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Craigavon
Craigavon
(/kreɪˈɡævən/ kray-GAV-ən; Irish: Creag Abhann) is a planned settlement in northern County Armagh, Northern Ireland. Its construction began in 1965 and it was named after Northern Ireland's first Prime Minister: James Craig, 1st Viscount Craigavon. It was intended to be the heart of a new linear city incorporating Lurgan
Lurgan
and Portadown, but this plan was abandoned and less than half of the proposed work was done.[3] Among locals today, "Craigavon" refers to the area between the two towns.[4] It is built beside two artificial lakes and is made up of a large residential area (Brownlow), a second smaller one (Mandeville), plus a central area (Highfield) that includes a substantial shopping centre, a courthouse and the district council headquarters. The lakes, a wildlife haven, are surrounded by woodland with walking trails. There is also a watersports centre, petting zoo, golf course and ski slope in the area. In most of Craigavon, motor vehicles are completely separated from pedestrians, and roundabouts are used extensively. Craigavon
Craigavon
sometimes refers to the much larger Craigavon
Craigavon
Urban Area, which includes Craigavon, Lurgan, Portadown, Waringstown
Waringstown
and Bleary.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Original plans 1.2 Difficulties 1.3 The Troubles

2 Geography

2.1 Townlands

3 Demography 4 Education 5 Sport 6 Twin towns 7 See also 8 References 9 External links

History[edit] Original plans[edit]

Viscount Craigavon

Central Way

Drumgor Heights, showing the Modernist housing design once common in Craigavon

One of the many cycle paths in Craigavon

Craigavon
Craigavon
was planned as a 'new city' for Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
that would mirror towns such as Cumbernauld
Cumbernauld
and, later, Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
in Great Britain. It was conceived as a linear city that would link the towns of Lurgan
Lurgan
and Portadown
Portadown
to create a single urban area and identity.[3] The argument for a new town was based on projections indicating population increases over the following decades that would require large-scale house building. Similar projects successfully attracting economic growth had been successfully completed in Great Britain, so it was in some ways a symbol of Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
as both modern and a part of the British mainstream. The Craigavon
Craigavon
Development Commission was appointed in October 1965 to develop the 'new city'. About 6,000 acres of land between Lurgan
Lurgan
and Portadown
Portadown
was vested from farmers at £6 an acre.[5] Several reasons have been suggested for the suitability of the site including the existing population centres, industrial base, nearness to Belfast
Belfast
and the belief that Craigavon would help spread development away from Belfast. It was hoped that residents of Belfast
Belfast
would be attracted by the suburban nature of Craigavon's design and that business would see it as an interesting alternative. Cash incentives were offered to some families moving to Craigavon.[6] The M1 motorway was built to link the new city with Belfast
Belfast
and there were plans to replace the Lurgan
Lurgan
and Portadown railway stations with a single high speed terminal in central Craigavon. The Craigavon Area Hospital
Craigavon Area Hospital
was built to replace small hospitals in the two towns. The design of Craigavon
Craigavon
was based on Modernism and imbued with the spirit of the age.[6] The planners separated motor vehicles from pedestrians and cyclists wherever possible, creating a network of paths allowing residents to travel across Craigavon
Craigavon
without encountering traffic. The road network for motor vehicles used roundabouts instead of traffic lights at junctions, giving the planners the ability to easily increase the number of lanes if it became necessary. Electricity and other cables were placed underground and street lighting was standard throughout. The planners clustered the housing developments around small 'village centres' with associated retail space, leisure facilities, post offices, primary schools, pharmacies, community centres and other civic amenities. All estates were built with security in mind, with one vehicle entry/exit point. Single-use zoning
Single-use zoning
was part of the design; there was a total separation of industrial land-use from all other uses. Craigavon
Craigavon
was designed to be a very child-friendly environment with small playgrounds dotted throughout the residential areas. There was an emphasis on providing green space in the housing estates and safe paths to cycle on. The new town was also provided with many civic amenities including a leisure centre, library, shopping centre, civic centre, a large park with artificial lakes, playing fields, a petting zoo, public gardens and an artificial ski slope. Terence O'Neill, who was the Prime Minister of Northern Ireland between 1963 and 1969 reportedly became infuriated with Minister of Home Affairs William Craig after naming the new city Craigavon
Craigavon
as he personally believed in solving the Catholic housing problems by the creation of the new city along with trying to ease the population pressures within Belfast. Much problems and difficulties came when the city name was announced on both sides of Northern Irish
Northern Irish
society. Difficulties[edit] Problems began to come to light when it emerged that some housing estates had been built with materials and techniques that had not been fully tested, with the result that insulation, sound-proofing and durability were lacking. This was compounded by the outbreak of 'the Troubles' in the late 1960s, which resulted in sectarian violence and segregation. Investment into Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
dried up and emigration rose. The Craigavon
Craigavon
Development Commission was wound up in 1973 and Craigavon Borough Council
Craigavon Borough Council
created. The area's main employer, Goodyear, had a large fan-belt factory in the Silverwood industrial estate, and at the time it was Europe's largest factory. However, the plant failed to make money on a consistent basis, and had to shut in 1983.[6] It also emerged that the population projections for Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
upon which the project was based were wildly inaccurate, with the result that the planned development was redundant. Consequently about half of what was planned was never built, and of what was built, some of that had to be demolished after becoming empty and derelict.[3] The area designated as Craigavon
Craigavon
'city centre', for much of this time contained only the municipal authority, the court buildings and a shopping mall, surrounded by greenfield land. Dr Stephen McKay, director of education at the School of Planning, Architecture & Civil Engineering at Queen's University Belfast, said that the plan to build Craigavon
Craigavon
was "flawed from the outset", adding: "The cycle ways, mixed housing and recreational zones were really never going to work in light of the circumstances. The manifestation of Craigavon
Craigavon
to many was effectively a series of roundabouts".[6] Locally-born writer Newton Emerson said: "As a child, I didn't notice the failure of Craigavon. The new city was an enormous playground of hidden cycle paths, roads that ended suddenly in the middle of nowhere and futuristic buildings standing empty in an artificial landscape".[4] The identity of a new city never really caught on. The name 'Craigavon' is today used by locals to refer to the area between Lurgan
Lurgan
and Portadown, but the names of the old towns stubbornly live on and so do their identities. Many citizens of Lurgan
Lurgan
and Portadown resent being identified with the 'new city' of Craigavon.[5] However, after many years of development, and rising house prices closer to Belfast, Craigavon
Craigavon
is now taking off. Many of the older housing estates have been demolished, improving the general tone of the area. The building of new estates have brought many new people into the area, and the growth of Craigavon
Craigavon
Shopping Centre (now renamed Rushmere Shopping Centre) has made it a major shopping destination. The Troubles[edit] For more information, see The Troubles
The Troubles
in Craigavon, which includes a list of incidents in Craigavon
Craigavon
during the Troubles resulting in two or more fatalities. On 10 March 2009 the CIRA claimed responsibility for the fatal shooting of a PSNI officer in Craigavon
Craigavon
— the first police fatality in Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
since 1998. [7] Geography[edit]

The Belfast–Dublin railway line between Craigavon
Craigavon
Lakes

Craigavon
Craigavon
Lakes

Craigavon
Craigavon
lies on an area of flat land near the southeastern shore of Lough Neagh. The surrounding settlements (listed clockwise) are Aghacommon
Aghacommon
(north), Lurgan
Lurgan
(northeast), Corcreeny (east), Bleary (southeast) and Portadown
Portadown
(southwest). It is separated from these surrounding settlements mostly by fields. The narrow gap between Craigavon
Craigavon
and Portadown
Portadown
is marked by the fields/playing fields in Lisnisky and Kernan. The gap between Craigavon
Craigavon
and Lurgan
Lurgan
is narrower, being marked by fields/playing fields in Ballynamony, Tullygally, Taghnevan and Monbrief.[8] Between Craigavon
Craigavon
and Aghacommon
Aghacommon
is the Portadown– Lurgan
Lurgan
railway line and Craigavon
Craigavon
Lakes. The railway line runs between the two lakes. Further north is the M1 motorway, which runs parallel with the railway line.[8] Townlands[edit] Much of Craigavon
Craigavon
is within the civil parish of Seagoe. The following is a list of townlands within Craigavon's urban area (excluding Lurgan, Portadown
Portadown
and Bleary), along with their likely etymologies:[8][9][10][11]

Balteagh (from Irish Bailte Fhiach) Clanrolla (from Cluain Rothla or Cluain Ralach) Crossmacahilly (from Cros Mhic Cathghaile or Cros Mhic Eachmhilidh) Drumgask (from Druim Gasach or Druim Gasga) Drumgor (from Druim gCor) Drumnagoon (from Druim na nGamhan or Druim Uí Dhubháin) Knockmenagh (from Cnoc Meánach) Legaghory or Legahory (from Log a' Choire) Monbrief (from Móin Bríghe or Magh an Bhritheamh or Magh an Breaghtha) Moyraverty or Moyraferty (from Maigh Raifeartaigh) Tamnafiglassan (from Tamhnach Feadha Glasáin or Tamhnach Fiodha Glasain) Tannaghmore West (from Tamhnach Mór) Tullygally (from Tulaigh Galla)

Demography[edit] For census purposes, Craigavon
Craigavon
is not treated as a separate entity by the NI Statistics and Research Agency (NISRA). Instead, it is combined with Portadown, Lurgan
Lurgan
and Bleary
Bleary
to form the " Craigavon
Craigavon
Urban Area". This makes it difficult to glean an accurate demographic picture of the area that is generally regarded as Craigavon
Craigavon
– the mainly residential area between Portadown
Portadown
and Lurgan.[4] This area roughly corresponds with the Drumgask,[12] Drumgor,[13] Kernan[14] and (part of) Taghnevan[15] electoral wards. On the day of the last census (27 March 2011) the combined population of these wards was about 16,000. Craigavon
Craigavon
has an 800-strong Chinese community and a high level of racially motivated incidents.[16] Craigavon
Craigavon
has been a historically Protestant town; however, in recent times, the electorate has become gradually less so, with higher numbers of Catholics and people of other religions or people of no declared religion.[17] Education[edit] Craigavon
Craigavon
was provided with a number of schools.

Brownlow Integrated College, one of the first integrated secondary schools in Northern Ireland Drumgor Primary School, controlled (i.e. state) primary school Lismore Comprehensive School, the largest school in Northern Ireland, run by the Council for Catholic Maintained Schools (CCMS) St Anthony's Primary School, CCMS St Brendan's Primary School, CCMS Tullygally Primary School, controlled, a mixed religion school. It has about 100 pupils at any one time. It was built by the government with the original founding of Craigavon
Craigavon
and was part of the library board. The size of the primary school was reduced in recent years and half of it now accommodates an adult learning centre. There are many more primary and secondary schools in the wider Craigavon
Craigavon
areas of Lurgan, Portadown, etc.

There are also plans to build a Southern Regional College
Southern Regional College
campus beside Craigavon
Craigavon
Lake. The plans have met opposition from locals, as it would involve the destruction of woodland which is home to endangered wildlife.[18] Sport[edit]

A.F.C. Craigavon play association football in the Mid-Ulster Football League. Éire Óg Gaelic Football Club – competes in Division II of the Armagh
Armagh
All County League. Have won both Junior and Intermediate honours. Craigavon
Craigavon
United F.C. – football club – won the Milk Cup
Milk Cup
in 1986. Craigavon City F.C. – football club founded in 2007. In their first season they finished 4th in the Mid Ulster fourth division and won the John Magee Memorial Cup after a 2–1 victory over Armagh
Armagh
Rovers. Craigavon
Craigavon
Cowboys American Football – the only American football team in County Armagh. 2009 Winners of the IAFL DV8s league. Returned to the IAFL proper in 2010.

Twin towns[edit] Craigavon
Craigavon
is twinned with:

LaGrange, Georgia, United States Ballina, County Mayo, Ireland

See also[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Craigavon.

List of towns in Northern Ireland

References[edit]

^ Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
Placenames Project, Queens University Belfast
Belfast
– Postal Towns ^ Free Map Tools – "How Far Is It Between?" ^ a b c "Craigavon: 50 years of Modernity". British Council. 22 October 2014. Retrieved 12 December 2016.  ^ a b c "The 'lost' city of Craigavon
Craigavon
to be unearthed in BBC documentary". Portadown
Portadown
Times. 30 November 2007. Retrieved 3 May 2010.  ^ a b "Craigavon: 'The changes are quite remarkable, it's not perfect here, but then nowhere is'". Belfast
Belfast
Telegraph. 28 March 2015. Retrieved 12 December 2016.  ^ a b c d " Craigavon
Craigavon
town planning: British Modernism 50 years on". BBC News. 25 October 2014. Retrieved 12 December 2016.  ^ "Continuity IRA shot dead officer". London: BBC News. 10 March 2009. Retrieved 10 March 2009.  ^ a b c "OSI Map Viewer". Ordnance Survey Ireland. Retrieved 25 February 2010.  – Note: Select "historic" to view the townland boundaries ^ "Placenames Database of Ireland". Retrieved 25 February 2010.  ^ " Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
Placenames Project". Retrieved 25 May 2010.  ^ " Townland
Townland
Maps". Sinton Family Trees. Retrieved 25 February 2010.  ^ NISRA – Ward Information for Drumgask ward 95LL12 ^ NISRA – Ward Information for Drumgor ward 95LL13 ^ NISRA – Ward Information for Kernan ward 95LL16 ^ NISRA – Ward Information for Taghnevan ward 95LL22 ^ Irish Times 29 May 2008 ^ " Craigavon
Craigavon
Borough Council". Ulster's Doomed!. Blogger. 25 November 2008.  ^ "Campaigners set to oppose plan for new college at Armagh
Armagh
wildlife haven". Belfast
Belfast
Telegraph. 23 November 2016. 

External links[edit]

Culture Northern Ireland

v t e

Towns in Northern Ireland

List of towns by population

Large

Antrim Ballymena Bangor Carrickfergus Coleraine Enniskillen Larne Lisburn Lurgan Newry Newtownabbey Newtownards Omagh Portadown

Medium

Armagh Banbridge Cookstown Craigavon Downpatrick Dundonald Dungannon Holywood Limavady Strabane

Small

Ballycastle Ballyclare Ballymoney Ballynahinch Carryduff Coalisland Comber Donaghadee Dromore Kilkeel Magherafelt Newcastle Portrush Portstewart Randalstown Warrenpoint

Italics denote settlements that are classed as towns but also have city status

v t e

Geography of County Armagh

List of places in County Armagh

Cities and towns

Armagh Craigavon Lurgan Newry
Newry
(part) Portadown

Villages and townlands

Acton Aghacommon Annaghmore Annahugh Ardress Aughanduff Ballydugan Ballymacnab Bannfoot Belleeks Bessbrook Blackwatertown Broomhill Camlough Carrickaness Charlemont Cladymore Clonmore Collegeland Corrinshego Creeveroe Creggan Crossmaglen Cullaville Cullyhanna Darkley Derryadd Derrycrew Derryhale Derrymacash Derrynoose Derrytrasna Dorsey Drumnacanvy Drumintee Edenaveys Forkill Granemore Hamiltonsbawn Jonesborough Keady Kernan Killeen Killylea Kilmore Lislea Lisnadill Loughgall Loughgilly Madden Maghery Markethill Meigh Middletown Millford Millvale Mountnorris Mullaghbawn Mullaghbrack Mullaghglass Mullavilly-Laurelvale Newtowncloghoge Newtownhamilton Poyntzpass Richhill Scotch Street Silverbridge Tandragee Tartaraghan The Birches Tullynawood Tynan Whitecross

Landforms

Coney Island Derrywarragh Island Eamhain Mhacha Lough Clea Slieve Gullion/Ring of Gullion

Baronies

Armagh Fews Lower Fews Upper Oneilland East Oneilland West Orior Lower Orior Upper Tiranny

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