Crayola LLC is an American handicraft company, specializing in
artists' supplies, it is known for its brand
Crayola and best known
for its crayons. The company is based in Forks Township, Northampton
County, Pennsylvania, USA. Since 1984,
Crayola has been a wholly owned
subsidiary of Hallmark Cards. Originally an industrial pigment
Crayola soon shifted its focus to art products for
home and school use, beginning with chalk, then crayons, followed
later by colored pencils, markers, paints, modeling clay, and other
related goods. All Crayola-branded products are marketed as nontoxic
and safe for use by children. Most
Crayola crayons are manufactured in
the United States.
The company also produces
Silly Putty and a line of professional art
products under the Portfolio Series brand.
Crayola, LLC claims the
Crayola brand has 99% name recognition in U.S.
consumer households, and says its products are marketed and sold in
over 80 countries.
3 Cultural impact
3.1 Commemorative postage stamp
Crayola color census 2000
3.4 Fine art
4 Other products
4.1 Other brands
4.1.1 Silly Putty
4.1.2 Portfolio Series
4.3 Christmas lights
6 External links
Timeline of Crayola
Timeline of Crayola and History of
Edwin Binney (left) and C. Harold Smith (right)
The company was founded as Binney and Smith by cousins Edwin Binney
and C. Harold Smith in
New York City
New York City on March 31, 1885. Initial
products were colorants for industrial use, including red iron oxide
pigments used in barn paint and carbon black chemicals used for making
tires black and extending their useful lifespan. Binney &
Smith's new process of creating inexpensive black colorants was
entered into the chemistry industries competition at the 1900 Paris
Exposition under the title "carbon gas blacks, lamp or oil blacks,
'Peerless' black" and earned the company a gold medal award in
chemical and pharmaceutical arts. Also in 1900, the company
added production of slate school pencils. Binney's experimentation
with industrial materials, including slate waste, cement, and talc,
led to the invention of the first dustless white chalk, for which the
company won a gold medal at the 1904 St. Louis World's Fair.
Initially formed as a partnership, Binney & Smith incorporated in
In 1902, Binney & Smith developed and introduced the Staonal
marking crayon. Then Edwin Binney, working with his wife, Alice Stead
Binney, developed his own famous product line of wax crayons beginning
on 10 June 1903, which it sold under the brand name Crayola. The
Crayola name was coined by Alice Binney who was a former
schoolteacher. It comes from craie (French for "chalk") and ola for
"oleaginous" or "oily." The suffix "-ola" was also popular in
commercial use at the time, lending itself to products such as granola
(1886), pianola (1901),
Crayola introduced its crayons not with
one box, but with a full product line. By 1905, the line had expanded
to offering 18 different-sized crayon boxes with five
different-sized crayons, only two of which survive today—the
"standard size" (a standard sized
Crayola crayon is 35⁄8" ×
5/16") and the "large size" (large sized
Crayola crayons are 4" ×
7/16"). The product line offered crayon boxes containing 6, 7, 8, 12,
14, 16, 18, 24, 28, or 30 different color crayons. Some of these boxes
were targeted for artists and contained crayons with no wrappers,
while others had a color number printed on the wrapper that
corresponded to a number on a list of color names printed inside the
box lid, but some boxes contained crayons with their color names
printed on their wrappers.
Crayola line, started in 1903 (not in the 1920s, as claimed
by some sources[by whom?]), was directly targeted at artists and
designed to compete with the
Raphael brand of crayons from Europe. The
crayon boxes sold from five cents for a No.6
Rubens box containing six
different-colored crayons to $1.50 for the No. 500
Artists and Designers
Crayon box containing 24 different-colored,
larger (41⁄4" × 1/2") crayons.
In April 1904 at the St. Louis World's Fair, Binney & Smith won
the Gold Medal for their An-Du-Septic dustless chalk.
Crayola used the opportunity to develop a new packaging
strategy by emphasizing their gold medal on the front of many of their
products and crayon boxes. This strategy turned out to be so
successful and recognizable to their brand that they phased out nearly
all of their other
Crayola line box designs to adapt to the gold medal
format, which appeared on their packaging for the next 50-plus years.
In 1905, the prototype offering of their new No. 8 crayon box (with
eight crayons) featured a copy from the side of the medal with an
eagle on it. This was changed to the other side of the medal with the
1904 date on it in Roman numerals.
Binney & Smith purchased the Munsell Color Company crayon product
line in 1926, and inherited 22 new colors, 11 in the maximum and 11 in
the middle hue ranges. They retained the Munsell name on
products such as “Munsell-Crayola” and “Munsell-Perma” until
1934, and then incorporated their colors into their own
Medal line of boxes.
In 1939, Crayola, by combining its existing crayon colors with the
Munsell colors, introduced its largest color assortment product to
date; a "No. 52 Drawing
Crayon 52 Color Assortment", which was retired
by the 1944 price list.
Crayola introduced the "
Crayola No. 48" containing 48 color
crayons in a non-peggable floor box.
Further expansion took place in 1958 with the introduction of the
64-color pack that included the company's first crayon sharpener built
into the box. The 64-color box was called "a watershed" moment in
the history of the
Crayola crayon by Smithsonian National Museum of
American History curator David Shayt. 
The corporation became a publicly traded company under the symbol BYS
American Stock Exchange
American Stock Exchange in 1963, and later moved to the New
York Stock Exchange under the same symbol in 1978.
In 1977, Binney & Smith acquired the rights to Silly Putty, a
stretchy bouncy toy.
Crayola markers were introduced in 1978 to
coincide with the 75th anniversary of
Crayola crayons. In 1984, the
company was acquired by Hallmark Cards, a privately held corporation.
Colored pencils and a line of washable markers were added in 1987.
In August 1997,
Crayola collaborated with
Alliance Atlantis and the
entertainment arm of
Hallmark Cards to release three direct-to-video
adaptations of famous children's novels under the name
Crayola Crayons were inducted into the
National Toy Hall of Fame
National Toy Hall of Fame at
The Strong in Rochester, New York, in 1998. In the same year, the
Crayola Factory opened.
On January 1, 2007, Binney & Smith became
Crayola LLC, to improve
Crayola branding as part of Hallmark.
In 2011, My First
Crayola was launched. Products include triangular
crayons and flat-tipped markers.
Crayola announced "Color Escapes" for adults to help them
relieve stress. The kit will include four collections, such as
geometric, garden, natural, and kaleidoscope.
Crayola advertisement from March 1905 is one of its earliest, and
shows it offered a variety of boxes and colors early on.
Crayola No. 500 crayon box
An original Munsell crayons box and later Binney & Smith boxes
The first two Gold Medal line 8-count boxes
Crayola No. 52 box 1939–1944
Crayola crayon packs vary in package counts of just a few crayons sold
to establishments such as hotels and restaurants, to hand out to their
young guests to 832-crayon "Classpack" bulk boxes marketed to
schools. The colors contained in a package have ranged from two to
200 (although a 200-color package includes "special effect" crayons
such as glitters, neons, etc.). The most common retail packages are
multiples of eight, with 4, 8, 16, 24, 48, 64, 96, and 120 packs being
marketed today. A 150-crayon pack featuring a plastic
telescope-like case was introduced in 2006, and includes 118 regular
color crayons, 16 glitter crayons, and 16 "Metallic FX" crayons, as
well as a built-in sharpener at the apex of the tower. This was
succeeded by a 152-crayon set in a plastic yellow carrying case in
2013, with all the colors from the 150-crayon set plus the standard
colors Piggy Pink and Blue Bell.
The first version of the
Crayola No. 64 box
(2009) 64-crayon pack sporting built-in sharpener
Crayola telescoping 150 crayon tower
Further information: List of
Crayola crayon colors, History of Crayola
crayons, List of
Crayola colored pencil colors, List of
colors, List of
Crayola paint colors, and Alternative names of Crayola
Thirteen of 50 officially retired
Crayola crayon colors
As the size of
Crayola crayon packs increased from the original 1903
crayon packs, the variety of colors available has also
increased—reaching 120 colors by 1998. Since 1998, new colors have
been added, but always replacing existing colors. In all, 50 colors
have been retired, bringing the total number of regular colors
produced to 170. On March 31, 2017,
Crayola announced that Dandelion
would be retired. On September 14, 2017, the replacement color
"Bluetiful" was announced. The colour is reportedly a new hue
realized after experiments done at Oregon State University. It was
discovered while scientists were experimenting with electronics.
According to Crayola, they currently manufacture 120 standard crayon
colors being included in the regular 120-count box. This does not
include specialty crayons like the Metallic FX, Gel FX and the glitter
The colors in the box below come in the packs of 8, 16, and 24:
8 pack (as of 1903)
+8 = 16 pack (as of 1930)
+8 = 24 pack (until October 2017)
National Museum of American History
National Museum of American History maintains a
Crayola crayons founded by an original 64-color box
donated by Binney & Smith in 1998. The collection now includes
more than 300 boxes of crayons.
Crayola crayon was inducted into the
National Toy Hall of Fame
National Toy Hall of Fame as
a founding member at its inception.
Crayola has been featured in segments from the popular children's
shows Sesame Street and Mister Rogers' Neighborhood, with the
official 100 billionth crayon molded by
Fred Rogers himself in
February 1996 at the plant in Easton.
Commemorative postage stamp
1998 USPS stamp commemorating
In 1998, the
United States Postal Service issued a 32-cent postage
stamp to commemorate the cultural impact the product has had on almost
The stamp is part of the 1900s decade sheet of the Celebrate the
Century souvenir sheet series, and was designed by Carl Herrman,
illustrated by Richard Waldrep and printed by Ashton-Potter USA using
the offset/intaglio process.
Crayola color census 2000
Crayola held the "
Crayola Color Census 2000" promotion in
which Americans were asked to vote for their favorite
color. Celebrity entrants
George W. Bush
George W. Bush chose "Blue Bell", Tiger
Woods chose "Wild Strawberry", and
Courteney Cox chose "Red".
Overall, "Blue" came in first, with "Cerulean" second and "Purple
Originally opening as the
Crayola Factory, the
Crayola Experience is
located at 30 Centre Square, Easton, Pennsylvania, at Two Rivers
Landing, separate from the main manufacturing plant in Forks
Township, Pennsylvania. The
Crayola Experience is open to the public.
Crayola Experience is a museum and visitor center geared toward
familiarizing guests with Crayola's history and products.
A girl draws with Crayola-brand crayons in the
A "discovery center" was built that showcases the manufacturing
process of crayons. There is also a "
Crayola Hall of Fame" in which
the retired crayon colors are displayed.
The "world's largest crayon" was made from 123,000 used or broken blue
crayons donated by people from around the world. This became the
record holder until 2017, when
Crayola made a larger crayon using the
new color, "bluetiful."
Crayola Experience was featured in a
Food Network episode of
Dinner: Impossible. A dinner was held for 150 employees of the Crayola
Experience to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the 64-box of crayons.
Chef Michael Symon's mission was to create an eight-course tasting
menu for this event, where all eight items of the menu had to match
eight randomly chosen
Crayola crayon colors.
In October 2003, the Experience unveiled "The World's Largest Crayon,"
a 15-foot-long crayon weighing 1,500 lb as part of its
celebration of 100 years of
Crayola crayons. The giant crayon, 16
inches in diameter, is blue, and was made of leftover crayon bits sent
in by children across the United States.
It opened its second location in The Florida Mall, Orlando, Florida in
2015 and its third location in Mall of America, Bloomington, Minnesota
Although marketed to children and amateur artists, several
professional artists have specialized in using
Crayola crayons as
their primary medium. Don Marco, who works with
Crayola crayons and
construction paper, is one of the better known crayon artists—having
sold over one million prints of his original artworks.
A selection of
Crayola products for sale at a New York art supply
Crayola LLC produces a broad range of products other than their famous
crayons under the
Crayola brand name. These include colored pencils,
markers, inks and paints, modeling clays, coloring books, and artists'
tools. As with all
Crayola products, these are all marketed as
non-toxic and safe for use by children.
Main article: Silly Putty
Silly Putty is a silicone polymer children's toy used for various
Silly Putty was inducted into the National Toy Hall of Fame
The Portfolio Series is a line of water-soluble oil pastels,
watercolors, drawing pencils, colored pencils, and acrylic paints
marketed to artists and educators.
Binney & Smith acquired the
Liquitex corporation, a producer of
fine art supply products, in 1964, but sold it to the
Marketed as a general (non-coloring)-use crayon for industrial
purposes, Staonal was developed in 1902 and still continues As of
Numerous products, ranging from bath and personal care items to
bedding and electronics, are produced by other companies using the
Crayola brand name under license.
Crave Entertainment developed a
Crayola-themed video game, titled
Crayola Treasure Adventures, which
was published by
Nintendo in 2007.
In the 1996–1997 season,
Crayola produced Christmas lights using its
name with colors such as pink, orange, blue, gold, and red, and more.
Crayola has manufacturing plants in Forks Township, Pennsylvania,
Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, Lindsay, Ontario, and Mexico City. The
colored pencils are made by
Faber-Castell Brazilian plants.
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Official UK site
Crayola raw materials data sheet from the 1970s Smithsonian
Joyce Hall (founder)
Donald J. Hall Sr. (Chairman)
Donald J. Hall Jr. (CEO)
David E. Hall (President)
Hallmark Business Expressions
Halls Kansas City
Crown Media Holdings
Hallmark Hall of Fame
Hallmark Movies & Mysteries
Hallmark Movies Now
Hoops and Yoyo
Hallmark Channel (international)
Larry Levinson Productions