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Crayola
Crayola
LLC is an American handicraft company, specializing in artists' supplies, it is known for its brand Crayola
Crayola
and best known for its crayons. The company is based in Forks Township, Northampton County, Pennsylvania, USA. Since 1984, Crayola
Crayola
has been a wholly owned subsidiary of Hallmark Cards.[2] Originally an industrial pigment supply company, Crayola
Crayola
soon shifted its focus to art products for home and school use, beginning with chalk, then crayons, followed later by colored pencils, markers, paints, modeling clay, and other related goods. All Crayola-branded products are marketed as nontoxic and safe for use by children. Most Crayola
Crayola
crayons are manufactured in the United States.[3] The company also produces Silly Putty
Silly Putty
and a line of professional art products under the Portfolio Series brand. Crayola, LLC claims the Crayola
Crayola
brand has 99% name recognition in U.S. consumer households, and says its products are marketed and sold in over 80 countries.[4]

Contents

1 History 2 Crayons

2.1 Colors

3 Cultural impact

3.1 Commemorative postage stamp 3.2 Crayola
Crayola
color census 2000 3.3 The Crayola
Crayola
Experience 3.4 Fine art

4 Other products

4.1 Other brands

4.1.1 Silly Putty 4.1.2 Portfolio Series 4.1.3 Liquitex 4.1.4 Staonal

4.2 Licensing 4.3 Christmas lights 4.4 Manufacturing

5 References 6 External links

History[edit] See also: Timeline of Crayola
Timeline of Crayola
and History of Crayola
Crayola
crayons

Crayola's founders Edwin Binney
Edwin Binney
(left) and C. Harold Smith (right)

The company was founded as Binney and Smith by cousins Edwin Binney and C. Harold Smith in New York City
New York City
on March 31, 1885. Initial products were colorants for industrial use, including red iron oxide pigments used in barn paint and carbon black chemicals used for making tires black and extending their useful lifespan.[5] Binney & Smith's new process of creating inexpensive black colorants was entered into the chemistry industries competition at the 1900 Paris Exposition under the title "carbon gas blacks, lamp or oil blacks, 'Peerless' black" and earned the company a gold medal award in chemical and pharmaceutical arts.[6][7] Also in 1900, the company added production of slate school pencils. Binney's experimentation with industrial materials, including slate waste, cement, and talc, led to the invention of the first dustless white chalk, for which the company won a gold medal at the 1904 St. Louis World's Fair.[7] Initially formed as a partnership, Binney & Smith incorporated in 1902. In 1902, Binney & Smith developed and introduced the Staonal marking crayon. Then Edwin Binney, working with his wife, Alice Stead Binney, developed his own famous product line of wax crayons beginning on 10 June 1903,[8] which it sold under the brand name Crayola. The Crayola
Crayola
name was coined by Alice Binney who was a former schoolteacher. It comes from craie (French for "chalk") and ola for "oleaginous" or "oily."[7][9] The suffix "-ola" was also popular in commercial use at the time, lending itself to products such as granola (1886),[10] pianola (1901),[11] Victrola
Victrola
(1905),[12] Shinola
Shinola
(1907) [13] and Mazola
Mazola
(1911).[14] Crayola
Crayola
introduced its crayons not with one box, but with a full product line. By 1905, the line had expanded to offering 18 different-sized crayon boxes[15] with five different-sized crayons, only two of which survive today—the "standard size" (a standard sized Crayola
Crayola
crayon is 3​5⁄8" × 5/16") and the "large size" (large sized Crayola
Crayola
crayons are 4" × 7/16"). The product line offered crayon boxes containing 6, 7, 8, 12, 14, 16, 18, 24, 28, or 30 different color crayons. Some of these boxes were targeted for artists and contained crayons with no wrappers, while others had a color number printed on the wrapper that corresponded to a number on a list of color names printed inside the box lid, but some boxes contained crayons with their color names printed on their wrappers. The Rubens
Rubens
Crayola
Crayola
line, started in 1903 (not in the 1920s, as claimed by some sources[by whom?]),[16] was directly targeted at artists and designed to compete with the Raphael
Raphael
brand of crayons from Europe. The crayon boxes sold from five cents for a No.6 Rubens
Rubens
box containing six different-colored crayons to $1.50 for the No. 500 Rubens
Rubens
Special Artists and Designers Crayon
Crayon
box containing 24 different-colored, larger (4​1⁄4" × 1/2") crayons.[17] In April 1904 at the St. Louis World's Fair, Binney & Smith won the Gold Medal for their An-Du-Septic dustless chalk.[18] Subsequently, Crayola
Crayola
used the opportunity to develop a new packaging strategy by emphasizing their gold medal on the front of many of their products and crayon boxes. This strategy turned out to be so successful and recognizable to their brand that they phased out nearly all of their other Crayola
Crayola
line box designs to adapt to the gold medal format, which appeared on their packaging for the next 50-plus years. In 1905, the prototype offering of their new No. 8 crayon box (with eight crayons) featured a copy from the side of the medal with an eagle on it. This was changed to the other side of the medal with the 1904 date on it in Roman numerals. Binney & Smith purchased the Munsell Color Company crayon product line in 1926, and inherited 22 new colors, 11 in the maximum and 11 in the middle hue ranges.[19][20] They retained the Munsell name on products such as “Munsell-Crayola” and “Munsell-Perma” until 1934, and then incorporated their colors into their own Crayola
Crayola
Gold Medal line of boxes.[21] In 1939, Crayola, by combining its existing crayon colors with the Munsell colors, introduced its largest color assortment product to date; a "No. 52 Drawing Crayon
Crayon
52 Color Assortment", which was retired by the 1944 price list. In 1949, Crayola
Crayola
introduced the " Crayola
Crayola
No. 48" containing 48 color crayons in a non-peggable floor box. Further expansion took place in 1958 with the introduction of the 64-color pack that included the company's first crayon sharpener built into the box.[22] The 64-color box was called "a watershed" moment in the history of the Crayola
Crayola
crayon by Smithsonian National Museum of American History curator David Shayt.[23] [24] The corporation became a publicly traded company under the symbol BYS on the American Stock Exchange
American Stock Exchange
in 1963, and later moved to the New York Stock Exchange under the same symbol in 1978.[5] In 1977, Binney & Smith acquired the rights to Silly Putty, a stretchy bouncy toy.[25] Crayola
Crayola
markers were introduced in 1978 to coincide with the 75th anniversary of Crayola
Crayola
crayons. In 1984, the company was acquired by Hallmark Cards, a privately held corporation. Colored pencils
Colored pencils
and a line of washable markers were added in 1987.[5] In August 1997, Crayola
Crayola
collaborated with Alliance Atlantis
Alliance Atlantis
and the entertainment arm of Hallmark Cards
Hallmark Cards
to release three direct-to-video adaptations of famous children's novels under the name Crayola
Crayola
Kids Adventures. Crayola
Crayola
Crayons were inducted into the National Toy Hall of Fame
National Toy Hall of Fame
at The Strong in Rochester, New York, in 1998. In the same year, the Crayola Factory
Crayola Factory
opened. On January 1, 2007, Binney & Smith became Crayola
Crayola
LLC, to improve Crayola
Crayola
branding as part of Hallmark.[1][4] In 2011, My First Crayola
Crayola
was launched. Products include triangular crayons and flat-tipped markers. In 2015, Crayola
Crayola
announced "Color Escapes" for adults to help them relieve stress. The kit will include four collections, such as geometric, garden, natural, and kaleidoscope.[26]

This Crayola
Crayola
advertisement from March 1905 is one of its earliest, and shows it offered a variety of boxes and colors early on.

Inside the Rubens
Rubens
Crayola
Crayola
No. 500 crayon box

An original Munsell crayons box and later Binney & Smith boxes

The first two Gold Medal line 8-count boxes

The Crayola
Crayola
No. 52 box 1939–1944

Crayons[edit] Crayola
Crayola
crayon packs vary in package counts of just a few crayons sold to establishments such as hotels and restaurants, to hand out to their young guests[27] to 832-crayon "Classpack" bulk boxes marketed to schools.[28] The colors contained in a package have ranged from two to 200 (although a 200-color package includes "special effect" crayons such as glitters, neons, etc.). The most common retail packages are multiples of eight, with 4, 8, 16, 24, 48, 64, 96, and 120 packs being marketed today.[29][30][31] A 150-crayon pack featuring a plastic telescope-like case was introduced in 2006, and includes 118 regular color crayons, 16 glitter crayons, and 16 "Metallic FX" crayons, as well as a built-in sharpener at the apex of the tower.[32] This was succeeded by a 152-crayon set in a plastic yellow carrying case in 2013, with all the colors from the 150-crayon set plus the standard colors Piggy Pink and Blue Bell.

The first version of the Crayola
Crayola
No. 64 box 

(2009) 64-crayon pack sporting built-in sharpener 

Crayola
Crayola
telescoping 150 crayon tower 

Colors[edit] Further information: List of Crayola
Crayola
crayon colors, History of Crayola crayons, List of Crayola
Crayola
colored pencil colors, List of Crayola
Crayola
marker colors, List of Crayola
Crayola
paint colors, and Alternative names of Crayola crayons

Thirteen of 50 officially retired Crayola
Crayola
crayon colors

As the size of Crayola
Crayola
crayon packs increased from the original 1903 crayon packs, the variety of colors available has also increased—reaching 120 colors by 1998. Since 1998, new colors have been added, but always replacing existing colors. In all, 50 colors have been retired, bringing the total number of regular colors produced to 170. On March 31, 2017, Crayola
Crayola
announced that Dandelion would be retired. On September 14, 2017, the replacement color "Bluetiful" was announced.[33] The colour is reportedly a new hue realized after experiments done at Oregon State University. It was discovered while scientists were experimenting with electronics.[34] According to Crayola, they currently manufacture 120 standard crayon colors[35] being included in the regular 120-count box. This does not include specialty crayons like the Metallic FX, Gel FX and the glitter crayons. The colors in the box below come in the packs of 8, 16, and 24:

8 pack (as of 1903) +8 = 16 pack (as of 1930) +8 = 24 pack (until October 2017)

Red

Orange

Carnation Pink

Red Orange

Violet Red

Scarlet

Yellow

Green

Yellow Orange

Yellow Green

Green Yellow

Cerulean

Blue

Violet (Purple)

Blue Green

Blue Violet

Dandelion

Indigo

Brown

Black

Red Violet White

Apricot

Gray

Cultural impact[edit] The Smithsonian National Museum of American History
National Museum of American History
maintains a collection of Crayola
Crayola
crayons founded by an original 64-color box donated by Binney & Smith in 1998. The collection now includes more than 300 boxes of crayons.[23] The Crayola
Crayola
crayon was inducted into the National Toy Hall of Fame
National Toy Hall of Fame
as a founding member at its inception. Crayola
Crayola
has been featured in segments from the popular children's shows Sesame Street[36] and Mister Rogers' Neighborhood, with the official 100 billionth crayon molded by Fred Rogers
Fred Rogers
himself in February 1996 at the plant in Easton.[37] Commemorative postage stamp[edit]

1998 USPS stamp commemorating Crayola
Crayola
crayons

In 1998, the United States
United States
Postal Service issued a 32-cent postage stamp to commemorate the cultural impact the product has had on almost all Americans.[38] The stamp is part of the 1900s decade sheet of the Celebrate the Century souvenir sheet series, and was designed by Carl Herrman, illustrated by Richard Waldrep and printed by Ashton-Potter USA using the offset/intaglio process.[39] Crayola
Crayola
color census 2000[edit] In 2000, Crayola
Crayola
held the " Crayola
Crayola
Color Census 2000" promotion in which Americans were asked to vote for their favorite Crayola
Crayola
crayon color. Celebrity entrants George W. Bush
George W. Bush
chose "Blue Bell", Tiger Woods chose "Wild Strawberry", and Courteney Cox
Courteney Cox
chose "Red".[40] Overall, "Blue" came in first, with "Cerulean" second and "Purple Heart" third.[41] The Crayola
Crayola
Experience[edit] Originally opening as the Crayola
Crayola
Factory, the Crayola
Crayola
Experience is located at 30 Centre Square, Easton, Pennsylvania, at Two Rivers Landing,[42] separate from the main manufacturing plant in Forks Township, Pennsylvania. The Crayola
Crayola
Experience is open to the public. The Crayola
Crayola
Experience is a museum and visitor center geared toward familiarizing guests with Crayola's history and products.[43]

A girl draws with Crayola-brand crayons in the Crayola
Crayola
Experience

A "discovery center" was built that showcases the manufacturing process of crayons. There is also a " Crayola
Crayola
Hall of Fame" in which the retired crayon colors are displayed.[44]

The "world's largest crayon" was made from 123,000 used or broken blue crayons donated by people from around the world. This became the record holder until 2017, when Crayola
Crayola
made a larger crayon using the new color, "bluetiful."[45]

The Crayola
Crayola
Experience was featured in a Food Network
Food Network
episode of Dinner: Impossible. A dinner was held for 150 employees of the Crayola Experience to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the 64-box of crayons. Chef Michael Symon's mission was to create an eight-course tasting menu for this event, where all eight items of the menu had to match eight randomly chosen Crayola
Crayola
crayon colors.[46] In October 2003, the Experience unveiled "The World's Largest Crayon," a 15-foot-long crayon weighing 1,500 lb as part of its celebration of 100 years of Crayola
Crayola
crayons. The giant crayon, 16 inches in diameter, is blue, and was made of leftover crayon bits sent in by children across the United States.[47] It opened its second location in The Florida Mall, Orlando, Florida in 2015 and its third location in Mall of America, Bloomington, Minnesota in 2016. Fine art[edit] Although marketed to children and amateur artists, several professional artists have specialized in using Crayola
Crayola
crayons as their primary medium. Don Marco, who works with Crayola
Crayola
crayons and construction paper, is one of the better known crayon artists—having sold over one million prints of his original artworks.[48]

Other products[edit]

A selection of Crayola
Crayola
products for sale at a New York art supply store

Crayola
Crayola
LLC produces a broad range of products other than their famous crayons under the Crayola
Crayola
brand name. These include colored pencils, markers, inks and paints, modeling clays, coloring books, and artists' tools. As with all Crayola
Crayola
products, these are all marketed as non-toxic and safe for use by children.[49] Other brands[edit] Silly Putty[edit] Main article: Silly Putty Silly Putty
Silly Putty
is a silicone polymer children's toy used for various purposes. Silly Putty
Silly Putty
was inducted into the National Toy Hall of Fame in 2001. Portfolio Series[edit] The Portfolio Series is a line of water-soluble oil pastels, watercolors, drawing pencils, colored pencils, and acrylic paints marketed to artists and educators.[50] Liquitex[edit] Binney & Smith acquired the Liquitex
Liquitex
corporation, a producer of fine art supply products, in 1964, but sold it to the Colart company in 2000.[51] Staonal[edit] Marketed as a general (non-coloring)-use crayon for industrial purposes, Staonal was developed in 1902 and still continues As of 2018[update]. Licensing[edit] Numerous products, ranging from bath and personal care items to bedding and electronics, are produced by other companies using the Crayola
Crayola
brand name under license.[52] Crave Entertainment
Crave Entertainment
developed a Crayola-themed video game, titled Crayola
Crayola
Treasure Adventures, which was published by Nintendo
Nintendo
in 2007.[53] Christmas lights[edit] In the 1996–1997 season, Crayola
Crayola
produced Christmas lights using its name with colors such as pink, orange, blue, gold, and red, and more. Manufacturing[edit] Crayola
Crayola
has manufacturing plants in Forks Township, Pennsylvania, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, Lindsay, Ontario, and Mexico City. The colored pencils are made by Faber-Castell
Faber-Castell
Brazilian plants. References[edit]

^ a b c " Crayola
Crayola
company profile". Crayola.com. Retrieved 2009-06-26.  ^ "Company". Crayola.com. 2016-06-24. Retrieved 2016-11-19.  ^ "Our Commitment to Crayola
Crayola
Product Safety". Crayola. Archived from the original on April 17, 2009. Retrieved 2009-06-24.  ^ a b "Binney & Smith becomes Crayola
Crayola
LLC". binney-smith.com. Binney & Smith. Retrieved 2009-06-26.  ^ a b c Kathryn DeVan (Fall 2008). " Crayola
Crayola
Colors Children's Memories in 64 Shades and More". Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
State University. Retrieved 2009-06-26.  ^ Catalogue of Exhibitors in the United States
United States
Sections of the International Universal Exposition Paris, 1900. Paris: Société Anonyme des Imprimeries Lemercier. 1900. p. 425. Retrieved 2009-06-22.  ^ a b c "The Colors of Childhood". Smithsonian Magazine. November 1999. Retrieved 2009-06-22.  ^ The Official Gazette of the United States
United States
Patent Office. 105. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office. July–August 1903. p. 968.  ^ Kitchel, A. F. (1961). The Story of a Rainbow. Easton, PA: Crayola LLC.  ^ "Granola". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 6 October 2014.  ^ "Pianola". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 6 October 2014.  ^ "Victorola". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 6 October 2014.  ^ Contact. " Shinola
Shinola
– Official Site Shinola® Detroit". Shinola.com. Retrieved 2016-11-19.  ^ "Ingredion: About Us, History". Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 6 October 2014.  ^ New York Teachers Monographs. Vol 7 (No 1 ed.). New York: American Book Company. March 1905. p. 125.  ^ The Art of "Crayola" Painting. Easton, PA: Binney & Smith. 1904.  ^ The Youth’s Companion. Boston, MA: Perry Mason & Co. October 18, 1906. p. 524.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2010-08-22. Retrieved 2010-03-02.  ^ "American Scientist Online". Americanscientist.org. Retrieved 2016-11-19.  ^ Crayons Chalk
Chalk
Water Colors. New York: Binney & Smith Co. 1927. pp. 13–14.  ^ Crayons Chalk
Chalk
Water Colors. New York: Binney & Smith Co. 1934.  ^ "The Colors of Childhood".  ^ a b Elizabeth Armstrong Hall. American Icons – Crayola Crayon. Dennis Hall. pp. 180–183.  ^ "Known Binney & Smith crayon products".  ^ " Silly Putty
Silly Putty
History". Crayola. Retrieved 2009-06-26.  ^ Rhodan, Maya. " Crayola
Crayola
Now Has Coloring Books for Adults". Time. Retrieved 10 November 2015.  ^ "Crayons — Hospitality packs, regular crayons, and bulk packs". hotelfun4kids.com.  ^ " Crayola
Crayola
Crayon
Crayon
Classroom Packs". Dick Blick Art Materials. Retrieved 2009-06-26.  ^ "Draw & Color Crayons". CrayolaStore.com.  ^ " Crayola
Crayola
crayons 32 pack". OfficeMax. Retrieved 2009-06-26.  ^ " Crayola
Crayola
120ct Original Crayons". Amazon.com.  ^ " Crayola
Crayola
Telescoping Crayon
Crayon
Tower – 150ct. (52-0029)". CrayolaStore.com. Retrieved 2009-06-26.  ^ "Meet Bluetiful - Crayola.com". crayola.com.  ^ "It's bluetiful! Crayola
Crayola
announces name of new blue hue". 14 September 2017. Retrieved 1 April 2018.  ^ "What is the largest box of crayons you manufacture?". crayola.com.  ^ "Sesame Street: How Crayons are Made". Children's Television Workshop.  ^ " Crayola
Crayola
Celebrates 100 Years — Did You Know..." Crayola. Retrieved 2009-07-14.  ^ " Crayola
Crayola
Crayons (I Remember JFK: A Baby Boomer's Pleasant Reminiscing Spot)". Retrieved 2008-10-19.  ^ "1900s Celebrate The Century Issues". Smithsonian National Postal Museum. Retrieved 2009-06-16.  ^ " Crayola
Crayola
Color Census 2000; Make Your Color Count in Cyber-Search for America's Favorite Crayon
Crayon
Colors". PRNewswire. 2000-08-07. Retrieved 2009-06-23.  ^ " Crayola
Crayola
Color Census 2000". Crayola. Retrieved 2009-06-26.  ^ "Directions to The Crayola
Crayola
EXPERIENCE". Retrieved 2009-06-26.  ^ "The Crayola
Crayola
EXPERIENCE at Two Rivers Landing". Retrieved 2009-06-26.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-12-22. Retrieved 2008-12-22.  ^ "Meet Crayola's Newest Crayon
Crayon
Color: Bluetiful". 14 September 2017. Retrieved 1 April 2018.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-12-24. Retrieved 2009-01-29.  ^ " Crayola
Crayola
Factory". RoadsideAmerica.com. Retrieved 2009-06-26.  ^ Ann Cathryn Orsinger. "Artist spotlight: crayon artist Don Marco". Cowboys & Indians Magazine. Retrieved 2009-09-21.  ^ " Crayola
Crayola
Products". Retrieved 2009-06-26.  ^ "Portfolio Series Products". Retrieved 2008-02-26.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-06-20. Retrieved 2009-07-18.  ^ "Licensing: Crayola
Crayola
Plans To Think Out Of The (Crayon) Box". All Business. 2004-06-07. Retrieved 2009-07-15.  ^ Thomas, Lucas M. (October 19, 2007). " Crayola
Crayola
Treasure Adventures Review: This virtual box of crayons is an impressive value". IGN. Retrieved January 29, 2014. 

External links[edit]

Official site Official UK site Orange: A Crayola
Crayola
raw materials data sheet from the 1970s Smithsonian Institution Libraries

v t e

Hallmark Cards

Key personnel

Joyce Hall (founder) Donald J. Hall Sr. (Chairman) Donald J. Hall Jr. (CEO) David E. Hall (President)

Units

Crayola Crown Center Hallmark Business Expressions Halls Kansas City

Crown Media Holdings

Hallmark Hall of Fame Hallmark Channel Hallmark Drama Hallmark Movies & Mysteries Hallmark Movies Now

Franchises

Hoops and Yoyo Rainbow Brite Shirt Tales Zoobilee Zoo

Related topics

Hallmark Channel
Hallmark Channel
(international)

Kermit Channel

Larry Levinson Productions Sonar E

.