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The Info List - Crater Lake



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A CRATER LAKE is a lake that forms in a volcanic crater or caldera , such as a maar ; less commonly and with lower association to the term a lake may form in an impact crater caused by a meteorite, or in the crater left by an artificial explosion caused by humans. Sometimes lakes which form inside calderas are called CALDERA LAKES, but often this distinction is not made. Crater lakes covering active (fumarolic ) volcanic vents are sometimes known as VOLCANIC LAKES, and the water within them is often acidic , saturated with volcanic gases , and cloudy with a strong greenish color. For example, the crater lake of Kawah Ijen in Indonesia
Indonesia
has a pH of under 0.5. Lakes located in dormant or extinct volcanoes tend to have fresh water, and the water clarity in such lakes can be exceptional due to the lack of inflowing streams and sediment.

CONTENTS

* 1 Formation

* 1.1 Volcanic crater
Volcanic crater
lakes * 1.2 Other kinds of crater lakes * 1.3 Other geological features that can be mistaken for a crater lake

* 2 List of volcanic crater lakes * 3 List of meteor crater lakes * 4 List of artificial crater lakes * 5 List of crater lakes of unclear origin * 6 See also

* 7 References

* 7.1 Further reading

* 8 External links

FORMATION

VOLCANIC CRATER LAKES

Crater lakes form as the created depression, within the crater rim , is filled by water. The water may come from precipitation , groundwater circulation (often hydrothermal fluids in the case of volcanic craters) or melted ice . Its level rises until an equilibrium is reached between the rates of incoming and outgoing water. Sources of water loss singly or together may include evaporation , subsurface seepage, and, in places, surface leakage or overflow when the lake level reaches the lowest point on its rim. At such a saddle location, the upper portion of the lake is contained only by its adjacent natural volcanic dam ; continued leakage through or surface outflow across the dam can erode its included material, thus lowering lake level until a new equilibrium of water flow, erosion, and rock resistance is established. If the volcanic dam portion erodes rapidly or fails catastrophically, the occurrence produces a breakout or outburst flood. With changes in environmental conditions over time, the occurrence of such floods is common to all natural dam types.

A well-known crater lake, which bears the same name as the geological feature, is Crater Lake
Crater Lake
in Oregon
Oregon
. It is located in the caldera of Mount Mazama
Mount Mazama
. It is the deepest lake in the United States with a depth of 594 m (1,949 ft). Crater Lake
Crater Lake
is fed solely by falling rain and snow, with no inflow or outflow at the surface, and hence is one of the clearest lakes in the world.

The highest volcano in the world, 6,893-m (22,615-ft) Ojos del Salado in Chile
Chile
, has a permanent crater lake about 100 m (330 ft) in diameter at an elevation of 6,390 m (20,965 ft) on its eastern side. This is most likely the highest lake of any kind in the world.

Due to their unstable environments, some crater lakes exist only intermittently. Caldera
Caldera
lakes in contrast can be quite large and long-lasting. For instance, Lake Toba ( Indonesia
Indonesia
) formed after its eruption around 75,000 years ago. At a size of around 100 km (60 miles) by 30 km (18 miles) in extent and 505 m (1,656 ft) deep at its deepest point, Lake Toba is the largest crater lake in the world. While many crater lakes are picturesque, they can also be deadly. Gas discharges from Lake
Lake
Nyos ( Cameroon
Cameroon
) suffocated 1,800 people in 1986, and crater lakes such as Mount Ruapehu 's (New Zealand) often contribute to destructive lahars .

Certain bodies of water, although their formation is directly related to volcanic activity, are not usually referred to as crater lakes, including:

* Lakes created by volcanic dams due to lava flowing outside of the volcanic edifice/caldera (such as Garibaldi Lake
Lake
in Canada, Fuji Five Lakes in Japan) * Closed atoll lagoons (such as Clipperton lagoon), whose formation process also implies subsequent biogeomorphologic processes * Ponds encountered at the bottom of waterfalls occurring in volcanic canyons in a volcanic context, but not within a volcanic edifice/caldera (such as Trou de Fer on Réunion
Réunion
Island )

OTHER KINDS OF CRATER LAKES

Lakes can also fill impact craters , but these are not usually referred to as crater lakes except in a few isolated cases. Example of such impact crater lakes include Manicouagan in Canada, Lake
Lake
Bosumtwi in Ghana
Ghana
and Siljan in Sweden.

More rarely they can also fill craters caused by artificial explosions, such as the radioactive Lake
Lake
Chagan in Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
.

OTHER GEOLOGICAL FEATURES THAT CAN BE MISTAKEN FOR A CRATER LAKE

Some geomorphological features, when filled with water, can sometimes be confused with crater lakes:

* Pingos (soil-covered ice mounts) whose summital part has collapsed

* Sinkholes (karstic holes, also called cenotes ), such as Otjikoto Lake
Lake
in Namibia
Namibia

Some circular open-pit mines can also present a similar appearance, such as Big Hole in Kimberley , South Africa
South Africa
, a diamond mine (in a kimberlite pipe ) where water has accumulated in the artificially created depression.

LIST OF VOLCANIC CRATER LAKES

LAKE LOCATION

AFRICA

Waw an Namus (three small salt lakes in the caldera) Libya
Libya

Deriba Caldera
Caldera
Sudan
Sudan

Meme River Basin lakes ( Lake
Lake
Barombi Koto , Lake
Lake
Barombi Mbo , Lake Mboandong and Lake
Lake
Dissoni/Soden ) Cameroon
Cameroon

Lake
Lake
Nachtiga (between Mount Cameroon
Cameroon
and the Atlantic coast) Cameroon
Cameroon

Bakossi Mountains : Lake
Lake
Bermin and Mount Manengouba lakes (lac Mâle and lac Femelle) Cameroon
Cameroon

Adamawa volcanic lakes (Tison, Mbalang) Cameroon
Cameroon

Oku Volcanic Field , including Lake
Lake
Nyos , Lake
Lake
Oku , Lake
Lake
Monoun , Mount Mbapit crater lake, Lake
Lake
Awing and the Bambili lakes Cameroon
Cameroon

Dallol (various acid ponds) Ethiopia
Ethiopia

Zengena Lake
Lake
Ethiopia
Ethiopia

Enyo Lake
Lake
(or Haro Dandii, a lake filling a double crater caldera on Mount Dendi ) and Lake
Lake
Wonchi (Badda Rogghie Mountains) Ethiopia
Ethiopia

Debre Zeyit crater lakes (Bishoftu, Hora, Bishoftu Guda, Koriftu and seasonal Cheleklaka) Ethiopia
Ethiopia

Lake
Lake
Dembel, Mount Zuqualla Ethiopia
Ethiopia

Lake
Lake
Ara Shetan (Butajiri-Silti Volcanic Field ) Ethiopia
Ethiopia

O\'a Caldera
Caldera
, with Lake
Lake
Shala and the smaller Chitu water-filled maar Ethiopia
Ethiopia

Bilate River Volcanic Field (several water-filled maars) Ethiopia
Ethiopia

El Sod (small salt lake), South Omo Valley Ethiopia
Ethiopia

Mount Biao , Bioko Island Equatorial Guinea

Lago a Pot, Annobón Island Equatorial Guinea

Lake
Lake
Assal Djibouti
Djibouti

Kabarole District lakes (including lakes Nyinabulitwa, Nyabikere, Nkuruba, Kifuruka) Uganda
Uganda

many crater lakes in the Katwe-Kikorongo and Bunyaruguru (or Kichwambe) volcanic fields, respectively on the North and South sides of the Kazinga Channel (including Lake
Lake
Katwe in the Queen Elizabeth National Park ) Uganda
Uganda

Muhavura (small crater lake) Rwanda
Rwanda
/ Uganda
Uganda

Mount Bisoke Rwanda
Rwanda
/ Democratic Republic of Congo

Crocodile Lake, Flamingo Lake, Tilapia Lake, on Central Island ( Lake
Lake
Turkana ) Kenya
Kenya

Mount Marsabit (at least two lakes) Kenya
Kenya

Emuruangogolak (several maar lakes) Kenya
Kenya

Lake
Lake
Simbi, Mount Homa Kenya
Kenya

Lake
Lake
Sonachi ( Crater Lake
Crater Lake
Game Sanctuary) Kenya
Kenya

Lake
Lake
Chala Kenya
Kenya
/ Tanzania
Tanzania

Southern Highlands crater lakes ( Lake
Lake
Ngozi , Kiungululu Crater, Masoko Crater) Tanzania
Tanzania

Lakes Magadi and Empakaai ( Ngorongoro Conservation Area ) Tanzania
Tanzania

Lake
Lake
Dziani Boundouni, Mohéli Island Comoros

Dziani Dzaha , Petite-Terre Mayotte

Lake
Lake
Tritriva Madagascar
Madagascar

Nosy Be crater lakes Madagascar
Madagascar

Itasy crater lakes (close to the larger Lake
Lake
Itasy) Madagascar
Madagascar

Trou aux Cerfs Mauritius
Mauritius

Ganga Talao lake Mauritius
Mauritius

Piton de l'Eau Réunion
Réunion

Lagoa do Fanal Portugal, Madeira

Laguna de los Ciclos (Charco Verde), El Golfo , Lanzarote
Lanzarote
Spain, Canary Islands
Canary Islands

Pedra de Lume (salt lake in the crater), Sal Island Cape Verde
Cape Verde

Queen Mary\'s Peak (heart-shaped crater lake) Tristan da Cunha
Tristan da Cunha

ASIA

Lake Toba Indonesia
Indonesia
, Sumatra
Sumatra

Mount Sibayak Indonesia
Indonesia
, Sumatra
Sumatra

Lake
Lake
Maninjau Indonesia
Indonesia
, Sumatra
Sumatra

Lake
Lake
Asam ( Suwoh Caldera) Indonesia
Indonesia
, Sumatra
Sumatra

Lake
Lake
Gunung Tujuh Indonesia
Indonesia
, Sumatra
Sumatra

Mount Talang (Talang and Dibawah Lakes) Indonesia
Indonesia
, Sumatra
Sumatra

Mount Singgalang (Dewi and Kumbang Lakes) Indonesia
Indonesia
, Sumatra
Sumatra

Bukit Daun Indonesia
Indonesia
, Sumatra
Sumatra

Mount Kerinci Indonesia
Indonesia
, Sumatra
Sumatra

Mount Kaba Indonesia
Indonesia
, Sumatra
Sumatra

Mount Kunyit Indonesia
Indonesia
, Sumatra
Sumatra

Mount Sumbing Indonesia
Indonesia
, Sumatra
Sumatra

Sorikmarapi Indonesia
Indonesia
, Sumatra
Sumatra

Ijen Indonesia
Indonesia
, Java
Java

Kawah Putih , Mount Patuha Indonesia
Indonesia
, Java
Java

Mount Lamongan (several maare) Indonesia
Indonesia
, Java
Java

Kelut (no crater lake anymore after 2007-2008 slow eruptions with hot lava dome, but in 2014 eruption lava dome is thrown away and in rainy season, the crater is initial fill with water) Indonesia
Indonesia
, Java
Java

Lake
Lake
Ngebel, Gunung Wilis Indonesia
Indonesia
, Java
Java

Mount Lawu Indonesia
Indonesia
, Java
Java

Talagabodas Indonesia
Indonesia
, Java
Java

Tengger caldeira (several maar lakes on Semeru summit, seasonnal lake in Bromo crater) Indonesia
Indonesia
, Java
Java

The Triangle of Lakes (Ranu Klakah, Ranu Bedali, Ranu Pakis) Indonesia
Indonesia
, Java
Java

Mount Galunggung crater lake Indonesia
Indonesia
, Java
Java

Merdodo ( Dieng Volcanic Complex ) Indonesia
Indonesia
, Java
Java

Telaga Warna ( Dieng Volcanic Complex ) Indonesia
Indonesia
, Java
Java

Danau Batur , Bali
Bali
Indonesia
Indonesia
, Lesser Sunda Islands

Lake
Lake
Segara Anak ( Mount Rinjani ), Lombok Indonesia
Indonesia
, Lesser Sunda Islands

Tambora (ephemeral lake), Sumbawa
Sumbawa
Indonesia
Indonesia
, Lesser Sunda Islands

Kelimutu (three crater lakes), Flores
Flores
Indonesia
Indonesia
, Lesser Sunda Islands

Inielika (several small temporary dark lakes), Flores
Flores
Indonesia
Indonesia
, Lesser Sunda Islands

Sano Nggoang (the deepest volcanic crater lake in the world with depth of 600 meters), West Manggarai Regency , Flores
Flores
Indonesia
Indonesia
, Lesser Sunda Islands

Mount Sirung , Pantar Island Indonesia
Indonesia
, Lesser Sunda Islands

Kawah Masem, Mount Sempu Indonesia
Indonesia
, Sulawesi

Mount Mahawu Indonesia
Indonesia
, Sulawesi

Lake
Lake
Tondano Indonesia
Indonesia
, Sulawesi

Mount Klabat Indonesia
Indonesia
, Sulawesi

Makian Indonesia
Indonesia
, Maluku Islands

Mount Ibu (several small crater lakes), Halmahera Indonesia
Indonesia
, Maluku Islands

Todoko-Ranu , Halmahera Indonesia
Indonesia
, Maluku Islands

Lake
Lake
Telaga Paca , Halmahera Indonesia
Indonesia
, Maluku Islands

four crater lakes in the Lower Chindwin volcanic area, including Twin Taung Burma
Burma
(Myanmar)

Yak Loum Cambodia
Cambodia

Nong Fa Lake
Lake
Laos
Laos

Toroeng Prong Vietnam
Vietnam

Khorgo Uul (at least two lakes) Mongolia
Mongolia

Chaihe scenic spot near Zhalantun (several crater lakes in this volcanic area) China, Inner Mongolia
Mongolia

Longwanqun volcanic lakes China, Jilin
Jilin

Heaven Lake
Heaven Lake
(Chonji/Tianchi), Baekdu Mountain North Korea
North Korea
/ China, Jilin
Jilin

White Deer Lake
Lake
(Baengnokdam), Mulyeongari-Oreum , Muljangori-Oreum

South Korea
South Korea
, Jeju Island
Jeju Island

Akan caldera volcanic lakes (Akan , Mashū , Kussharo ) Japan, Hokkaidō

Lake
Lake
Shikotsu Japan, Hokkaidō

Lake
Lake
Tōya Japan, Hokkaidō

Lake
Lake
Kuttara Japan, Hokkaidō

Towada Japan, Honshū

Tazawa (deepest lake in Japan) Japan, Honshū

Mount Zaō (lake Okama) Japan, Honshū

Mount Kusatsu-Shirane (three lakes, including the acidic Yu-gama with sulfur rafts floating on its turquoise surface) Japan, Honshū

Izu-Tobu (Ippeki lake) Japan, Honshū

Lake
Lake
Haruna Japan, Honshū

Mount Hakone ( Lake
Lake
Ashi ) Japan, Honshū

Naruko ( Lake
Lake
Katanuma) Japan, Honshū

Aizu-Bandai-san (various lakes) Japan, Honshū

Mount Iwate Japan, Honshū

Mount Ontake
Mount Ontake
(five crater lakes) Japan, Honshū

Oguni-numa Pond Japan, Honshū

Numazawa-numa lake Japan, Honshū

Hachoike, Mount Amagi Japan, Honshū

Mount Aso (Naka-dake) Japan, Kyūshū

Satsuma Peninsula , Lake
Lake
Ikeda and Lake
Lake
Unagi-ike Japan, Kyūshū

Mount Kirishima lakes (including Mi-ike , Oonamino-ike, Rokkannonmi-ike, Byakushi-ike) Japan, Kyūshū

Imuta-ike Japan, Kyūshū

Tairo-ike, Miyake-jima Japan, Izu Islands

Otake , Nakanoshima Japan, Ryukyu Islands

Lake Pinatubo Philippines
Philippines
, Luzon
Luzon

Taal Lake
Lake
(caldera-filling) and the crater lake on its island 's volcano Philippines
Philippines
, Luzon
Luzon

Laguna de Bay Philippines
Philippines
, Luzon
Luzon

Seven Lakes of San Pablo (Bunot , Calibato , Yambo, Pandin , Palakpakin , Muhikap , Sampaloc ) Philippines
Philippines
, Luzon
Luzon

Lake
Lake
Tikub Philippines
Philippines
, Luzon
Luzon

Mount Talinis (lakes Balinsasayao , Danao and Kabalin-an, within the Guintabon Caldera), Negros Island Philippines
Philippines
, Visayas
Visayas

Margaja Valley caldera, Kanlaon Volcano
Volcano
, Negros Island Philippines
Philippines
, Visayas
Visayas

Lakes Danao and Malagsom, Mahagnao Volcano
Volcano
, Leyte Island Philippines
Philippines
, Visayas
Visayas

Lake
Lake
Duminagat, Mount Malindang Philippines
Philippines
, Mindanao
Mindanao

Lake
Lake
Leonard , Leonard Kniaseff Philippines
Philippines
, Mindanao
Mindanao

Mount Apo Philippines
Philippines
, Mindanao
Mindanao

Lake
Lake
Maughan, Mount Parker Philippines
Philippines
, Mindanao
Mindanao

Jolo Island , Lakes Seit, Panamao, Timpuak and Sani Crater Philippines
Philippines
, Mindanao
Mindanao
, Sulu Archipelago
Sulu Archipelago

Lake
Lake
Khaiyr Russia, Yakutia
Yakutia

Khangar Russia, Kamchatka
Kamchatka

Kizimen Russia, Kamchatka
Kamchatka

Lake
Lake
Dalny, Uzon Caldera Russia, Kamchatka
Kamchatka

Maly Semyachik Russia, Kamchatka
Kamchatka

Bolshoy Semyachik Russia, Kamchatka
Kamchatka

Karymsky Lake
Lake
, Akademia Nauk Russia, Kamchatka
Kamchatka

Balshoe and Kraternoe, Ksudach Russia, Kamchatka
Kamchatka

Kurile Lake
Lake
Russia, Kamchatka
Kamchatka

Gorely Russia, Kamchatka
Kamchatka

Ebeko , Paramushir Island Russia, Kuril Islands
Kuril Islands

Onekotan Island (Kal'tsevoe Lake
Lake
in the Tao-Rusyr Caldera
Caldera
and Nemo Lake/ Caldera
Caldera
) Russia, Kuril Islands
Kuril Islands

Ketoy Island Russia, Kuril Islands
Kuril Islands

Zavaritski Caldera
Caldera
, Simushir Island Russia, Kuril Islands
Kuril Islands

Rudakov , Urup Island Russia, Kuril Islands
Kuril Islands

Iturup Island lakes ( Medvezhia , Chirip , Grozny Group , Bogatyr Ridge ) Russia, Kuril Islands
Kuril Islands

Sabalan Iran
Iran

Nemrut Turkey
Turkey

Meke Golu ( Karapınar Field ) Turkey
Turkey

Lake
Lake
Acıgöl (bitter lake), also called Lake
Lake
Nar (pomegranate lake) Turkey
Turkey

Karagöl ( Lake
Lake
Tantalus), Mount Yamanlar Turkey
Turkey

Lake
Lake
Ram Syria
Syria

Bir Ali crater Yemen
Yemen

Zubayr Group Islands (crater lakes on Saba Island and on the new island formed during the 2011-2012 eruption) Yemen
Yemen

EUROPE

Eifel
Eifel
volcanic field (where maare were originally described), including Laacher See
Laacher See
and Daun maars Germany

Eyjafjallajökull (volcano) Iceland
Iceland

Kerið Iceland
Iceland

Askja ( Öskjuvatn and Viti lakes) Iceland
Iceland

Krafla Iceland
Iceland

Lake
Lake
Bardarlaug Iceland
Iceland

Grímsvötn (subglacial lake in the caldera, now exposed following the 2011 eruption ) Iceland
Iceland

crater lakes in the Landmannalaugar area (Blahylur, Ljotipollur) Iceland
Iceland

Chaîne des Puys (Gour de Tazenat , Lac Pavin , Lac de Servière , Lac Chauvet , Lac du Bouchet , Lac d\'En-Haut ) France

Lac d\'Issarlès France

Lazio
Lazio
volcanic lakes (Albano , Bolsena , Bracciano , Martignano , Nemi , Vico , Mezzano ) Italy

Lake
Lake
Avernus (close to Phlegraean Fields ) Italy

Lake
Lake
Sfânta Ana , Ciomadul volcano Romania
Romania

Lakes of Monticchio (Lago di Monticchio Grande and Lago di Montichhio Piccolo, twin crater lakes) Italy

Lago Vecchienna Italy

Lago Specchio di Venere (Venus Mirror Lake) or Bagno dell’Acqua (hydrothermal lake within a calderic depression) Italy, Pantelleria

seasonal maar lakes in the Provincia Volcánica de Calatrava (Hoya del Acebuche, Hoya de Cervera) Spain

Lagoa do Caldeirão, Corvo Island Portugal
Portugal
, Azores
Azores

Lagoa da Caldeira, Faial Island Portugal
Portugal
, Azores
Azores

Lagoas Funda das Lajes, Branca, Comprida, Seca, da Lomba, Rasa, Funda/Negra, Flores
Flores
Island Portugal
Portugal
, Azores
Azores

Caldeira do Enxofre (underground lake filled with cold sulphur water), Graciosa Island Portugal
Portugal
, Azores
Azores

Lagoas Seca, da Rosada, Pico Island Portugal
Portugal
, Azores
Azores

Lagoa do Pico Pinheiro, São Jorge Island Portugal
Portugal
, Azores
Azores

Lagoa das Sete Cidades , do Fogo , das Furnas, Azul, Verde, São Miguel Island Portugal
Portugal
, Azores
Azores

Lagoas Negra, do Negro , Terceira Island Portugal
Portugal
, Azores
Azores

Lake
Lake
Sfânta Ana Romania
Romania

Mount Samsari (several small lakes in the caldera) Georgia

Lake
Lake
Akna , Geghama mountains Armenia
Armenia

OCEANIA

Mount Ruapehu New Zealand, North Island

Lake
Lake
Taupo New Zealand, North Island

Lakes of Rotorua , including Rotorua , Tarawera , Rotomahana , Rotokakahi , Tikitapu , Okareka and Okataina and smaller lakes from the Waimangu Volcanic Rift Valley (Inferno Crater Lake, Frying Pan Lake
Lake
, Southern Crater Lake) New Zealand, North Island

Lake
Lake
Pupuke New Zealand, North Island

Mangere Lagoon New Zealand, North Island

Mount Tongariro ( Tama Lakes , Blue Lake
Lake
and the Emerald Lakes) New Zealand, North Island

Whakaari / White Island ( Bay of Plenty
Bay of Plenty
), Crater Lake New Zealand, off North Island coast

Tuhua / Mayor Island ( Bay of Plenty
Bay of Plenty
), Lake
Lake
Aroarotamahine and Lake Te Paritu New Zealand, off North Island coast

Raoul Island (Blue Lake
Lake
, Green Lake
Lake
, Rui Lake) New Zealand, Kermadec Islands

Victory Volcano
Volcano
crater lake Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea
, New Guinea
New Guinea

Lake
Lake
Wisdom, Long Island Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea
, off New Guinea
New Guinea
coast

Mount Balbi lake Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea
, Bougainville

Billy Mitchell Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea
, Bougainville

Loloru (crescent-shaped crater lake) Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea
, Bougainville

Dakataua (horseshoe-shaped caldera lake) Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea
, New Britain
New Britain

Sakar Island Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea
, off New Britain
New Britain
coast

Mount Gambier maar complex (including Blue Lake
Lake
) Australia, South Australia
South Australia

Atherton Tableland ( Lake
Lake
Euramoo , Lake
Lake
Eacham , Lake
Lake
Barrine , Mount Hypipamee Crater , Lynch\'s Crater , Bromfield Swamp) Australia, Queensland
Queensland

Mount Le Brun (two intermittent crater lakes) Australia, Queensland
Queensland

Leura maar complex (Purrumbete , Bullen Merri , Gnotuk, Keilambete, Elingamite, Wangoom , Red Rock Reserve intermittent lakes) Australia, Victoria

Tower Hill Australia, Victoria

Mount Eccles Australia, Victoria

Green Lake, Kapoho Crater, Kīlauea , Big Island , USA, Hawaii
Hawaii

Lake
Lake
Waiau , crater of the Pu'u Waiau cinder cone, Mauna Kea
Mauna Kea
, Big Island , USA, Hawaii
Hawaii

Kalaupapa crater lake, Molokai USA, Hawaii
Hawaii

Salt Lake
Lake
(filled in for an urbanization project, except for a pond in a golf course), Honolulu
Honolulu
, Oahu USA, Hawaii
Hawaii

Rano Kau , Rano Raraku and Rano Aroi (Ma′unga Terevaka ) Chile, Easter Island
Easter Island

Anatahan
Anatahan
(intermittent lake in the caldera) Northern Mariana Islands

Lake
Lake
Te Roto, Tikopia Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands

Lake
Lake
Lanoto'o, Upolu Samoa
Samoa

Vai Lahi and Vai Si'i, Niuafo\'ou Tonga
Tonga

Tofua Tonga
Tonga

Late (ephemeral lake) Tonga
Tonga

Home Reef (newly formed island, crater lakes observed in 2006) Tonga
Tonga

Lakes Lalolao , Lano , Lanutavake , Lanutuli, Lanumaha and Alofivai (intermittent), Wallis Island Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna

Lake
Lake
Tagimaucia, Taveuni Island Fidji

Lake
Lake
Letas , Gaua Island Vanuatu
Vanuatu

Lombenben Volcano
Volcano
(lakes Vui, Manaro Ngoru, Manaro Lakua), Aoba Island Vanuatu
Vanuatu

NORTH AMERICA

Kasatochi volcano, Kasatochi Island United States, Alaska
Alaska
, Aleutian Islands

Mount Okmok , Umnak Island United States, Alaska
Alaska
, Aleutian Islands

Mount Kanaga , Kanaga Island United States, Alaska
Alaska
, Aleutian Islands

Fenner Lake, Semisopochnoi Island United States, Alaska
Alaska
, Aleutian Islands

Fisher Caldera
Caldera
(several lakes), Unimak Island United States, Alaska
Alaska
, Aleutian Islands

Mount Katmai United States, Alaska
Alaska

Ukinrek Maars United States, Alaska
Alaska

Mount Kaguyak United States, Alaska
Alaska

Mount Martin (intermittent acidic lake) United States, Alaska
Alaska

Mount Douglas United States, Alaska
Alaska

Devil Mountain Lakes United States, Alaska
Alaska

Surprise Lake
Lake
, Mount Aniakchak United States, Alaska
Alaska

Mount Emmons United States, Alaska
Alaska

Mount Spurr United States, Alaska
Alaska

Mount Chiginagak United States, Alaska
Alaska

Fiftytwo Ridge (several crater lakes) Canada, British Columbia
British Columbia

Mount Rainier United States, Washington

Battle Ground Lake
Lake
United States, Washington

Crater Lake
Crater Lake
United States, Oregon
Oregon

Blue Lake
Lake
Crater United States, Oregon
Oregon

Malheur Maar, Diamond
Diamond
Craters United States, Oregon
Oregon

Newberry Volcano
Volcano
(twin crater lakes: Paulina Lake
Lake
and East Lake
Lake
) United States, Oregon
Oregon

Teardrop Pool South Sister United States, Oregon
Oregon

Yellowstone Lake
Lake
United States, Wyoming
Wyoming

Soda Lakes United States, Nevada
Nevada

Medicine Lake
Lake
Volcano
Volcano
United States, California
California

Mono–Inyo Craters United States, California
California

Clear Lake
Lake
United States, California
California

Shastina (three small crater lakes) United States, California
California

Zuni Salt Lake
Lake
(maar) United States, New Mexico
New Mexico

Lago Los Espinos Mexico, Michoacán

La Alberca lake (also known as La Joya or Lago del Sangre) Mexico, Guanajuato

Nevado de Toluca (several lakes) Mexico, State of Mexico

Laguna de Aljojuca Mexico, Puebla
Puebla

Oriental Basin axalapazcos (maar lakes) Mexico, Puebla
Puebla
/ Tlaxcala
Tlaxcala
/ Veracruz
Veracruz

Sangangüey Mexico, Nayarit

Santa María del Oro Mexico, Nayarit

El Chichón Mexico, Chiapas
Chiapas

CENTRAL AMERICA & CARIBBEAN

Lago de Amatitlán Guatemala
Guatemala

Lake
Lake
Ipala Guatemala
Guatemala

Lago de Atitlán Guatemala
Guatemala

Laguna de Ayarza Guatemala
Guatemala

Laguna de Calderas ( Pacaya
Pacaya
) Guatemala
Guatemala

Laguna Chicabal Guatemala
Guatemala

Tecuamburro Guatemala
Guatemala

Lago de Coatepeque (Coatepeque Lake) El Salvador
El Salvador

Laguna Verde ( Apaneca ) El Salvador
El Salvador

Lago de Ilopango (Ilopango Lake) El Salvador
El Salvador

Tecapa volcano (Laguna de Alegría) El Salvador
El Salvador

Chanmico maar (at the foot of the San Salvador volcano ) El Salvador
El Salvador

Santa Ana Volcano
Volcano
crater lake El Salvador
El Salvador

Cosigüina Nicaragua
Nicaragua

Laguna Asososca, Las Pilas Nicaragua
Nicaragua

Lakes within the Monte Galan caldera, close to the Momotombo (Laguna Monte Galan, La Sulfatosa, Agua Dulce, El Cachital, Las Piedras) Nicaragua
Nicaragua

Chiltepe peninsula ( Apoyeque and Xiloá lagoons) Nicaragua
Nicaragua

Managua lagoons (Tiscapa , Asososca, Nejapa) Nicaragua
Nicaragua

Masaya lake Nicaragua
Nicaragua

Apoyo Lagoon Nicaragua
Nicaragua

Zapatera Laguna ( Zapatera Island, on Lake
Lake
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
) Nicaragua
Nicaragua

Maderas
Maderas
( Ometepe
Ometepe
Island, on Lake
Lake
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
) Nicaragua
Nicaragua

Lake
Lake
Diego de la Haya, Irazú volcano Costa Rica
Costa Rica

Rincón de la Vieja Costa Rica
Costa Rica

Poás volcano (Laguna Caliente and Laguna Botos) Costa Rica
Costa Rica

Cerro Chato Costa Rica
Costa Rica

Barva Costa Rica
Costa Rica

Mount Liamuiga crater lake, Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
and Nevis

La Grande Soufrière (la Citerne) Guadeloupe

Boiling Lake
Lake
( Morne Trois Pitons National Park ) Dominica
Dominica

Soufrière Saint Vincent

Grand Etang Lake
Lake
Grenada

Lac Antoine, Mount Saint Catherine Grenada

SOUTH AMERICA

Azufral (Laguna Verde, Laguna Negra, Laguna Cristal) Colombia
Colombia

Lagunas Verdes, Chiles Volcano
Volcano
Ecuador
Ecuador

Mojanda lakes (Caricocha, Yanacocha and Huarmicocha) Ecuador
Ecuador

Laguna Collanes, El Altar Ecuador
Ecuador

Cuicocha Ecuador
Ecuador

Quilotoa Ecuador
Ecuador

Black Lakes of Jumbura Ecuador
Ecuador

La Cumbre , Fernandina Island (ephemeral lake) Ecuador
Ecuador
, Galapagos Islands
Galapagos Islands

Tagus Cove, Isabela Island Ecuador
Ecuador
, Galapagos Islands
Galapagos Islands

Lake
Lake
Arcturus, Genovesa Island Ecuador
Ecuador
, Galapagos Islands
Galapagos Islands

Laguna El Juncos, San Cristóbal Island Ecuador
Ecuador
, Galapagos Islands
Galapagos Islands

Santiago Island (small salt crater lake) Ecuador
Ecuador
, Galapagos Islands
Galapagos Islands

Jayu Quta (also known as Miguel y Alex Tejada or Maracanacito crater) Bolivia
Bolivia

Laguna del Maule Chile
Chile

Nevado Ojos del Salado
Ojos del Salado
(likely the highest lake in the world) Chile
Chile

Licancabur Lake
Lake
Chile
Chile

Chaitén (crater lakes might have disappeared with the 2008-09 eruption) Chile
Chile

Aguas Calientes Chile
Chile

Acamarachi Chile
Chile

Copahue Chile
Chile
/ Argentina
Argentina

Planchón-Peteroa Chile
Chile
/ Argentina
Argentina

Laguna Potrok Aike ( Pali-Aike Volcanic Field ) Argentina
Argentina

Aracar Argentina
Argentina

Laguna Diamante, Cerro Galán Argentina
Argentina

ANTARCTICA ">

* ^ Measuring the acidity of Kawah Ijen crater lake * ^ "Facts and Figures about Crater Lake". U.S. National Park Service. Retrieved 2009-03-17. * ^ Andes Website - Information about Ojos del Salado
Ojos del Salado
volcano, a high mountain in South America and the World\'s highest volcano * ^ Glenday, Craig (2010). _Guinness World Record 2011_. ISBN 9781904994572 . * ^ http://icecubicle.net/2010/03/24/phenom-pingos-of-the-far-north/ * ^ http://www.gtz.de/de/praxis/11695.htm Description of Mount Wonchi crater lake on the website of GTZ * ^ http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/photo/2012-08/29/c_131815567_5.htm * ^ Kahumana Sanctuary - Geology * ^ http://whc.unesco.org/uploads/nominations/1077.pdf World Heritage nomination file * ^ http://noviceview.wordpress.com/2010/10/24/takht-e-soleyman-%e2%80%93-50000bc-%e2%80%93-600bc/ Geological development of Takht-e Soleymān

_ Wikimedia Commons has media related to CRATER LAKES _.

FURTHER READING

* Delmelle, Pierre; Bernard, Alain (2000). "Volcanic Lakes". In Sigurdsson, Haraldur . _Encyclopedia of Volcanoes_. San Diego: Academic Press
Academic Press
(published 1999). pp. 877–895. ISBN 0-12-643140-X . * Varekamp, Johan C.; Rowe, Gary L., Jr., eds. (2000). "Crater Lakes". _Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research_. 97 (1–4): 1–508. Bibcode :2000JVGR...97....1C. doi :10.1016/S0377-0273(99)00167-5 . (entire volume about crater lakes) * Pasternack, G. B.; Varekamp, J. C. (1997). "Volcanic lake systematics I. Physical constraints". _Bulletin of Volcanology_. 58 (7): 526–538. Bibcode :1997BVol...58..528P. doi :10.1007/s004450050160 . * Kusakabe, Minoru, ed. (1994). "Geochemistry of Crater Lakes". _Geochemical Journal_. 28 (3): 137–306. doi :10.2343/geochemj.28.137 . (entire issue about chemistry of crater lakes)

EXTERNAL LINKS

* IAVCEI Commission of Volcanic Lakes * IAVCEI Commission of

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