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A payment card number, primary account number (PAN), or simply a card number, is the card identifier found on payment cards, such as credit cards and debit cards, as well as stored-value cards, gift cards and other similar cards. In some situations the card number is referred to as a bank card number. The card number is primarily a card identifier and does not directly identify the bank account number/s to which the card is/are linked by the issuing company. The card number prefix identifies the issuer of the card, and the digits that follow identify a unique account which is associated by the issuing organization with one of its customers and then to the customer's designated bank accounts. In the case of stored-value type cards, the association with a particular customer is only made if the prepaid card is reloadable. Card numbers are allocated in accordance with ISO/IEC 7812. The card number is usually prominently embossed on the front of a payment card, and is encoded on the magnetic stripe and chip. The payment card number differs from the Business Identifier Code (BIC/ISO 9362, a normalized code—also known as Business Identifier Code, Bank International Code, and SWIFT code). It also differs from Universal Payment Identification Code, another identifier for a bank account in the United States.

Contents

1 Structure 2 Issuer identification number (IIN)

2.1 Canadian bank card numbering

3 Security measures 4 References 5 External links

Structure[edit] The leading six digits of the card number is the "issuer identification number (IIN)", sometimes referred to as the "bank identification number (BIN)". The remaining numbers on the card except the last digit are the individual account identification number. The last digit is the Luhn check digit. IINs and PANS have a certain level of internal structure and share a common numbering scheme set by ISO/IEC 7812. Payment card
Payment card
numbers are composed of 8 to 19 digits[1], as follows:

a six-digit[2] Issuer Identification Number (IIN)*, the first digit of which is the Major Industry Identifier (MII) a variable length (up to 12 digits) individual account identifier a single check digit calculated using the Luhn algorithm[3]

*IIN length has revised to 8-digits in fifth edition of ISO/IEC 7812 published in 2017[4]. Issuer identification number (IIN)[edit]

Partial IIN on a credit card (both printed and embossed)

The first six digits of a card number (including the initial MII digit) are known as the issuer identification number (IIN). These identify the card issuing institution that issued the card to the card holder. The rest of the number is allocated by the card issuer. The card number's length is its number of digits. Many card issuers print the entire IIN and account number on their card. In the United States, IINs are also used in NCPDP pharmacy claims to identify processors, and are printed on all pharmacy insurance cards. IINs are the primary routing mechanism for real-time claims. The ISO Register of Issuer Identification Numbers database is managed by the American Bankers Association. ABA is the Registration Authority for this standard and is responsible for allocating IINs to issuers. Online merchants may use IIN lookups to help validate transactions. For example, if a card's IIN indicates a bank in one country, while the customer's billing address is in another, the transaction may call for extra scrutiny.

Issuing network IIN ranges Active Length Validation

American Express 34, 37[5] Yes 15[6] Luhn algorithm

Bankcard[7] 5610, 560221–560225 yes 16

China UnionPay 62[8] Yes 16–19[9]

Diners Club
Diners Club
enRoute 2014, 2149 yes 15 no validation

Diners Club
Diners Club
International[10] 36 Yes 14–19[9] Luhn algorithm

300–305, 3095, 38–39 Yes 16–19[9]

Diners Club
Diners Club
United States & Canada[11] 54, 55 ( MasterCard
MasterCard
co-branded) Yes 16

Discover Card 6011, 64, 65 Yes 16–19[9]

RuPay 60, 6521 Yes 16

InterPayment 636 Yes 16–19

InstaPayment 637–639[citation needed] Yes 16

JCB 3528–3589[12] Yes 16–19[9]

Laser 6304, 6706, 6771, 6709 No[13] 16–19

Maestro 50, 56–58, 6 Yes 12–19[14]

Dankort 5019 [15] Yes 16

4571 (Visa co-branded) [15] Yes 16

MIR 2200–2204 Yes 16

MasterCard 2221–2720 Yes 2017-[16] 16

51–55 Yes 16

Solo 6334, 6767 No 16, 18, 19

Switch 4903, 4905, 4911, 4936, 564182, 633110, 6333, 6759 No 16, 18, 19

Visa 4 (including related/partner brands: Dankort, Electron, etc.) Yes 13, 16, 19

UATP 1 Yes 15

Verve 506099–506198, 650002–650027 Yes 16, 19

TROY 979200–979289 Yes 16

CARDGUARD EAD BG ILS 5392 Yes 16

On November 8, 2004, MasterCard
MasterCard
and Diners Club
Diners Club
formed an alliance. Diners Club
Diners Club
cards issued in Canada and the United States start with 54 or 55 and are treated as MasterCards worldwide. International cards use the 36 prefix and are treated as MasterCards in Canada and the United States, but are treated as Diners Club
Diners Club
cards elsewhere. Diners Club International's website makes no reference to old 38 prefix numbers, and they can be presumed reissued under the 55 or 36 IIN prefix. Effective October 16, 2009, Diners Club
Diners Club
cards beginning with 30, 36, 38 or 39 have been processed by Discover Card.[17] On November 3, 2014, MasterCard
MasterCard
announced that they were introducing a new series of BIN ranges that begin with a “2” (222100–272099). The “2” series BINs will be processed the same as the “51–55” series BINs are today. They became active 14 October 2016. On July 23, 2014 JSC NSPK was established in the Russian Federation. The joint stock company National System of Payment Cards (NSPK) is the operator of the Mir National Payment System. The main initiatives of NSPK are to create the national payment system infrastructure and to issue a national payment card Mir. Effective October 1, 2006, Discover began using the entire 65 prefix, not just 650. Also, similar to the MasterCard/Diners agreement, China Union Pay cards are now treated as Discover cards and accepted on the Discover network. While the vast majority of Visa's account ranges describe 16 digit card numbers there are still a few (40 as of 11 Dec. 2013) account ranges dedicated to 13 digit PANs and several (439 as of 11 Dec. 2013) account ranges where the issuer can mix 13 and 16 digit card numbers. Visa's VPay brand can specify PAN lengths from 13 to 19 digits and so card numbers of more than 16 digits are now being seen. Switch was re-branded as Maestro in mid-2007.[18] In 2011, UK domestic Maestro (formerly Switch) was aligned with the standard international Maestro proposition with the retention of a few residual country specific rules. EMV
EMV
Certification requires acceptance of a 19-digit Visa card (ADVT 6.1.1 Test Case 2) and Discover Card
Discover Card
(E2E Test Plan v1.3, Test Case 06). Canadian bank card numbering[edit] Bank card numbers issued by Canadian banks also follow a pattern for their systems:

Issuing network Ranges Length

Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce
Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce
Advantage Debit Card 4506 ( Interac
Interac
and Visa Debit) 16 digits

Royal Bank of Canada
Royal Bank of Canada
Client Card 45 16 digits

TD Canada Trust
TD Canada Trust
Access Card 4724 ( Interac
Interac
and Visa Debit) 16 digits

Scotiabank
Scotiabank
Scotia Card 4536 16 digits

BMO ABM Card 500 16 digits

HSBC Canada
HSBC Canada
Card 56 16 digits

Security measures[edit] To reduce the risk of credit card fraud, various techniques are used to prevent the dissemination of bank card numbers. These include:

Format-preserving encryption: in which the account number is replaced with a strongly encrypted version which retains the format of the card data including non sensitive parts of the field such as first six and last four digits. This permits data field protection without changing payment IT systems and applications. A common use is for protecting card data from the point of capture in a secure reader to the payment processing host end-to-end to mitigate risk of data compromise in systems such as the Point of Sale (POS). AES-FF1 Format-Preserving Encryption is defined in NIST Specification SP800-38G. PAN truncation: in which only some of the digits on a card are displayed or printed on receipts. The PCI DSS standard dictates that only the first six and last four digits of the PAN may be printed on a receipt or displayed in cases other than where a business need requires the full PAN. US federal law (FACTA) allows only the display of the last 5 digits. In order to comply with both PCI DSS requirements and US federal law, generally only the last four digits are provided elsewhere to allow an individual to identify the card used. Tokenization: in which an artificial account number (token) is printed, stored or transmitted in place of the true account number.

References[edit]

^ "Announcing Major Changes to the Issuer Identification Number (IIN) Standard" ^ "What your credit card numbers mean". Retrieved 2010-12-07.  ^ ISO/IEC 7812-1:2006 Identification cards — Identification of issuers — Part 1: Numbering system ^ "ISO/IEC 7812-1:2017".  ^ "Card Security Features" (PDF). American Express. January 2001. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 March 2006. Retrieved 2006-04-05.  ^ " American Express
American Express
Fraud Prevention Handbook" (PDF). p. 13. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-03-03. Retrieved 2006-04-05.  ^ " Bankcard
Bankcard
Association of Australia". Archived from the original on 6 April 2006. Retrieved 2017-02-03.  ^ " China UnionPay
China UnionPay
Cards". Retrieved 2016-02-08.  ^ a b c d e "February 2017 Compliance Update" (PDF). Retrieved 2017-08-22.  ^ " MasterCard
MasterCard
Diners Club
Diners Club
Alliance". Retrieved 2006-04-05.  ^ " Diners Club
Diners Club
- Fraud Management". Retrieved 2007-01-26.  ^ "Discover Network IIN Range Update, 9.2" (PDF). September 2009.  ^ "Laser Card Services Ltd". 28 February 2009.  ^ "Maestro Global Rules" (PDF). MasterCard. 11 November 2011.  ^ a b "Nets Technical Reference Guide" (PDF). 1-14.3.2 Building the MSC Selection Table.  ^ https://www.mastercard.us/en-us/issuers/get-support/2-series-bin-expansion.html ^ "Discover Network - IIN Range Update, 9.1" (PDF). October 2008. Retrieved 2009-01-28.  ^ "Switch to Maestro". Archived from the original on 8 August 2010. Retrieved 2010-08-20. 

External links[edit]

v t e

Credit, charge and debit cards

Major cards

American Express Diners Club MasterCard

Debit MasterCard Maestro

Visa

Visa Debit Visa Electron

Regional and specialty cards

Bancomat BC Card BCA Card Carte Bleue China UnionPay Dankort Discover EFTPOS Electronic Payment Services
Electronic Payment Services
(EPS) Girocard Interac Isracard JCB Mir MEPS NETS RuPay UATP V Pay Verve

Defunct cards

Access Bankcard Carte Blanche Choice enRoute Eurocard Everything Laser Rail Travel Card Revolution Card Solo Switch

Accounts

Payment card
Payment card
number Card association Card enclosure Credit card
Credit card
balance transfer Credit limit Installment credit Revolving account Deposit account

Current/checking account Savings account

ATM card

Debt

Cash advance Charge-off Maxed out

Interest

Grace period Introductory rate Universal default

Payment

Card not present transaction Chargeback Controlled payment number Dispute

Interchange fee

Interchange fee Surcharge

Security

Card security code Chargeback fraud Credit card
Credit card
fraud Credit card
Credit card
hijacking Enculturation

Technology

Cash machine Chip and PIN Contactless payment Credit card
Credit card
terminal Interbank network Magnetic stripe car

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