatest average discharge at 2.16 cubic metres per second (76 cu ft/s).[61] The Alma and the Kacha are the second and third longest rivers.[62] There are more than fifty salt lakes and salt pans on the peninsula, the largest of them is Lake Sasyk (Сасык) on the southwest coast, but others include Aqtas, Koyashskoye, Kiyatskoe, Kirleutskoe, Kizil-Yar, Bakalskoe, and Donuzlav.[63][64] The general trend is for the former lakes to become salt pans.[65] Lake Syvash
Syvash
(Sıvaş or Сива́ш) is a system of interconnected shallow lagoons on the northern coast, which covers an area of around 2,560 km2. There are a number of dams that have created reservoirs, among the largest are the Simferopolskoye, Alminskoye,[66] the Taygansky and the Belogorsky just south of Bilohirsk
Bilohirsk
in Bilohirsk
Bilohirsk
Raion.[67] The North Crimea
Crimea
Canal, which transports water from the Dnieper, is the largest of the man-made irrigation channels on the peninsula.[68] Steppe[edit] Main article: Pontic-Caspian steppe Seventy-five percent of the remaining area of Crimea
Crimea
consists of semiarid prairie lands, a southward continuation of the Pontic-Caspian steppe, which slope gently to the northwest from the foot of the Crimean Mountains. Numerous kurgans, or burial mounds, of the ancient Scythians
Scythians
are scattered across the Crimean steppes. Crimean Riviera[edit]

The Crimean Mountains
Crimean Mountains
in the background and Yalta
Yalta
as seen from the Tsar's Path.

The terrain that lies beyond the sheltering Crimean Mountain range is of an altogether different character. Here, the narrow strip of coast and the slopes of the mountains are smothered with greenery. This "riviera" stretches along the southeast coast from capes Fiolente and Aya, in the south, to Feodosiya, and is studded with summer sea-bathing resorts such as Alupka, Yalta, Gurzuf, Alushta, Sudak, and Feodosiya. During the years of Soviet rule, the resorts and dachas of this coast served as the prime perquisites of the politically loyal.[citation needed]why here? and ref? In addition, vineyards and fruit orchards are located in the region. Fishing, mining, and the production of essential oils are also important. Numerous Crimean Tatar villages, mosques, monasteries, and palaces of the Russian imperial family and nobles are found here, as well as picturesque ancient Greek and medieval castles. The Crimean Mountains
Crimean Mountains
and the southern coast are part of the Crimean Submediterranean forest complex ecoregion. The natural vegetation consists of scrublands, woodlands, and forests, with a climate and vegetation similar to the Mediterranean Basin. Climate[edit]

Crimea's south coast has a subtropical climate

Crimea
Crimea
is located between the temperate and subtropical climate belts and is characterized by warm and sunny weather.[69] It is characterized by the diversity and presence of microclimates.[69] The northern parts of Crimea
Crimea
have a moderate continental climate with short, mild winters and moderately hot dry summers.[70] In the central and mountainous areas, the climate is transitional between the continental climate to the north and the Mediterranean climate
Mediterranean climate
to the south.[70] Winters are mild at lower altitudes (in the foothills) and colder at higher altitdues.[70] Summers are hot at lower altitudes and warm in the mountains.[70] A subtropical, Mediterranean climate
Mediterranean climate
is found in the southern coastal regions, and is characterized by mild winters and moderately hot, dry summers.[70] The climate of Crimea
Crimea
is influenced by its geographic location, relief, and influences from the Black sea.[69] The Crimean coast
Crimean coast
is shielded from cold air masses coming from north and as a result has milder winters.[69] Maritime influences from the Black Sea
Black Sea
are restricted to coastal areas; inside the peninsula, the influence is weak and does not play an important role.[69] Because a high pressure system is located north of Crimea
Crimea
in both summer and winter, winds predominantly come from the north and northeast year-round.[69] In winter, these winds bring in cold, dry continental air while in summer, it brings in dry and hot weather.[69] Winds from the northwest bring warm and wet air from the Atlantic Ocean
Ocean
and are responsible for bringing precipitation during spring and summer.[69] As well, winds from the southwest bring very warm and wet air from the subtropical latitudes of the Atlantic Ocean
Ocean
and the Mediterranean sea and are responsible for bringing precipitation during fall and winter.[69] Mean annual temperatures range from 10 °C (50.0 °F) in the far north (Armiansk) to 13 °C (55.4 °F) in the far south (Yalta).[69] In the mountains, the mean annual temperature is around 5.7 °C (42.3 °F).[69] For every 100 m (330 ft) increase in altitude, temperatures decrease by 0.65 °C (1.17 °F) while precipitation increases.[69] In January, mean temperatures range from −3 °C (26.6 °F) in Armiansl to 4.4 °C (39.9 °F) in Myskhor.[69] Cool season temperatures average around 7 °C (44.6 °F) and it is rare for the weather to drop below freezing except in the mountains, where there is usually snow.[71] In July, mean temperatures range from 15.4 °C (59.7 °F) in Ai-Petri
Ai-Petri
to 23.4 °C (74.1 °F) in the central parts of Crimea
Crimea
to 24.4 °C (75.9 °F) in Myskhor.[69] The frost free period ranges from 160–200 days in the steppe and mountains regions to 240–260 days on the south coast.[69] Precipitation in Crimea
Crimea
varies significantly based on location; it ranges from 310 millimetres (12.2 in) in Chornomorske
Chornomorske
to 1,220 millimetres (48.0 in) at the highest altitudes in the Crimean mountains.[69] The Crimean mountains greatly influence the amount of precipitation present in the peninsula.[69] However, most of Crimea (88.5%) receives 300 to 500 millimetres (11.8 to 19.7 in) of precipitation per year.[69] The plains usually receive 300 to 400 millimetres (11.8 to 15.7 in) of precipitation per year, increasing to 560 millimetres (22.0 in) in the southern coast at sea level.[69] The western parts of the Crimean mountains receive more than 1,000 millimetres (39.4 in) of precipitation per year.[69] Snowfall is predominant in the mountains during winter.[70] Most of the peninsula receives more than 2,000 sunshine hours per year; it reaches up to 2,505 sunshine hours in Karabi–Yayla in the Crimean mountains.[69] As a result, the climate is favorable for recreation and tourism.[69] Because of its climate and subsidized travel packages from Russian state-run companies, the southern Crimean coast has remained a popular resort for Russian tourists.[72] Strategic value[edit] Further information: Black Sea
Black Sea
Fleet

Map of the historical trade route (shown in purple) connecting Uppsala with Constantinople
Constantinople
via Cherson. The major centers of the Kievan Rus', Kiev
Kiev
itself, Novgorod
Novgorod
and Ladoga, arose along this route.

The Black Sea
Black Sea
ports of Crimea
Crimea
provide quick access to the Eastern Mediterranean, Balkans
Balkans
and Middle East. Historically, possession of the southern coast of Crimea
Crimea
was sought after by most empires of the greater region since antiquity (Roman, Byzantine, Ottoman, Russian, British and French, Nazi German, Soviet).[73] The Dnieper
Dnieper
River is a major waterway and transportation route that crosses the European continent from north to south and ultimately links the Black Sea
Black Sea
with the Baltic Sea, of strategic importance since the historical trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks. The Black Sea
Black Sea
serves as an economic thoroughfare connecting the Caucasus region and the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
to central and Eastern Europe.[74] According to the International Transport Workers' Federation, in 2013 there were at least 12 operating merchant seaports in Crimea.[75] Economy[edit] See also: International sanctions during the Ukrainian crisis

Tourism is an important sector of Crimea's economy

In 2016 Crimea
Crimea
had Nominal GDP of US$
US$
6.7 billion and US$
US$
3,000 per capita.[76] The main branches of the modern Crimean economy are agriculture & fishing oysters pearls else , industry & manufacturing along mining and chemical, tourism, ports. Industrial plants are situated for the most part in the southern coast ( Eupatoria
Eupatoria
Sevastopol
Sevastopol
Feodosia Kerch) regions of the republic, few northern ( Armyansk
Armyansk
Krasnoperekopsk Dzhankoj), aside central area, mainly Simferopol
Simferopol
okrug and eastern region in Nizhnegorsk (few plants, same for Dzhankoj) city . Important industrial cities include Dzhankoy, housing a major railway connection, Krasnoperekopsk
Krasnoperekopsk
and Armyansk, among others. After the Russian annexation of Crimea
Crimea
in early 2014 and subsequent sanctions targeting Crimea, the tourist industry suffered major losses for two years. The flow of holidaymakers dropped 35 percent in the first half of 2014 over the same period of 2013.[77] The number of tourist arrivals reached a record in 2012 at 6.1 million.[78] According to the Russian administration of Crimea, they dropped to 3.8 million in 2014,[79] and rebounded to 5.6 million by 2016.[80] The most important industries in Crimea
Crimea
include food production, chemical fields, mechanical engineering and metal working, and fuel production industries.[81] Sixty percent of the industry market belongs to food production. There are a total of 291 large industrial enterprises and 1002 small business enterprises.[81] Agriculture in the region includes cereals, vegetable-growing, gardening, and wine-making, particularly in the Yalta
Yalta
and Massandra regions. Livestock production includes cattle breeding, poultry keeping, and sheep breeding.[81] Other products produced on the Crimean Peninsula
Peninsula
include salt, porphyry, limestone, and ironstone (found around Kerch) since ancient times.[82] In 2014, the republic's annual GDP was $4.3 billion (500 times smaller than the size of Russia's economy). The average salary was $290 per month. The budget deficit was $1 billion.[citation needed] Energy[edit] Crimea
Crimea
also possesses several natural gas fields both onshore and offshore, which were starting to be drilled by western oil and gas companies before annexation.[83][84] The inland fields are located in Chornomorske
Chornomorske
and Dzhankoy, while offshore fields are located in the western coast in the Black Sea
Black Sea
and in the northeastern coast in the Azov Sea:[85]

Name Type Location Reserves

Dzhankoyske gas field onshore Dzhankoy

Golitsyna gas field offshore Black Sea

Karlavske gas field onshore Chornomorske

Krym gas field offshore Black Sea

Odessa gas field[86] offshore Black Sea 21 billion m3

Schmidta gas field offshore Black Sea

Shtormvaya gas field offshore Black Sea

Strilkove
Strilkove
gas field offshore Sea of Azov

in Schyolkine area there is a extractive fields , oil (and gas ?) , northeast from Vedradne area . The republic also possesses two oil fields: one onshore, the Serebryankse oil field in Rozdolne, and one offshore, the Subbotina oil field in the Black Sea.

Electricity

Crimea
Crimea
has 540 MW of its own electricity generation capacity including Simferopol
Simferopol
Thermal Power Plant (100 MW), Sevastopol
Sevastopol
Thermal Power Plant (22 MW) and Kamish-Burunskaya Thermal Power Plant (19 MW).[87] This is insufficient for local consumption and since annexation by Russia, Crimea
Crimea
is reliant on an underwater power cable to mainland Russia.[88] Building and near start up two combined cycle gas steam turbo thermal plants PGU , both 470 MW (116 167 MW GT , 235 MW block) , build (plant) by TPE along others and turbines by Power Machines (UTZ KalugaTZ ?) , NPO Saturn with Perm PMZ , either GTD-110M modified or GTE-160 or 180 units or UTZ KTZ or a V94.2 bought by MAPNA or a second market, third parts, then modified in Russian plants for PGU Thermal plants specifics. Also many solar fotovoltaic SES plants along peninsula ( Sevastopol
Sevastopol
northern too , smaller facility) . Also gas thermal Saki plant close to Jodobrom chemical plant and SaKhZ(SaChP) boosted production with Perm GTE GTU25P (PS90GP25 25 MW aeroderivative GP) PGU turbogenerators . Older plants are Sevastopol
Sevastopol
TEC (close to inkerman south west wise) which use AEG and Ganz Elektro turbines and turbogenerators 25 MW each more or less, Sinferopol TEC (north , in Agrarne locale) Eupatoria, Kamysh Burun TEC ( Kerch
Kerch
south - Zaliv) and few others , they can be enhanced as well with a PGU or modern GT by Russian builders for energy electricity production if needed. Infrastructure[edit]

This section contains an enumeration of examples, but lacks a general overview of its topic. You can help by adding an appropriate introductory section. Editing help is available. (March 2014)

Trolleybus near Alushta

The cableway in Yalta

Kerch
Kerch
Strait Bridge

Main article: Kerch
Kerch
Strait Bridge In May 2015, work began on a multibillion-dollar road-rail bridge across the Kerch
Kerch
Strait, sometimes referred to as 'Putin's Bridge'. It is projected to be fully completed and operational by 2019.[89]

Public transportation

Almost every settlement in Crimea
Crimea
is connected with another settlement by bus lines. Crimea
Crimea
contains the longest (96 km or 59 mi) trolleybus route in the world, stretching from Simferopol
Simferopol
to Yalta.[90] The trolleybus line starts near Simferopol's Railway Station (at Soviet age start near Simferopol
Simferopol
International Airport) through the mountains to Alushta
Alushta
and on to Yalta. The length of line is about 90 km. It was founded in 1959. Railroad lines running through Crimea
Crimea
include Armyansk— Kerch
Kerch
(with a link to Feodosiya), and Melitopol— Sevastopol
Sevastopol
(with a link to Yevpatoria), connecting Crimea
Crimea
to the Ukrainian mainland.

Highways

(building) Tavrida highway ((Eupatoria-) Sevastopol
Sevastopol
- Sinferopol(SW to W N to East)- Belogorsk - north Feodosia
Feodosia
- Kerch
Kerch
south (strait bridge) . E105/M18 – Syvash
Syvash
(bridge, starts), Dzhankoy, North Crimean Canal (bridge), Simferopol, Alushta, Yalta
Yalta
(ends) E97/M17 – Perekop
Perekop
(starts), Armyansk, Dzhankoy, Feodosiya, Kerch (ferry, ends) H05 – Krasnoperekopsk, Simferopol
Simferopol
(access to the Simferopol International Airport) H06 – Simferopol, Bakhchisaray, Sevastopol H19 – Yalta, Sevastopol P16 P23 – Simferopol, Feodosiya P25 – Simferopol, Yevpatoria P27 – Sevastopol, Inkerman
Inkerman
(completely within the city of Sevastopol) P29 – Alushta, Sudak, Feodosiya P34 – Alushta, Yalta P35 – Hrushivka, Sudak P58 – Sevastopol, Port "Komysheva Bukhta" (completely within the city of Sevastopol) P59 (completely within the city of Sevastopol)

Sea transport

The cities of Yalta, Feodosiya, Kerch, Sevastopol, Chornomorske
Chornomorske
and Yevpatoria
Yevpatoria
are connected to one another by sea routes. In the cities of Yevpatoria
Yevpatoria
and nearby townlet Molochnoye are tram systems. Tourism[edit]

Boardwalk in Yalta.

Genoese fortress of Caffa.

Mosque and yard in the Khan Palace in Bakhchisaray

The development of Crimea
Crimea
as a holiday destination began in the second half of the 19th century. The development of the transport networks brought masses of tourists from central parts of the Russian Empire. At the beginning of the 20th century, a major development of palaces, villas, and dachas began—most of which remain. These are some of the main attractions of Crimea
Crimea
as a tourist destination. There are many Crimean legends about famous touristic places, which attract the attention of tourists. A new phase of tourist development began when the Soviet government realised the potential of the healing quality of the local air, lakes and therapeutic muds. It became a "health" destination for Soviet workers, and hundreds of thousands of Soviet tourists visited Crimea. Artek is a former Young Pioneer camp
Young Pioneer camp
on the Black Sea
Black Sea
in the town of Hurzuf, near Ayu-Dag, established in 1925. In 1969 it had an area of 3.2 km². The camp consisted of 150 buildings Unlike most of the young pioneer camps, Artek was an all-year camp, due to the warm climate. Artek was considered to be a privilege for Soviet children during its existence, as well as for children from other communist countries. During its heyday, 27,000 children a year vacationed at Artek. Between 1925 and 1969 the camp hosted 300,000 children.[91] After the breaking up of the Young Pioneers in 1991 its prestige declined, though it remained a popular vacation destination.[92] In the 1990s, Crimea
Crimea
became more of a get-away destination than a "health-improvement" destination. The most visited areas are the south shore of Crimea
Crimea
with cities of Yalta
Yalta
and Alushta, the western shore – Eupatoria
Eupatoria
and Saki, and the south-eastern shore – Feodosia
Feodosia
and Sudak. According to National Geographic, Crimea
Crimea
was among the top 20 travel destinations in 2013.[93] Places of interest include

Koktebel Livadia Palace Mount Mithridat Scythian Treasure Swallow's Nest Tauric Chersonesos Vorontsov Palace Bakhchisaray
Bakhchisaray
Palace Massandra
Massandra
Palace and Winery Novyi Svit Nikitsky Botanical Garden Aivazovsky
Aivazovsky
National Art Gallery in Feodosia Naval museum complex Balaklava The Valley of Ghosts

Sanctions[edit] Main article: International sanctions during the Ukrainian crisis Following Russia's unrecognized annexation of Crimea, the European Union, the United States, Canada, Australia, Japan, and several other countries (including Ukraine) imposed economic sanctions against Russia, including some specifically targeting Crimea. Many of these sanctions were directed at individuals—both Russian and Crimean.[94][95] In general they prohibit the sale, supply, transfer, or export of goods and technology in several sectors, including services directly related to tourism and infrastructure. They list seven ports where cruise ships cannot dock.[96][97][98][99] Sanctions against individuals include travel bans and asset freezes. Visa and MasterCard
MasterCard
stopped service in Crimea
Crimea
in December 2014.[100][101] To get around this, a new Russian national payment card system started on 1 April 2015, which allowed Visa and MasterCard
MasterCard
cards issued by Russian banks to work in the Crimea.[102] The Mir (payment system) operated by the Central Bank of Russia
Russia
is now functioning as well as Master Card and Visa.[citation needed][original research?] However, there are no major international banks in the Crimea.[citation needed] Politics[edit] Main article: Politics of Crimea The politics of Crimea
Crimea
is that of the Republic of Crimea
Republic of Crimea
on one hand, and that of the federal city of Sevastopol
Sevastopol
on the other. Since becoming the 84th and 85th Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation in 2014,[103] both have strongly supported United Russia
Russia
in both local and national elections. At the most recent Crimean parliamentary election on 14 September 2014, United Russia
Russia
won 70 of the 75 seats in the State Council of Crimea
Crimea
based on just over 70% of the vote. Despite calls from local Crimean Tatars
Crimean Tatars
for a boycott of the elections, turnout was over 53% which compared well with elections in other regions of Russia. Following the election, Sergey Aksyonov
Sergey Aksyonov
became Head of the Republic of Crimea: he had previously been Acting Head from 14 April 2014. United Russia
Russia
is also the leading party in the Legislative Assembly of Sevastopol
Sevastopol
having won 22 of the 24 seats at the last election.[104] The Governor of Sevastopol
Sevastopol
is Dmitry Ovsyannikov
Dmitry Ovsyannikov
who was first appointed on 28 July 2016 following the resignation of Sergey Menyaylo, and secured re-election on 71% of the vote on 10 September 2017. United Russia
Russia
maintained its position as the most supported political party across Crimea
Crimea
at the Russian legislative election on 18 September, 2016, achieving 72.8% of the vote.[1] At 49.1%, turnout was slightly ahead of that for Russia
Russia
as a whole which was only 47.8%.[2] At the 2018 Russian presidential election, Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
secured 92% of the vote in Crimea
Crimea
compared to 77% across Russia
Russia
as a whole.[105] Prior to the 2014 Russian annexation of Crimea
Crimea
the parliament of Crimea
Crimea
was the Verkhovna Rada
Verkhovna Rada
of Crimea
Crimea
. On 15 March 2014 the Verkhovna Rada
Verkhovna Rada
of Ukraine
Ukraine
officially dissolved the parliament. On 17 March 2014, one day before the Russian annexation of Crimea[106], the State Council of Crimea
State Council of Crimea
was established in place of the Verkhovna Rada of Crimea. The last election of this parliament took place on 31 October 2010 and was won by the Party of Regions.[107] Demographics[edit] Main article: Demographics of Crimea As of 2014[update], the total population of the Republic of Crimea
Republic of Crimea
and Sevastopol
Sevastopol
was 2,248,400 people (Republic of Crimea: 1,889,485, Sevastopol: 395,000).[108] This is down from the 2001 Ukrainian Census figure, which was 2,376,000 (Autonomous Republic of Crimea: 2,033,700, Sevastopol: 342,451).[109]

The Foros Church
Foros Church
near Yalta

According to the 2014 Russian census, 84% of Crimean inhabitants named Russian as their native language; 7.9% – Crimean Tatar; 3.7% – Tatar; and 3.3% – Ukrainian.[citation needed] It was the first official Russian census in Crimea
Crimea
since Ukrainian that held in 2001.[110] According to the 2001 census, 77% of Crimean inhabitants named Russian as their native language; 11.4% – Crimean Tatar; and 10.1% – Ukrainian.[111] In 2013, however, the Crimean Tatar language
Crimean Tatar language
was estimated to be on the brink of extinction, being taught in Crimea only in around 15 schools at that point. Turkey
Turkey
provided the greatest support to Tatars in Ukraine, which had been unable to resolve the problem of education in their mother tongue in Crimea, by bringing the schools to a modern state.[112][113] Ethnic composition of Crimea's population has changed dramatically since the early 20th century. The 1897 Russian Empire
Russian Empire
Census for the Taurida Governorate
Taurida Governorate
reported: 196,854 (13.06%) Crimean Tatars, 404,463 (27.94%) Russians
Russians
and 611,121 (42.21%) Ukrainians. But these numbers included Berdyansky, Dneprovsky and Melitopolsky uyezds which were on mainland, not in Crimea. The population number excluding these uyezds is given in the table below.

Date 1897[114][115] 1926[116] 1939[117] 1959[118] 1970 1979[119] 1989[120][121] 2001[121] 2014[122]

Carried out by Russian Empire Soviet Union Soviet Union Soviet Union Soviet Union Soviet Union Soviet Union Ukraine Russia

Ethnic group Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number %

Russians 180,963 33.11% 301,398 42.2% 558,481 49.6% 858,273 71.4% 1,220,484 67.3% 1,460,980 66.9% 1,629,542 67.0% 1,450,400 60.4% 1,492,078 67.9%

Ukrainians 64,703 11.84% 77,405 10.6% 154,123 13.7% 267,659 22.3% 480,733 26.5% 547,336 25.1% 625,919 25.8% 576,600 24.0% 344,515 15.7%

Crimean Tatars 194,294 35.55% 179,094 25.1% 218,879 19.4%

5,422 0.2% 38,365 1.6% 245,200 10.2% 232,340 10.6%

Belarusians 2,058 0.38% 3,842 0.5% 6,726 0.6% 21,672 1.8% 39,793 2.2% 45,000 (e) 2.1% 50,045 2.1% 35,000 1.5% 21,694 1.0%

Armenians 8,317 1.52% 10,713 1.5% 12,923 1.1%

3,091 0.2%

2,794 0.1% 10,000 0.4% 11,030 0.5%

Jews 24,168 4.42% 45,926 6.4% 65,452 5.8% 26,374 2.2% 25,614 1.4%

17,371 0.7% 5,500 0.2% 3,374 0.1%

Others 72,089 13.19%

c.27,500 2.3%

92,533 4.2%

Total population stating nationality 546,592 713,823 1,126,429

1,813,502 2,184,000 2,430,495 2,401,200 2,197,564

Nationality not stated

12,000 87,205

Total population

1,201,517

2,458,600 2,413,200 2,284,769

Crimean Tatars, a predominantly Muslim
Muslim
ethnic minority who in 2001 made up 12.1% of the population,[123] formed in Crimea
Crimea
in the late Middle Ages, after the Crimean Khanate
Crimean Khanate
had come into existence. The Crimean Tatars
Crimean Tatars
were forcibly expelled to Central Asia
Asia
by Joseph Stalin's government as a form of collective punishment, on the grounds that they had formed pro-German Tatar Legions. After the fall of the Soviet Union, Crimean Tatars
Crimean Tatars
began to return to the region.[124] According to the 2001 Ukrainian population census 58% of the population of Crimea
Crimea
are ethnic Russians
Russians
and 24% are ethnic Ukrainians.[123] Jews
Jews
in Crimea
Crimea
were historically Krymchaks
Krymchaks
and Karaites (the latter a small group centered at Yevpatoria). The 1879 census for the Taurida Governorate reported a Jewish population of 4.20%, not including a Karaite population of 0.43%. The Krymchaks
Krymchaks
(but not the Karaites) were targeted for annihilation during Nazi occupation. The number of Crimea Germans
Crimea Germans
was 60,000 in 1939. During WWII, they were forcibly deported on the orders of Stalin, as they were regarded as a potential "fifth column".[125][126][127] This was part of the 800,000 Germans in Russia
Russia
who were relocated within the Soviet Union during Stalinist times.[128] The 2001 Ukrainian census reports just 2,500 ethnic Germans (0.1% of population) in Crimea. Besides the Crimean Germans, Stalin in 1944 also deported 70,000 Greeks, 14,000 Bulgarians[129] and 3,000 Italians. Religion[edit]

Religion in Crimea
Religion in Crimea
(2013)[130]   Orthodox (58%)    Muslim
Muslim
(15%)   Belief without religion (10%)   Atheist (2%)   Other religion (2%)   Not stated (13%)

In 2013 Orthodox Christians made up 58% of the Crimean population, followed by Muslims (15%) and Believers in God without religion (10%).[130] Culture[edit] See also: Crimean legends and Crimean Tatar cuisine

Alexander Pushkin
Alexander Pushkin
in Bakhchisaray
Bakhchisaray
Palace. Painting by Grigory Chernetsov

Almost 100 broadcasters and around 1,200 publications are registered in Crimea, although no more than a few dozen operate or publish regularly.[131] Of them most use the Russian language
Russian language
only.[131] Crimea's first Tatar-owned, Tatar-language TV launched in 2006.[131] Alexander Pushkin
Alexander Pushkin
visited Bakhchysarai
Bakhchysarai
in 1820 and later wrote the poem The Fountain of Bakhchisaray. Crimea
Crimea
was the background for Adam Mickiewicz's seminal work, The Crimean Sonnets inspired by his 1825 travel. A series of 18 sonnets constitute an artistic telling of a journey to and through the Crimea, they feature romantic descriptions of the oriental nature and culture of the East which show the despair of an exile longing for the homeland, driven from his home by a violent enemy. Ivan Aivazovsky, the 19th-century marine painter of Armenian origin, who is considered one of the major artists of his era was born in Feodosia
Feodosia
and lived there for the most part of his life. Many of his paintings depict the Black Sea. He also created battle paintings during the Crimean War.[132] Crimean Tatar singer Jamala
Jamala
won the Eurovision Song Contest 2016 representing Ukraine
Ukraine
with her song 1944, about the historic deportation of Crimean Tatars
Crimean Tatars
in that year by Soviet authorities.[133] According to the, broken in practice by Russian companies, Ukrainian “law on concert activities” only Ukrainian companies can organise concerts in Crimea.[134]

Painting of the Russian squadron in Sevastopol
Sevastopol
by Ivan Aivazovsky (1846)

The grave of Russian poet and artist Maximilian Voloshin

People at the Kazantip
Kazantip
music festival in 2007

Sport[edit] Following Crimea's vote to join Russia
Russia
and subsequent annexation in March 2014, the top football clubs withdrew from the Ukrainian leagues. Some clubs registered to join the Russian leagues but the Football Federation of Ukraine
Ukraine
objected. UEFA
UEFA
ruled that Crimean clubs could not join the Russian leagues but should instead be part of a Crimean league system. The Crimean Premier League is now the top professional football league in Crimea.[135] A number of Crimean born athletes have been given permission to compete for Russia
Russia
instead of Ukraine
Ukraine
at future competitions, including Vera Rebrik, the European javelin champion.[136] Due to Russia
Russia
currently being suspended from all international athletic competitions Rebrik participates in tournaments as a 'neutral' athlete.[137] Gallery[edit]

Bakhchisaray
Bakhchisaray
Palace

Dulber
Dulber
Palace in Koreiz

Vorontsov Palace

Livadia Palace

Catholic church in Yalta

St. Vladimir's Cathedral, dedicated to the Heroes of Sevastopol (Crimean War).

See also[edit]

List of cities in Crimea Politics of Crimea Crimean War
Crimean War
of 1853 – 1856 Partition Treaty on the Status and Conditions of the Black Sea
Black Sea
Fleet of 1991 (guaranteeing Russia's use of Sevastopol
Sevastopol
port and stationing of up to 25,000 troops on the peninsula) Russian–Ukrainian Friendship Treaty
Russian–Ukrainian Friendship Treaty
of 1997 2014 Russian military intervention in Ukraine Crimean Gothic

References[edit]

^ "Treaty to accept Crimea, Sevastopol
Sevastopol
to Russian Federation
Russian Federation
signed". rt.com. Autonomous Nonprofit Organization "TV-Novosti". March 18, 2014. Retrieved 24 March 2014.  ^ "Results of Census: Population of Crimea
Crimea
is 2.284 Million People". en.krymedia.ru. Archived from the original on 4 November 2015. Retrieved 13 February 2016.  ^ Why Did Russia
Russia
Give Away Crimea
Crimea
Sixty Years Ago?, Mark Kramer, The Wilson Center, 19 March 2014 ^ "Meeting of the Valdai International Discussion Club". Kremlin.ru. 2014-10-24. Archived from the original on 2015-04-15. I will be frank; we used our Armed Forces to block Ukrainian units stationed in Crimea  ^ КС признал неконституционным постановление крымского парламента о вхождении АРК в состав РФ и проведении референдума о статусе автономии [Constitutional Court of Ukraine
Ukraine
deemed Crimean parliament resolution on accession of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea
Autonomous Republic of Crimea
to the Russian Federation and holding of the Crimean status referendum unconstitutional] (in Russian). Interfax-Ukraine. 14 March 2014.  "Judgement of the Constitutional Court of Ukraine
Ukraine
on all-Crimean referendum". Embassy of Ukraine
Ukraine
in the United States of America. 15 March 2014.  ^ Tokarev, Alexey (2014). Электоральная история постсоветского Крыма: от УССР до России [The electoral history of the post-Soviet Crimea: from UkSSR TO Russia] (PDF). MGIMO Review of International Relations (in Russian). 5 (44): 32–41. Спустя 22 года и 364 дня после первого в СССР референдума в автономной республике Украины Крым состоялся последний референдум. Проводился он вопреки украинскому законодательству, не предусматривающему понятия региональный референдум и предписывающему решать территориальные вопросы только на всеукраинском референдуме  ^ Marxen, Christian (2014). "The Crimea
Crimea
Crisis – An International Law Perspective" (PDF). Zeitschrift für ausländisches öffentliches Recht und Völkerrecht (Heidelberg Journal of International Law). 74. Organizing and holding the referendum on Crimea’s accession to Russia
Russia
was illegal under the Ukrainian constitution. Article 2 of the constitution establishes that “ Ukraine
Ukraine
shall be a unitary state” and that the “territory of Ukraine
Ukraine
within its present border is indivisible and inviolable”. This is confirmed in regard to Crimea by Chapter X of the constitution, which provides for the autonomous status of Crimea. Article 134 sets forth that Crimea
Crimea
is an “inseparable constituent part of Ukraine”. The autonomous status provides Crimea
Crimea
with a certain set of authorities and allows, inter alia, to hold referendums. These rights are, however, limited to local matters. The constitution makes clear that alterations to the territory of Ukraine
Ukraine
require an all-Ukrainian referendum.  ^ " Crimea
Crimea
applies to be part of Russian Federation
Russian Federation
after vote to leave Ukraine". The Guardian. 17 March 2014.  ^ "Распоряжение Президента Российской Федерации от 17.03.2014 № 63-рп "О подписании Договора между Российской Федерацией и Республикой Крым о принятии в Российскую Федерацию Республики Крым и образовании в составе Российской Федерации новых субъектов"". Archived from the original on 2014-03-18. Retrieved 2016-06-25.  at http://www.pravo.gov.ru (in Russian) ^ "Kremlin: Crimea
Crimea
and Sevastopol
Sevastopol
are now part of Russia, not Ukraine". CNN. 18 March 2014.  ^ Compiled from original authors (1779). "The History of the Bosporus". An Universal History, from the Earliest Accounts to the Present Time. pp. 127–129. Retrieved 1 April 2015.  ^ Claudii Ptolemaei. Geographia. Vol. II, Book
Book
V. Chapter 9, sec. 5. ^ Edward Gibbon, The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, Volume 1, 306f. "the peninsula of Crim Tartary, known to the ancients under the name of Chersonesus Taurica"; ibid. Volume 10 (1788), p. 211: "The modern reader must not confound this old Cherson of the Tauric or Crimean peninsula with a new city of the same name". See also John Millhouse, English-Italian (1859), p. 597 ^ la Crimea
Crimea
since at least the 17th century. Maiolino Bisaccioni, Giacomo Pecini, Historia delle guerre ciuili di questi vltimi tempi, cioe, d'Inghilterra, Catalogna, Portogallo, Palermo, Napoli, Fermo, Moldauia, Polonia, Suizzeri, Francia, Turco. per Francesco Storti. Alla Fortezza, sotto il portico de'Berettari, 1655, p. 349: "dalla fortuna de Cosacchi dipendeva la sicurazza della Crimea". Nicolò Beregani, Historia delle guerre d'Europa, Volume 2 (1683), p. 251. ^ "State Papers". The Annual Register or a View of the History, Politics, and Literature for the Year 1783. J. Dodsley. 1785. p. 364. Retrieved 1 April 2015.  ^ William Smith, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), s.v. Taurica Chersonesus. vol. ii, p. 1109. ^ W. Radloff, Versuch eines Wörterbuches der Türk-Dialecte (1888), ii. 745 ^ Encyclopædia Britannica (1810). Encyclopædia Britannica: or, A dictionary of arts and sciences, compiled by a society of gentlemen in Scotland [ed. by W. Smellie]. Suppl. to the 3rd. ed., by G. Gleig. p. 153. Retrieved 1 April 2015.  ^ Alexander MacBean; Samuel Johnson (1773). A Dictionary of Ancient Geography: Explaining the Local Appellations in Sacred, Grecian, and Roman History; Exhibiting the Extent of Kingdoms, and Situations of Cities, &c. And Illustrating the Allusions and Epithets in the Greek and Roman Poets. The Whole Established by Proper Authorities, and Designed for the Use of Schools. G. Robinson. p. 185. Retrieved 1 April 2015.  ^ Asimov, Isaac (1991). Asimov's Chronology of the World. New York: HarperCollins. p. 50. . ^ George Vernadsky, Michael Karpovich, A History of Russia, Yale University Press, 1952, p. 53. Quote:

"The name Crimea
Crimea
is to be derived from the Turkish word qirim (hence the Russian krym), which means "fosse" and refers more specifically to the Perekop
Perekop
Isthmus, the old Russian word perekop being an exact translation of the Turkish qirim.

^ The Proto-Turkic root is cited as *kōrɨ- "to fence, protect" Starling (citing Севортян Э. В. и др. [E. W. Sewortyan et al.], Этимологический словарь тюркских языков [An Etymological Dictionary of the Turkic languages] (1974–2000) 6, 76–78). ^ Edward Allworth, The Tatars of Crimea: Return to the Homeland : Studies and Documents, Duke University Press, 1998, pp. 5–7 ^ A. D. (Alfred Denis) Godley. Herodotus. Cambridge. Harvard University Press. vol. 2, 1921, p. 221. ^ See John Richard Krueger, specialist in the studies of Chuvash, Yakut, and the Mongolian languages in Edward Allworth, The Tatars of Crimea: Return to the Homeland : Studies and Documents, Duke University Press, 1998, p. 24. ^ Jews
Jews
in Byzantium: Dialectics of Minority and Majority Cultures, BRILL, 2011, p.753, n. 102. ^ The Mongolian kori⁻ is explained as a loan from Turkic by Doerfer Türkische und mongolische Elemente im Neupersischen 3 (1967), 450 and by Щербак, Ранние тюркско-монгольские языковые связи (VIII-XIV вв.) (1997) p. 141. ^ Edith Hall, Adventures with Iphigenia in Tauris (2013), p. 176: "it was indeed at some point between the 1730s and the 1770s that the dream of recreating ancient 'Taurida' in the southern Crimea
Crimea
was conceived. Catherine's plan was to create a paradisiacal imperial 'garden' there, and her Greek archbishop Eugenios Voulgaris
Eugenios Voulgaris
obliged by inventing a new etymology for the old name of Tauris, deriving it from taphros, which (he claimed) was the ancient Greek for a ditch dug by human hands." ^ Brian Glyn Williams (2013). "The Sultan's Raiders: The Military Role of the Crimean Tatars
Crimean Tatars
in the Ottoman Empire" (PDF). The Jamestown Foundation. p. 27. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 October 2013. Retrieved 30 March 2015.  ^ "The Unending Frontier: An Environmental History of the Early Modern World". John F. Richards (2006). University of California Press. p.260. ISBN 0-520-24678-0 ^ Darjusz Kołodziejczyk, as reported by Mikhail Kizilov (2007). "Slaves, Money Lenders, and Prisoner Guards: The Jews
Jews
and the Trade in Slaves and Captives in the Crimean Khanate". The Journal of Jewish Studies. p. 2. Retrieved 30 March 2015.  ^ "Treaty of Peace (Küçük Kaynarca), 1774". nus.edu.sg. 20 November 2014. Retrieved 29 March 2015.  ^ Полное собрание законов Российской Империи. Собрание Первое. Том XXI. 1781 – 1783 гг. [Complete Collection of Laws of the Russian Empire. The first meeting. Volume XXI. 1781–1783.]. Runivers (in Russian). Retrieved 30 March 2015.  ^ M. S. Anderson (December 1958). "The Great Powers and the Russian Annexation of the Crimea, 1783-4". The Slavonic and East European Review. 37 (88): 17–41. JSTOR 4205010.  ^ " Crimean War
Crimean War
(1853–1856)". Gale Encyclopedia of World History: War. 2. 2008. Archived from the original on 2015-04-16.  ^ " Ukraine
Ukraine
and the west: hot air and hypocrisy". The Guardian. March 10, 2014. ^ "The Transfer of Crimea
Crimea
to Ukraine". International Committee for Crimea. July 2005. Retrieved March 25, 2007.  ^ a b "History". blacksea-crimea.com. Retrieved March 28, 2007.  ^ The Strategic Use of Referendums: Power, Legitimacy, and Democracy By Mark Clarence Walke (page 107) ^ a b National Identity and Ethnicity in Russia
Russia
and the New States of Eurasia edited by Roman Szporluk (page 174) ^ a b Secession as an International Phenomenon: From America's Civil War to Contemporary Separatist Movements edited by Don Harrison Doyle (page 284) — 67.5% of the total Crimean electorate voted, and 54.2% said yes. ^ a b Schmemann, Serge (6 May 1992). " Crimea
Crimea
Parliament Votes to Back Independence From Ukraine". The New York Times. Retrieved 27 March 2015.  ^ Paul Kolstoe; Andrei Edemsky (January 1995). "The Eye of the Whirlwind: Belarus and Ukraine". Russians
Russians
in the Former Soviet Republics. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers. p. 194. ISBN 978-1-85065-206-9. Retrieved 1 April 2015.  ^ " Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
describes secret meeting when Russia
Russia
decided to seize Crimea". The Guardian. AFP. 9 March 2015. Retrieved 14 April 2016.  ^ Luhn, Alec (18 March 2014). "Red Square rally hails Vladimir Putin after Crimea
Crimea
accession". The Guardian. Moscow. Retrieved 14 April 2016.  ^ "General Assembly Adopts Resolution Calling upon States Not to Recognize Changes in Status of Crimea
Crimea
Region". Un.org. 27 March 2014. Retrieved 14 April 2016.  ^ Mardell, Mark (27 March 2014). "Ukraine: UN condemns Crimea
Crimea
vote as IMF and US back loans". bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 14 April 2016.  ^ Россия убрала войска с Арабатской стрелки [Russian troops removed from the Arabat Spit] (in Russian). Ukrinform. 9 December 2014. Retrieved 14 April 2016.  ^ Grytsenko, Oksana (27 March 2014). "Russian troops firmly in control of Ukraine's gas extraction station in Kherson
Kherson
Oblast's Arabat Spit". Kyiv Post. Retrieved 14 April 2016.  ^ "TASS: Russia
Russia
Russian ruble
Russian ruble
goes into official circulation in Crimea
Crimea
as of Monday". TASS. Retrieved 29 May 2016.  ^ " Ukraine
Ukraine
crisis: Crimea
Crimea
celebrates switch to Moscow time". BBC News. 29 March 2014. Retrieved 29 May 2016.  ^ Sputnik (April 11, 2014). " Russia
Russia
Amends Constitution to Include Crimea, Sevastopol". ria.ru. Retrieved 29 May 2016.  ^ Verbyany, Volodymyr (June 1, 2014). " Crimea
Crimea
Adopts Ruble as Ukraine Continues Battling Rebels". Bloomberg. Retrieved 29 May 2016.  ^ McHugh, Jess (15 July 2015). "Putin Eliminates Ministry Of Crimea, Region Fully Integrated Into Russia, Russian Leaders Say". International Business Times. Retrieved 14 April 2016.  ^ " Crimea
Crimea
History, Geography, & People". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2018-03-26.  ^ The Crimean Mountains
Crimean Mountains
may also be referred to as the Yaylâ Dağ or Alpine Meadow Mountains. ^ See the article "Crimea" in the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition. ^ "Three canyons trekking (Chernorechensky Canyon, Uzunja Canyon and Grand Crimean Canyon). Journey by a mountainous part of Crimea". extremetime.ru. Retrieved 1 May 2016.  ^ Jaoshvili, Shalva (2002). The rivers of the Black Sea
Black Sea
(PDF). Copenhagen: European Environment Agency. p. 15. OCLC 891861999. Archived (PDF) from the original on 10 March 2016.  ^ "Дерекойка, река" [Derekoika river]. Путеводитель по отдыху в Ялте.  ^ Jaoshvili 2002, p. 34 ^ Grinevetsky, Sergei R.; et al., eds. (2014). "Alma, Kacha River". The Black Sea
Black Sea
Encyclopedia. Berlin: Springer. p. 38 and 390. ISBN 978-3-642-55226-7.  ^ Mirzoyeva, Natalya; et al. (2015). "Radionuclides and mercury in the salt lakes of the Crimea". Chinese Journal of Oceanology and Limnology. 33 (6): 1413–1425. doi:10.1007/s00343-015-4374-5.  ^ Shadrin, N. V. (2009), "The Crimean hypersaline lakes: towards development of scientific basis of integrated sustainable management", 第十三届世界湖泊大会论文集 : 让湖泊休养生息 [Proceedings of 13th World Lake Conference: Let Lakes Recuperate] (PDF), Beijing: China Agricultural University Press, pp. 1–5, ISBN 978-7-81117-996-5, archived (PDF) from the original on 20 February 2015  ^ Kayukova, Elena (2014). "Resources of Curative Mud of the Crimea Peninsula". In Balderer, Werner; Porowski, Adam; Idris, Hussein; LaMoreaux, James W. Thermal and Mineral Waters: Origin, Properties and Applications. Berlin: Springer. pp. 61–72. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-28824-1_6. ISBN 978-3-642-28823-4.  ^ Bogutskaya, Nina; Hales, Jennifer. "426: Crimea
Crimea
Peninsula". Freshwater Ecoregions of the World. The Nature Conservancy.  ^ "In Crimea
Crimea
has receded one of the largest reservoirs". News from Ukraine. 19 October 2015.  ^ Tymchenko, Z. North Crimean Canal. History of construction. (Russian) Ukrayinska Pravda. 13 May 2014 (Krymskiye izvestiya. November 2012) ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v "Description of the Crimean Climate". Autonomous Republic of Crimea
Autonomous Republic of Crimea
Information Portal. Archived from the original on 1 September 2010. Retrieved 1 October 2016.  ^ a b c d e f "Geographical Survey of the Crimean region". Autonomous Republic of Crimea
Republic of Crimea
Information Portal. Archived from the original on 3 September 2010. Retrieved 1 October 2016.  ^ "Climate in Crimea, Weather in Yalta: How Often Does it Rain in Crimea?". Blacksea-crimea.com. Retrieved 2014-04-10.  ^ "Russia- Ukraine
Ukraine
Update: Crimea
Crimea
Attracts More Than 4 Million Tourists Despite Annexation". ibtimes.com. 14 October 2015. Retrieved 1 May 2016.  ^ "What is the Crimea, and why does it matter?". Telegraph.co.uk. 2014-03-02. Retrieved 2014-04-10.  ^ " Crimea
Crimea
Annexation 'Robbery on International Scale'". CBN News. CBN News. 2014-03-19. Retrieved 19 March 2014.  ^ "Черное море признано одним из самых неблагоприятных мест для моряков". International Transport Workers' Federation. BlackSeaNews. 2013-05-27. Retrieved 20 September 2013.  ^ http://mrd.gks.ru/wps/wcm/connect/rosstat_ts/mrd/ru/statistics/grp/ ^ "Tourist Season A Washout In Annexed Crimea". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty.  ^ "Итоги сезона-2013 в Крыму: туристов отпугнул сервис и аномальное похолодание". Segodnya.ua (in Russian). Retrieved 10 June 2017.  ^ "Справочная информация о количестве туристов, посетивших Республику Крым за 2014 год" (PDF). Министерство курортов и туризма Республики Крым. Retrieved 10 June 2017.  ^ "Справочная информация о количестве туристов, посетивших республику крым за 2016 год" (PDF). Министерство курортов и туризма Республики Крым. Retrieved 10 June 2017.  ^ a b c " Autonomous Republic of Crimea
Autonomous Republic of Crimea
– Information card". Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine. Archived from the original on 2007-01-21. Retrieved February 22, 2007.  ^ Bealby, John T. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition. Cambridge University Press. p. 449.  ^ Gloystein, Henning (7 March 2014). "Ukraine's Black Sea
Black Sea
gas ambitions seen at risk over Crimea". Reuters. Retrieved 7 March 2014.  ^ "East European Gas Analysis – Ukrainian Gas Pipelines". Eegas.com. 2013-02-09. Retrieved 2014-03-08.  ^ " Ukraine
Ukraine
crisis in maps". BBC. 5 March 2014. Retrieved 7 March 2014.  ^ "Investment portal of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea
Autonomous Republic of Crimea
– investments in Crimea
Crimea
– "Chernomorneftegaz" presented a program of development till 2015". Invest-crimea.gov.ua. Archived from the original on 2014-03-26. Retrieved 2014-03-08.  ^ "Генерация электроэнергии в Крыму выросла до 963 МВт" (in Russian). 2016-01-21. Retrieved 2016-08-11.  ^ " Crimea
Crimea
goes dark after Russian shutdown leaves the peninsula without power". Business Insider. 28 July 2017. Retrieved 28 July 2017.  ^ "Putin orders military exercise as protesters clash in Crimea". reuters. 18 April 2016. Retrieved 24 April 2016.  ^ "The longest trolleybus line in the world!". blacksea-crimea.com. Retrieved January 15, 2007.  ^ Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd ed., Entry on Artek ^ The International Children Center Artek – Ukrainian tours ^ National Geographic Society. "Best Trips 2013, Crimea". National Geographic. Retrieved 29 March 2015.  ^ "Australia imposes sanctions on Russians
Russians
after annexation of Crimea from Ukraine". Abc.net.au. 19 March 2014. Retrieved 29 March 2015.  ^ "Japan imposes sanctions against Russia
Russia
over Crimea
Crimea
independence". Fox News. 18 March 2014. Retrieved 29 March 2015.  ^ "EU sanctions add to Putin's Crimea
Crimea
headache". EUobserver.com. EUobserver. Retrieved 28 March 2015.  ^ " Special
Special
Economic Measures (Ukraine) Regulations". Canadian Justice Laws Website. 17 March 2014. Retrieved 30 March 2015.  ^ "Australia and sanctions – Consolidated List – Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade". Dfat.gov.au. 25 March 2015. Retrieved 29 March 2015.  ^ "Declaration by the High Representative on behalf of the European Union on the alignment of certain third countries with the Council Decision 2014/145/CFSPconcerning restrictive measures in respect of actions undermining or threatening the territorial integrity, sovereignty and independence of Ukraine" (PDF). European Union. 11 April 2014. Retrieved 29 March 2015.  ^ " Crimea
Crimea
hit by multiple sanctions as power, transport and banking communications are cut off". Kyiv Post. Retrieved 28 March 2015.  ^ "Visa and MasterCard
MasterCard
quit Crimea
Crimea
over US sanctions". Euronews. Retrieved 28 March 2015.  ^ "Visa and MasterCard
MasterCard
resume operations in Crimea". RT.com. TV-Novosti. 30 April 2015. Retrieved 23 July 2015.  ^ " Crimea
Crimea
– Russia's return". 31 March 2014. Retrieved 4 November 2014.  ^ "The Territories of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
2015". p. 311. Retrieved 1 August 2017.  ^ "Putin wins elections with 77% of the votes at 67.5% turnout". 19 March 2018. Retrieved 30 March 2018.  ^ " Ukraine
Ukraine
'preparing withdrawal of troops from Crimea'". BBC News. 19 March 2014. Retrieved 20 March 2014.  ^ Regions Party gets 80 of 100 seats on Crimean parliament, Interfax Ukraine
Ukraine
(11 November 2010) ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-11-04. Retrieved 2016-02-13.  ^ "Regions of Ukraine
Ukraine
/ Autonomous Republic of Crimea". 2001 Ukrainian Census. Retrieved December 16, 2006.  ^ "Census of the population is transferred to 2016". Dzerkalo Tzhnia (in Ukrainian). 20 September 2013. Retrieved 7 March 2014.  ^ "Results / General results of the census / Linguistic composition of the population / Autonomous Republic of Crimea". 2001 Ukrainian Census.  ^ " Crimean Tatar language
Crimean Tatar language
in danger". avrupatimes.com. 19 February 2013. Retrieved 31 March 2015.  ^ "Crimean Tatar". Ethnologue. 2009. Retrieved 31 March 2015.  ^ These numbers exclude the population numbers for Berdyansky, Dneprovsky and Melitopolsky Uyezds, which were on mainland. See the administrative divisions of the Taurida Governorate ^ "The First General Census of the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
of 1897 – Taurida Governorate". demoscope.ru. Демоскоп. Retrieved 18 June 2014. 

Taurida Governate Berdyansk County Dneiper County Melitopol
Melitopol
County Crimea

Russians 404,463 55,303 42,180 126,017 180,963

Ukrainians 611,121 179,177 156,151 211,090 64,703

Tatars 196,854 770 506 1,284 194,294

Belarusians 9,726 1,323 3,005 3,340 2,058

Armenians 8,938 201 47 373 8,317

Jews 55,418 8,889 6,298 16,063 24,168

Other 161,270 59,055 4,054 26,072 72,089

Total Population 1,447,790 304,718 212,241 384,239 546,592

^ "Демоскоп Weekly - Приложение. Справочник статистических показателей". demoscope.ru.  ^ "Демоскоп Weekly - Приложение. Справочник статистических показателей". demoscope.ru.  ^ http://demoscope.ru/weekly/ssp/ussr59_reg1.php ^ Crimea
Crimea
– Dynamics, challenges and prospects / edited by Maria Drohobycky. Page 73 ^ Crimea
Crimea
– Dynamics, challenges and prospects / edited by Maria Drohobycky. Page 72 ^ a b this combines the figures for the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and Sevastopol, listing groups of more than 5,000 individuals. "About number and composition population of Autonomous Republic of Crimea
Autonomous Republic of Crimea
by data All-Ukrainian population census". 2001 Ukrainian Census. Retrieved 26 October 2015. ; "Sevastopol". 2001 Ukrainian Census. Retrieved 26 October 2015. ;"About number and composition population of Ukraine
Ukraine
by data All-Ukrainian Population Census 2001". 2001 Ukrainian Census. Retrieved 26 October 2015.  ^ Итоги Переписи Населения В Крымском Федеральном Округе [Censuses in Crimean Federal District], Таблицы с итогами Федерального статистического наблюдения "Перепись населения в Крымском федеральном округе" [Tables with the results of the Federal Statistical observation "Census in the Crimean Federal District"] 4.1 Национальный Состав Населения [4.1. National composition of population] ^ a b "About number and composition population of Autonomous Republic of Crimea
Crimea
by data All-Ukrainian population census". 2001 Ukrainian Census. Retrieved 24 March 2014.  ^ Pohl, J. Otto. The Stalinist Penal System: A Statistical History of Soviet Repression and Terror. Mc Farland & Company, Inc, Publishers. 1997. "23". Archived from the original on June 4, 2000. Retrieved 2000-06-04.  Check date values in: access-date= (help)CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ "The Deportation and Destruction of the German Minority in the USSR" (PDF) ^ "On Germans Living on the Territory of the Ukrainian SSR" ^ "NKVD Arrest List" (PDF) ^ "A People on the Move: Germans in Russia
Russia
and in the Former Soviet Union: 1763 – 1997. North Dakota State University Libraries. ^ "The Persecution of Pontic Greeks
Pontic Greeks
in the Soviet Union" (PDF) ^ a b "Public Opinion Survey Residents of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea" (PDF). , The sample consisted of 1,200 permanent Crimea residents older than the age of 18 and eligible to vote and is representative of the general population by age, gender, education and religion. ^ a b c "Regions and territories: Crimea". bbc.co.uk. 22 November 2011. Retrieved 29 March 2015.  ^ Rogachevsky, Alexander. "Ivan Aivazovsky
Aivazovsky
(1817–1900)". Tufts University. Retrieved 10 December 2013.  ^ Stephens, Heidi. "Eurovision 2016: Ukraine's Jamala
Jamala
wins with politically charged 1944". www.theguardian.com. Retrieved 18 May 2016.  ^ Why Scooter are playing in Putin’s annexed Crimea, Bild
Bild
(16 June 2017) ^ "UEFA-backed league starts play in Crimea". Yahoo Sports. 23 August 2015. Retrieved 13 February 2016.  ^ "Ukrainian Sport Minister urges Federations not to let athletes switch to Russia
Russia
without serving qualifying period". 8 December 2015. Retrieved 2 May 2016.  ^ 14 Russians
Russians
bid to take part in IAAF World Championships, TASS news agency (5 July 2017)

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Upper Mesopotamia Lower Mesopotamia Sawad Nineveh plains Akkad (region) Babylonia

Canaan Aram Eber-Nari Suhum Eastern Mediterranean Mashriq Kurdistan Levant

Southern Levant Transjordan Jordan Rift Valley

Israel Levantine Sea Golan Heights Hula Valley Galilee Gilead Judea Samaria Arabah Anti-Lebanon Mountains Sinai Peninsula Arabian Desert Syrian Desert Fertile Crescent Azerbaijan Syria Palestine Iranian Plateau Armenian Highlands Caucasus

Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains

Greater Caucasus Lesser Caucasus

North Caucasus South Caucasus

Kur-Araz Lowland Lankaran Lowland Alborz Absheron Peninsula

Anatolia Cilicia Cappadocia Alpide belt

South

Greater India Indian subcontinent Himalayas Hindu Kush Western Ghats Eastern Ghats Ganges Basin Ganges Delta Pashtunistan Punjab Balochistan Kashmir

Kashmir
Kashmir
Valley Pir Panjal Range

Thar Desert Indus Valley Indus River
Indus River
Delta Indus Valley Desert Indo-Gangetic Plain Eastern coastal plains Western Coastal Plains Meghalaya subtropical forests MENASA Lower Gangetic plains moist deciduous forests Northwestern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows Doab Bagar tract Great Rann of Kutch Little Rann of Kutch Deccan Plateau Coromandel Coast Konkan False Divi Point Hindi Belt Ladakh Aksai Chin Gilgit-Baltistan

Baltistan Shigar Valley

Karakoram

Saltoro Mountains

Siachen Glacier Bay of Bengal Gulf of Khambhat Gulf of Kutch Gulf of Mannar Trans- Karakoram
Karakoram
Tract Wakhan Corridor Wakhjir Pass Lakshadweep Andaman and Nicobar Islands

Andaman Islands Nicobar Islands

Maldive Islands Alpide belt

Southeast

Mainland

Indochina Malay Peninsula

Maritime

Peninsular Malaysia Sunda Islands Greater Sunda Islands Lesser Sunda Islands

Indonesian Archipelago Timor New Guinea

Bonis Peninsula Papuan Peninsula Huon Peninsula Huon Gulf Bird's Head Peninsula Gazelle Peninsula

Philippine Archipelago

Luzon Visayas Mindanao

Leyte Gulf Gulf of Thailand East Indies Nanyang Alpide belt

Asia-Pacific Tropical Asia Ring of Fire

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Regions of Europe

North

Nordic Northwestern Scandinavia Scandinavian Peninsula Fennoscandia Baltoscandia Sápmi West Nordic Baltic Baltic Sea Gulf of Bothnia Gulf of Finland Iceland Faroe Islands

East

Danubian countries Prussia Galicia Volhynia Donbass Sloboda Ukraine Sambia Peninsula

Amber Coast

Curonian Spit Izyum Trail Lithuania Minor Nemunas Delta Baltic Baltic Sea Vyborg Bay Karelia

East Karelia Karelian Isthmus

Lokhaniemi Southeastern

Balkans Aegean Islands Gulf of Chania North Caucasus Greater Caucasus Kabardia European Russia

Southern Russia

Central

Baltic Baltic Sea Alpine states Alpide belt Mitteleuropa Visegrád Group

West

Benelux Low Countries Northwest British Isles English Channel Channel Islands Cotentin Peninsula Normandy Brittany Gulf of Lion Iberia

Al-Andalus Baetic System

Pyrenees Alpide belt

South

Italian Peninsula Insular Italy Tuscan Archipelago Aegadian Islands Iberia

Al-Andalus Baetic System

Gibraltar Arc Southeastern Mediterranean Crimea Alpide belt

Germanic Celtic Slavic countries Uralic European Plain Eurasian Steppe Pontic–Caspian steppe Wild Fields Pannonian Basin

Great Hungarian Plain Little Hungarian Plain Eastern Slovak Lowland

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Regions of North America

Northern

Eastern Canada Western Canada Canadian Prairies Central Canada Northern Canada Atlantic Canada The Maritimes French Canada English Canada Acadia

Acadian Peninsula

Quebec City–Windsor Corridor Peace River Country Cypress Hills Palliser's Triangle Canadian Shield Interior Alaska- Yukon
Yukon
lowland taiga Newfoundland (island) Vancouver Island Gulf Islands Strait of Georgia Canadian Arctic
Arctic
Archipelago Labrador Peninsula Gaspé Peninsula Avalon Peninsula

Bay de Verde Peninsula

Brodeur Peninsula Melville Peninsula Bruce Peninsula Banks Peninsula
Peninsula
(Nunavut) Cook Peninsula Gulf of Boothia Georgian Bay Hudson Bay James Bay Greenland Pacific Northwest Inland Northwest Northeast

New England Mid-Atlantic Commonwealth

West

Midwest Upper Midwest Mountain States Intermountain West Basin and Range Province

Oregon Trail Mormon Corridor Calumet Region Southwest

Old Southwest

Llano Estacado Central United States

Tallgrass prairie

South

South Central Deep South Upland South

Four Corners East Coast West Coast Gulf Coast Third Coast Coastal states Eastern United States

Appalachia

Trans-Mississippi Great North Woods Great Plains Interior Plains Great Lakes Great Basin

Great Basin
Great Basin
Desert

Acadia Ozarks Ark-La-Tex Waxhaws Siouxland Twin Tiers Driftless Area Palouse Piedmont Atlantic coastal plain Outer Lands Black Dirt Region Blackstone Valley Piney Woods Rocky Mountains Mojave Desert The Dakotas The Carolinas Shawnee Hills San Fernando Valley Tornado Alley North Coast Lost Coast Emerald Triangle San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area

San Francisco Bay North Bay ( San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area) East Bay ( San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area) Silicon Valley

Interior Alaska- Yukon
Yukon
lowland taiga Gulf of Mexico Lower Colorado River Valley Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta Colville Delta Arkansas Delta Mobile–Tensaw River Delta Mississippi Delta Mississippi River Delta Columbia River Estuary Great Basin High Desert Monterey Peninsula Upper Peninsula
Peninsula
of Michigan Lower Peninsula
Peninsula
of Michigan Virginia Peninsula Keweenaw Peninsula Middle Peninsula Delmarva Peninsula Alaska Peninsula Kenai Peninsula Niagara Peninsula Beringia Belt regions

Bible Belt Black Belt Corn Belt Cotton Belt Frost Belt Rice Belt Rust Belt Sun Belt Snow Belt

Latin

Northern Mexico Baja California Peninsula Gulf of California

Colorado River Delta

Gulf of Mexico Soconusco Tierra Caliente La Mixteca La Huasteca Bajío Valley of Mexico Mezquital Valley Sierra Madre de Oaxaca Yucatán Peninsula Basin and Range Province Western Caribbean Zone Isthmus of Panama Gulf of Panama

Pearl Islands

Azuero Peninsula Mosquito Coast West Indies Antilles

Greater Antilles Lesser Antilles

Leeward Leeward Antilles Windward

Lucayan Archipelago Southern Caribbean

Aridoamerica Mesoamerica Oasisamerica Northern Middle Anglo Latin

French Hispanic

American Cordillera Ring of Fire LAC

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Regions of Oceania

Australasia

Gulf of Carpentaria New Guinea

Bonis Peninsula Papuan Peninsula Huon Peninsula Huon Gulf Bird's Head Peninsula Gazelle Peninsula

New Zealand

South Island North Island

Coromandel Peninsula

Zealandia New Caledonia Solomon Islands (archipelago) Vanuatu

Kula Gulf

Australia Capital Country Eastern Australia Lake Eyre basin Murray–Darling basin Northern Australia Nullarbor Plain Outback Southern Australia

Maralinga

Sunraysia Great Victoria Desert Gulf of Carpentaria Gulf St Vincent Lefevre Peninsula Fleurieu Peninsula Yorke Peninsula Eyre Peninsula Mornington Peninsula Bellarine Peninsula Mount Henry Peninsula

Melanesia

Islands Region

Bismarck Archipelago Solomon Islands Archipelago

Fiji New Caledonia Papua New Guinea Vanuatu

Micronesia

Caroline Islands

Federated States of Micronesia Palau

Guam Kiribati Marshall Islands Nauru Northern Mariana Islands Wake Island

Polynesia

Easter Island Hawaiian Islands Cook Islands French Polynesia

Austral Islands Gambier Islands Marquesas Islands Society Islands Tuamotu

Kermadec Islands Mangareva Islands Samoa Tokelau Tonga Tuvalu

Ring of Fire

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Regions of South America

East

Amazon basin Atlantic Forest Caatinga Cerrado

North

Caribbean South America West Indies Los Llanos The Guianas Amazon basin

Amazon rainforest

Gulf of Paria Paria Peninsula Paraguaná Peninsula Orinoco Delta

South

Tierra del Fuego Patagonia Pampas Pantanal Gran Chaco Chiquitano dry forests Valdes Peninsula

West

Andes

Tropical Andes Wet Andes Dry Andes Pariacaca mountain range

Altiplano Atacama Desert

Latin Hispanic American Cordillera Ring of Fire LAC

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Polar regions

Antarctic

Antarctic
Antarctic
Peninsula East Antarctica West Antarctica Eklund Islands Ecozone Extreme points Islands

Arctic

Arctic
Arctic
Alaska British Arctic
Arctic
Territories Canadian Arctic
Arctic
Archipelago Finnmark Greenland Northern Canada Northwest Territories Nunavik Nunavut Russian Arctic Sakha Sápmi Yukon North American Arctic

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Earth's oceans and seas

Arctic
Arctic
Ocean

Amundsen Gulf Barents Sea Beaufort Sea Chukchi Sea East Siberian Sea Greenland
Greenland
Sea Gulf of Boothia Kara Sea Laptev Sea Lincoln Sea Prince Gustav Adolf Sea Pechora Sea Queen Victoria Sea Wandel Sea White Sea

Atlantic Ocean

Adriatic Sea Aegean Sea Alboran Sea Archipelago Sea Argentine Sea Baffin Bay Balearic Sea Baltic Sea Bay of Biscay Bay of Bothnia Bay of Campeche Bay of Fundy Black Sea Bothnian Sea Caribbean Sea Celtic Sea English Channel Foxe Basin Greenland
Greenland
Sea Gulf of Bothnia Gulf of Finland Gulf of Lion Gulf of Guinea Gulf of Maine Gulf of Mexico Gulf of Saint Lawrence Gulf of Sidra Gulf of Venezuela Hudson Bay Ionian Sea Irish Sea Irminger Sea James Bay Labrador Sea Levantine Sea Libyan Sea Ligurian Sea Marmara Sea Mediterranean Sea Myrtoan Sea North Sea Norwegian Sea Sargasso Sea Sea of Åland Sea of Azov Sea of Crete Sea of the Hebrides Thracian Sea Tyrrhenian Sea Wadden Sea

Indian Ocean

Andaman Sea Arabian Sea Bali Sea Bay of Bengal Flores Sea Great Australian Bight Gulf of Aden Gulf of Aqaba Gulf of Khambhat Gulf of Kutch Gulf of Oman Gulf of Suez Java Sea Laccadive Sea Mozambique Channel Persian Gulf Red Sea Timor
Timor
Sea

Pacific Ocean

Arafura Sea Banda Sea Bering Sea Bismarck Sea Bohai Sea Bohol Sea Camotes Sea Celebes Sea Ceram Sea Chilean Sea Coral Sea East China Sea Gulf of Alaska Gulf of Anadyr Gulf of California Gulf of Carpentaria Gulf of Fonseca Gulf of Panama Gulf of Thailand Gulf of Tonkin Halmahera Sea Koro Sea Mar de Grau Molucca Sea Moro Gulf Philippine Sea Salish Sea Savu Sea Sea of Japan Sea of Okhotsk Seto Inland Sea Shantar Sea Sibuyan Sea Solomon Sea South China Sea Sulu Sea Tasman Sea Visayan Sea Yellow Sea

Southern Ocean

Amundsen Sea Bellingshausen Sea Cooperation Sea Cosmonauts Sea Davis Sea D'Urville Sea King Haakon VII Sea Lazarev Sea Mawson Sea Riiser-Larsen Sea Ross Sea Scotia Sea Somov Sea Weddell Sea

Landlocked seas

Aral Sea Caspian Sea Dead Sea Salton Sea

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