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The Cozumel
Cozumel
raccoon (Procyon pygmaeus), also called the pygmy raccoon,[2][3] is a critically endangered species of island raccoon endemic on Cozumel
Cozumel
Island off the coast of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico.[2][4] Other common names for the Cozumel
Cozumel
raccoon include dwarf raccoon, Cozumel
Cozumel
Island raccoon, and Cozumel
Cozumel
raccoon bear.[2]

Contents

1 Classification 2 Description 3 Distribution and habitat 4 Behavior 5 Diet 6 Morphological specializations 7 Conservation status

7.1 Conservation actions

8 References

Classification[edit] Clinton Hart Merriam
Clinton Hart Merriam
first described the Cozumel
Cozumel
raccoon as morphologically distinctive from its mainland relative, the common raccoon subspecies Procyon lotor hernandezii, in 1901. Since then, other scientists have generally agreed with Merriam's assessment, especially Kristofer Helgen and Don E. Wilson, who have dismissed this classification for the other four island raccoons in their studies in 2003 and 2005.[3][5] Therefore, the Cozumel
Cozumel
raccoon was listed as the only distinct species of the genus Procyon besides the common raccoon and the crab-eating raccoon in the third edition of Mammal
Mammal
Species of the World.[1] An archaeological study showed that Maya from Cozumel used raccoons of reduced stature, which suggests that the size reduction of this raccoon is not a recent phenomenon.[6] No true fossils of the species are known, although skeletons have been found at some archeological sites on the island. Cozumel
Cozumel
island itself separated from the mainland during the late Pleistocene, so that the species is unlikely to be older than 122,000 years. Data from molecular clock studies implies a divergence date from the common raccoon of anything between 26,000 and 69,000 years ago.[7] Description[edit]

Common raccoon
Common raccoon
skull (left) and Cozumel
Cozumel
raccoon skull (right).

Merriam described the Cozumel
Cozumel
raccoon as being markedly smaller, both externally and cranially and easy to distinguish from the common raccoon because of its "broad black throat band and golden yellow tail, short posteriorly expanded and rounded nasals and peculiarities of the teeth".[8] Its reduced teeth point to a long period of isolation.[9] Apart from its smaller size and more rounded snout, the Cozumel raccoon is similar in appearance to the common raccoon. The fur over the upper body is buff-grey ticked with occasional black hairs, while the underparts and legs are pale buff in color. The top of the head lacks the buff tinge of the rest of the body, and has a grizzled grey coloration, contrasting with the white fur of the muzzle and chin, and with the black "mask" pattern around the eyes. A line of brownish-grey fur runs down the middle of the snout, joining the "mask" patterns on either side. The tail is yellowish, with six or seven black or brown rings that become fainter on the underside. In males, the scruff of the neck has a patch of relatively bright, orange fur.[7] Adults range from 58 to 82 centimetres (23 to 32 in) in total length, including the 23 to 26 centimetres (9.1 to 10.2 in) tail, and weigh between 3 to 4 kilograms (6.6 to 8.8 lb). This represents an example of insular dwarfism, and the animals are, on average, about 18% shorter and 45% lighter than the subspecies of common raccoon found on the local mainland, P. lotor shufeldti. Cozumel
Cozumel
raccoons also exhibit sexual dimorphism, with the males being around 20% heavier than the females.[7] Distribution and habitat[edit] According to the IUCN Red List, they are considered critically endangered.[2] In fact, they report that only about 250–300 individuals are left on the planet.[2][10] These raccoons are so extremely endangered because of their small geographic range. They are endemic to Cozumel
Cozumel
Island, an island around 478 square kilometres (185 sq mi) in area, lying off the east coast of the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico.[11] Cozumel
Cozumel
Island supports several other carnivores, including the dwarf coati ( Nasua
Nasua
narica nelsoni) and dwarf gray fox ( Urocyon
Urocyon
sp.).[12][13] Islands usually lack terrestrial mammals, especially carnivores, making the Cozumel
Cozumel
raccoon and the others unique.[14] On the island, the raccoons inhabit a range of habitats, but are primarily limited to the mangrove forests and sandy wetlands in the northwest tip of the island.[11][13] However, they have also been captured in semi-evergreen forests and agricultural lands surrounding these preferred habitats.,[7][12] and in the Punta Sur
Punta Sur
ecological park at the south end of the island.[13] Behavior[edit] Relatively little is known about the group size of the raccoons. They are primarily nocturnal and solitary animals, but may sometimes form family groups possibly consisting of the mother and cubs.[13] The raccoons live in densities of about 17-27 individuals per km2.,[12] and inhabit home ranges of around 67 hectares (170 acres) on average.[15] However, individuals do not appear to defend territories to any great extent, and their close relative, the common raccoon, can exist at very high densities when food is abundant.[16] Although there have been no detailed studies of their reproductive habits, females seem to give birth primarily between November and January, possibly with a second litter during the summer months.[7]

Cozumel
Cozumel
raccoon

Diet[edit] The habitat specificity of Cozumel
Cozumel
raccoons is in large part due to the type of foods they consume. Their overall diet consists of crabs, fruit, frogs, lizards, and insects.[11] They are a generalist omnivore, but crabs make up over 50% of their diet.[11] Their diet is somewhat seasonal.[11] During the wet season, fruit and vegetation are more abundant and become a large portion of the raccoons’ diet. Then in the dry season, they begin to consume more of the crabs, insects, lizards, etc. Crabs comprising more than half the food they eat could have an effect on their limited distribution: they stay near the water where crabs are abundant. Morphological specializations[edit] A large amount of research has been performed to determine whether the Cozumel
Cozumel
raccoon is indeed a separate species from the common raccoon. Cuaron et al. (2004) reported that research conducted by many different scholars concludes that they are separate species.[13] Body size and cranium size have been reported to be smaller in P. pygmaeus, hence the name pygmy. Other morphological differences include a broad black throat band, golden yellow tail and reduced teeth; "these and other characteristics point to a long period of isolation".[13] Conservation status[edit] Island carnivores at the top of the food chain often become extinct soon after the arrival of humans.[14] The main danger to the Cozumel raccoon is development of Cozumel
Cozumel
island due to the tourism industry.[17] Because the raccoons are only located in a small coastal area at the northwest corner of the island- an area covered for development- the effects of habitat loss are especially severe.[17] There are no laws protecting the raccoons and also no land set aside for them.[17] Newer threats to their survival that have been researched in recent years are diseases and parasites.[18] Cozumel
Cozumel
has a population of feral cats and domestic cats and dogs that can transmit diseases to the raccoons.[18] On average, there are about 2 different species present in each host. That is not overall abundance, but simply the absolute number of species found. Some captured raccoons had developed antibodies to certain diseases. Cats are only newly introduced on the island due to humans bringing them as pets.[18] Conservation actions[edit] One conservation approach would be to reduce or even eliminate human impact on the mangrove forests, especially in the northwest corner of the island.[12] This would constitute the halting of development in this area and to establish protected land for the raccoons. This land to be set aside would include the habitat that is crucial to the survival of the species, most importantly the mangrove forests and surrounding semi-evergreen forests. Another method that could help to restore the populations is captive breeding techniques.[17] If they willingly reproduce in captivity as the common raccoons do, it could be used successfully. Additionally, the arrival of pets, especially feral cats, brought more diseases and parasites that are having a significant effect on the raccoons. The best method of reducing these impacts is to remove as many feral cats as possible. For any conservation action to be successful, conservation personnel will need to find a way to compromise with the tourism industry to save the Cozumel
Cozumel
raccoons.[17] Glatston also urged researchers to continue examining the species to assure that the pygmy is a distinct species from its mainland sister taxon.[17] References[edit]

^ a b Wozencraft, W.C. (2005). "Order Carnivora". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal
Mammal
Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 627–628. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.  ^ a b c d e f Cuarón AD, de Grammont PC, Vázquez-Domínguez E, Valenzuela-Galván D, García-Vasco D, Reid F & Helgen K (2008). "Procyon pygmaeus". IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
of Threatened Species. Version 2008. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 2008-01-26.  ^ a b Helgen, Kristofer M.; Wilson, Don E. (2005). "A Systematic and Zoogeographic Overview of the Raccoons of Mexico
Mexico
and Central America". In Sánchez-Cordero, Víctor; Medellín, Rodrigo A. Contribuciones mastozoológicas en homenaje a Bernardo Villa. Mexico
Mexico
City: Instituto de Ecología of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. pp. 221–236. ISBN 978-970-32-2603-0. Retrieved 2008-08-09.  ^ Zeveloff, Samuel I. (2002). Raccoons: A Natural History. Washington, D. C.: Smithsonian Books. p. 45. ISBN 978-1-58834-033-7.  ^ Helgen, Kristofer M.; Wilson, Don E. (January 2003). "Taxonomic status and conservation relevance of the raccoons (Procyon spp.) of the West Indies". Journal of Zoology. Oxford: The Zoological Society of London. 259 (1): 69–76. doi:10.1017/S0952836902002972. ISSN 0952-8369.  ^ Hamblin, NL (1984). Animal
Animal
Use by the Cozumel
Cozumel
Maya. Tucson: The University of Arizona Press.  ^ a b c d e de Villa-Meza, A.; et al. (2011). "Procyon pygmaeus (Carnivora: Procyonidae)". Mammalian Species. 43 (1): 87–93. doi:10.1644/877.1.  ^ Merriam, CH (1901). "Six new mammals from Cozumel
Cozumel
Island, Yucatan". Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. 14: 99–104.  ^ Goldman, EA; Jackson, Hartley H. T. (1950). "Raccoons of North and Middle America". North American Fauna. 60: 1–153. doi:10.3996/nafa.60.0001.  ^ McFadden, K. W. (2004). "The ecology, evolution, and natural history of the endangered carnivores of Cozumel
Cozumel
Island, Mexico" (PhD Dissertation). New York: Columbia University.  ^ a b c d e McFadden KW, Sambrotto RN, Medellín RA, Gompper ME (2006). "Feeding habits of endangered pygmy raccoons (Procyon pygmaeus) based on stable isotope and fecal analyses". Journal of Mammalogy. 87: 501–509. doi:10.1644/05-MAMM-A-150R1.1.  ^ a b c d McFadden, Katherine W.; García-Vasco, Denise; Cuarón, Alfredo D.; Valenzuela-Galván, David; Medellín, Rodrigo A.; Gompper, Matthew E. (2009). "Vulnerable island carnivores: the endangered endemic dwarf procyonids from Cozumel
Cozumel
Island". Biodiversity Conservation. 19 (2): 491–502. doi:10.1007/s10531-009-9701-8.  ^ a b c d e f Cuaron, A.D.; Martinez-Morales M.A.; McFadden K.W.; Valenzuela D.; Gompper M.E. (2004). "The status of dwarf carnivores on Cozumel
Cozumel
Island, Mexico". Biodiversity Conservation. 13: 317–331. doi:10.1023/B:BIOC.0000006501.80472.cc.  ^ a b Alcover, J.A.; M. McMinn (1994). "Predators of vertebrates on islands". BioScience. 44 (1): 12–18. doi:10.2307/1312401. JSTOR 1312401.  ^ Cuarón, A. D.; et al. (2009). "Conservation of the endemic dwarf carnivores of Cozumel
Cozumel
Island, Mexico" (PDF). Small Carnivore Conservation. 41 (1): 15–21. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-03-31.  ^ Lotze, J.-H.; Anderson, S. (1979). "Procyon lotor". Mammalian Species. 119: 1–8. doi:10.2307/3503959.  ^ a b c d e f Glatston, A.R., ed. (1994). "The red panda, olingos, coatis, raccoons, and their relatives: status survey and conservation action plan for procyonids and ailurids". Gland, Switzerland: IUCN (World Conservation Union).  ^ a b c McFadden, K.W.; Wade, S.E.; Dubovi, E.J. & Gompper, M.E. (2005). "A serology and fecal parsitology survey of the critically endangered pygmy raccoon (Procyon pygmaeus)". J Wildlife Diseases. 41: 615–617. doi:10.7589/0090-3558-41.3.615. 

v t e

Extant species of family Procyonidae

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Order: Carnivora Suborder: Caniformia

Procyoninae

Procyon

Cozumel
Cozumel
raccoon (P. pygmaeus) Crab-eating raccoon
Crab-eating raccoon
(P. cancrivorus) Raccoon
Raccoon
(P. lotor) with the subspecies Bahamian raccoon
Bahamian raccoon
(P. l. maynardi) Barbados raccoon
Barbados raccoon
(P. l. gloveralleni) Guadeloupe raccoon
Guadeloupe raccoon
(P. l. minor) Tres Marias raccoon
Tres Marias raccoon
(P. l. insularis)

Nasua

South American coati
South American coati
(N. nasua) White-nosed coati
White-nosed coati
(N. narica) with the subspecies Cozumel
Cozumel
Island coati (N. narica nelsoni)

Nasuella

Eastern mountain coati (N. meridensis) Western mountain coati (N. olivacea)

Bassariscus

Cacomistle
Cacomistle
(B. sumichrasti) Ring-tailed cat
Ring-tailed cat
(B. astutus)

Potosinae

Potos

Kinkajou
Kinkajou
(P. flavus)

Bassaricyon

Eastern lowland olingo
Eastern lowland olingo
(B. alleni) Northern olingo
Northern olingo
(B. gabbii) Western lowland olingo
Western lowland olingo
(B. medius) Olinguito
Olinguito
(B. neblina)

Category

v t e

Extant Carnivora
Carnivora
species

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Infraclass: Eutheria Superorder: Laurasiatheria

Suborder Feliformia

Nandiniidae

Nandinia

African palm civet
African palm civet
(N. binotata)

Herpestidae (Mongooses)

Atilax

Marsh mongoose
Marsh mongoose
(A. paludinosus)

Bdeogale

Bushy-tailed mongoose
Bushy-tailed mongoose
(B. crassicauda) Jackson's mongoose
Jackson's mongoose
(B. jacksoni) Black-footed mongoose
Black-footed mongoose
(B. nigripes)

Crossarchus

Alexander's kusimanse
Alexander's kusimanse
(C. alexandri) Angolan kusimanse
Angolan kusimanse
(C. ansorgei) Common kusimanse
Common kusimanse
(C. obscurus) Flat-headed kusimanse
Flat-headed kusimanse
(C. platycephalus)

Cynictis

Yellow mongoose
Yellow mongoose
(C. penicillata)

Dologale

Pousargues's mongoose
Pousargues's mongoose
(D. dybowskii)

Galerella

Angolan slender mongoose
Angolan slender mongoose
(G. flavescens) Black mongoose
Black mongoose
(G. nigrata) Somalian slender mongoose
Somalian slender mongoose
(G. ochracea) Cape gray mongoose
Cape gray mongoose
(G. pulverulenta) Slender mongoose
Slender mongoose
(G. sanguinea)

Helogale

Ethiopian dwarf mongoose
Ethiopian dwarf mongoose
(H. hirtula) Common dwarf mongoose
Common dwarf mongoose
(H. parvula)

Herpestes

Short-tailed mongoose
Short-tailed mongoose
(H. brachyurus) Indian gray mongoose
Indian gray mongoose
(H. edwardsii) Indian brown mongoose
Indian brown mongoose
(H. fuscus) Egyptian mongoose
Egyptian mongoose
(H. ichneumon) Small Asian mongoose
Small Asian mongoose
(H. javanicus) Long-nosed mongoose
Long-nosed mongoose
(H. naso) Collared mongoose
Collared mongoose
(H. semitorquatus) Ruddy mongoose
Ruddy mongoose
(H. smithii) Crab-eating mongoose
Crab-eating mongoose
(H. urva) Stripe-necked mongoose
Stripe-necked mongoose
(H. vitticollis)

Ichneumia

White-tailed mongoose
White-tailed mongoose
(I. albicauda)

Liberiictus

Liberian mongoose
Liberian mongoose
(L. kuhni)

Mungos

Gambian mongoose
Gambian mongoose
(M. gambianus) Banded mongoose
Banded mongoose
(M. mungo)

Paracynictis

Selous' mongoose
Selous' mongoose
(P. selousi)

Rhynchogale

Meller's mongoose
Meller's mongoose
(R. melleri)

Suricata

Meerkat
Meerkat
(S. suricatta)

Hyaenidae (Hyenas)

Crocuta

Spotted hyena
Spotted hyena
(C. crocuta)

Hyaena

Brown hyena
Brown hyena
(H. brunnea) Striped hyena
Striped hyena
(H. hyaena)

Proteles

Aardwolf
Aardwolf
(P. cristatus)

Felidae

Large family listed below

Viverridae

Large family listed below

Eupleridae

Small family listed below

Family Felidae

Felinae

Acinonyx

Cheetah
Cheetah
(A. jubatus)

Caracal

Caracal
Caracal
(C. caracal) African golden cat
African golden cat
(C. aurata)

Catopuma

Bay cat
Bay cat
(C. badia) Asian golden cat
Asian golden cat
(C. temminckii)

Felis

European wildcat
European wildcat
(F. silvestris) African wildcat
African wildcat
(F. lybica) Jungle cat
Jungle cat
(F. chaus) Black-footed cat
Black-footed cat
(F. nigripes) Sand cat
Sand cat
(F. margarita) Chinese mountain cat
Chinese mountain cat
(F. bieti) Domestic cat (F. catus)

Leopardus

Ocelot
Ocelot
(L. pardalis) Margay
Margay
(L. wiedii) Pampas cat
Pampas cat
(L. colocola) Geoffroy's cat
Geoffroy's cat
(L. geoffroyi) Kodkod
Kodkod
(L. guigna) Andean mountain cat
Andean mountain cat
(L. jacobita) Oncilla
Oncilla
(L. tigrinus) Southern tigrina
Southern tigrina
(L. guttulus)

Leptailurus

Serval
Serval
(L. serval)

Lynx

Canadian lynx (L. canadensis) Eurasian lynx
Eurasian lynx
(L. lynx) Iberian lynx
Iberian lynx
(L. pardinus) Bobcat
Bobcat
(L. rufus)

Otocolobus

Pallas's cat
Pallas's cat
(O. manul)

Pardofelis

Marbled cat
Marbled cat
(P. marmorata)

Prionailurus

Fishing cat
Fishing cat
(P. viverrinus) Leopard cat
Leopard cat
(P. bengalensis) Sundaland leopard cat (P. javanensis) Flat-headed cat
Flat-headed cat
(P. planiceps) Rusty-spotted cat
Rusty-spotted cat
(P. rubiginosus)

Puma

Cougar
Cougar
(P. concolor)

Herpailurus

Jaguarundi
Jaguarundi
(H. yagouaroundi)

Pantherinae

Panthera

Lion
Lion
(P. leo) Jaguar
Jaguar
(P. onca) Leopard
Leopard
(P. pardus) Tiger
Tiger
(P. tigris) Snow leopard
Snow leopard
(P. uncia)

Neofelis

Clouded leopard
Clouded leopard
(N. nebulosa) Sunda clouded leopard
Sunda clouded leopard
(N. diardi)

Family Viverridae
Viverridae
(includes Civets)

Paradoxurinae

Arctictis

Binturong
Binturong
(A. binturong)

Arctogalidia

Small-toothed palm civet
Small-toothed palm civet
(A. trivirgata)

Macrogalidia

Sulawesi palm civet
Sulawesi palm civet
(M. musschenbroekii)

Paguma

Masked palm civet
Masked palm civet
(P. larvata)

Paradoxurus

Golden wet-zone palm civet (P. aureus) Asian palm civet
Asian palm civet
(P. hermaphroditus) Jerdon's palm civet (P. jerdoni) Golden palm civet
Golden palm civet
(P. zeylonensis)

Hemigalinae

Chrotogale

Owston's palm civet
Owston's palm civet
(C. owstoni)

Cynogale

Otter civet
Otter civet
(C. bennettii)

Diplogale

Hose's palm civet
Hose's palm civet
(D. hosei)

Hemigalus

Banded palm civet
Banded palm civet
(H. derbyanus)

Prionodontinae (Asiatic linsangs)

Prionodon

Banded linsang
Banded linsang
(P. linsang) Spotted linsang
Spotted linsang
(P. pardicolor)

Viverrinae

Civettictis

African civet
African civet
(C. civetta)

Genetta (Genets)

Abyssinian genet
Abyssinian genet
(G. abyssinica) Angolan genet
Angolan genet
(G. angolensis) Bourlon's genet
Bourlon's genet
(G. bourloni) Crested servaline genet
Crested servaline genet
(G. cristata) Common genet
Common genet
(G. genetta) Johnston's genet
Johnston's genet
(G. johnstoni) Rusty-spotted genet
Rusty-spotted genet
(G. maculata) Pardine genet
Pardine genet
(G. pardina) Aquatic genet
Aquatic genet
(G. piscivora) King genet
King genet
(G. poensis) Servaline genet
Servaline genet
(G. servalina) Haussa genet
Haussa genet
(G. thierryi) Cape genet
Cape genet
(G. tigrina) Giant forest genet
Giant forest genet
(G. victoriae)

Poiana

African linsang
African linsang
(P. richardsonii) Leighton's linsang
Leighton's linsang
(P. leightoni)

Viverra

Malabar large-spotted civet
Malabar large-spotted civet
(V. civettina) Large-spotted civet
Large-spotted civet
(V. megaspila) Malayan civet
Malayan civet
(V. tangalunga) Large Indian civet
Large Indian civet
(V. zibetha)

Viverricula

Small Indian civet
Small Indian civet
(V. indica)

Family Eupleridae

Euplerinae

Cryptoprocta

Fossa (C. ferox)

Eupleres

Eastern falanouc
Eastern falanouc
(E. goudotii) Western falanouc (E. major)

Fossa

Malagasy civet
Malagasy civet
(F. fossana)

Galidiinae

Galidia

Ring-tailed mongoose
Ring-tailed mongoose
(G. elegans)

Galidictis

Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose
Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose
(G. fasciata) Grandidier's mongoose
Grandidier's mongoose
(G. grandidieri)

Mungotictis

Narrow-striped mongoose
Narrow-striped mongoose
(M. decemlineata)

Salanoia

Brown-tailed mongoose
Brown-tailed mongoose
(S. concolor) Durrell's vontsira (S. durrelli)

Suborder Caniformia
Caniformia
(cont. below)

Ursidae (Bears)

Ailuropoda

Giant panda
Giant panda
(A. melanoleuca)

Helarctos

Sun bear
Sun bear
(H. malayanus)

Melursus

Sloth bear
Sloth bear
(M. ursinus)

Tremarctos

Spectacled bear
Spectacled bear
(T. ornatus)

Ursus

American black bear
American black bear
(U. americanus) Brown bear
Brown bear
(U. arctos) Polar bear
Polar bear
(U. maritimus) Asian black bear
Asian black bear
(U. thibetanus)

Mephitidae

Conepatus (Hog-nosed skunks)

Molina's hog-nosed skunk
Molina's hog-nosed skunk
(C. chinga) Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk
Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk
(C. humboldtii) American hog-nosed skunk
American hog-nosed skunk
(C. leuconotus) Striped hog-nosed skunk
Striped hog-nosed skunk
(C. semistriatus)

Mephitis

Hooded skunk
Hooded skunk
(M. macroura) Striped skunk
Striped skunk
(M. mephitis)

Mydaus

Sunda stink badger
Sunda stink badger
(M. javanensis) Palawan stink badger
Palawan stink badger
(M. marchei)

Spilogale (Spotted skunks)

Southern spotted skunk
Southern spotted skunk
(S. angustifrons) Western spotted skunk
Western spotted skunk
(S. gracilis) Eastern spotted skunk
Eastern spotted skunk
(S. putorius) Pygmy spotted skunk
Pygmy spotted skunk
(S. pygmaea)

Procyonidae

Bassaricyon (Olingos)

Eastern lowland olingo
Eastern lowland olingo
(B. alleni) Northern olingo
Northern olingo
(B. gabbii) Western lowland olingo
Western lowland olingo
(B. medius) Olinguito
Olinguito
(B. neblina)

Bassariscus

Ring-tailed cat
Ring-tailed cat
(B. astutus) Cacomistle
Cacomistle
(B. sumichrasti)

Nasua (Coatis inclusive)

White-nosed coati
White-nosed coati
(N. narica) South American coati
South American coati
(N. nasua)

Nasuella (Coatis inclusive)

Western mountain coati (N. olivacea) Eastern mountain coati (N. meridensis)

Potos

Kinkajou
Kinkajou
(P. flavus)

Procyon

Crab-eating raccoon
Crab-eating raccoon
(P. cancrivorus) Raccoon
Raccoon
(P. lotor) Cozumel
Cozumel
raccoon (P. pygmaeus)

Ailuridae

Ailurus

Red panda
Red panda
(A. fulgens)

Suborder Caniformia
Caniformia
(cont. above)

Otariidae (Eared seals) (includes fur seals and sea lions) ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Arctocephalus

South American fur seal
South American fur seal
(A. australis) Australasian fur seal (A. forsteri) Galápagos fur seal
Galápagos fur seal
(A. galapagoensis) Antarctic fur seal
Antarctic fur seal
(A. gazella) Juan Fernández fur seal
Juan Fernández fur seal
(A. philippii) Brown fur seal
Brown fur seal
(A. pusillus) Guadalupe fur seal
Guadalupe fur seal
(A. townsendi) Subantarctic fur seal
Subantarctic fur seal
(A. tropicalis)

Callorhinus

Northern fur seal
Northern fur seal
(C. ursinus)

Eumetopias

Steller sea lion
Steller sea lion
(E. jubatus)

Neophoca

Australian sea lion
Australian sea lion
(N. cinerea)

Otaria

South American sea lion
South American sea lion
(O. flavescens)

Phocarctos

New Zealand sea lion
New Zealand sea lion
(P. hookeri)

Zalophus

California sea lion
California sea lion
(Z. californianus) Galápagos sea lion
Galápagos sea lion
(Z. wollebaeki)

Odobenidae ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Odobenus

Walrus
Walrus
(O. rosmarus)

Phocidae (Earless seals) ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Cystophora

Hooded seal
Hooded seal
(C. cristata)

Erignathus

Bearded seal
Bearded seal
(E. barbatus)

Halichoerus

Gray seal (H. grypus)

Histriophoca

Ribbon seal
Ribbon seal
(H. fasciata)

Hydrurga

Leopard
Leopard
seal (H. leptonyx)

Leptonychotes

Weddell seal
Weddell seal
(L. weddellii)

Lobodon

Crabeater seal
Crabeater seal
(L. carcinophagus)

Mirounga (Elephant seals)

Northern elephant seal
Northern elephant seal
(M. angustirostris) Southern elephant seal
Southern elephant seal
(M. leonina)

Monachus

Mediterranean monk seal
Mediterranean monk seal
(M. monachus) Hawaiian monk seal
Hawaiian monk seal
(M. schauinslandi)

Ommatophoca

Ross seal
Ross seal
(O. rossi)

Pagophilus

Harp seal
Harp seal
(P. groenlandicus)

Phoca

Spotted seal
Spotted seal
(P. largha) Harbor seal
Harbor seal
(P. vitulina)

Pusa

Caspian seal
Caspian seal
(P. caspica) Ringed seal
Ringed seal
(P. hispida) Baikal seal
Baikal seal
(P. sibirica)

Canidae

Large family listed below

Mustelidae

Large family listed below

Family Canidae
Canidae
(includes dogs)

Atelocynus

Short-eared dog
Short-eared dog
(A. microtis)

Canis

Side-striped jackal
Side-striped jackal
(C. adustus) African golden wolf
African golden wolf
(C. anthus) Golden jackal
Golden jackal
(C. aureus) Coyote
Coyote
(C. latrans) Gray wolf
Gray wolf
(C. lupus) Black-backed jackal
Black-backed jackal
(C. mesomelas) Red wolf
Red wolf
(C. rufus) Ethiopian wolf
Ethiopian wolf
(C. simensis)

Cerdocyon

Crab-eating fox
Crab-eating fox
(C. thous)

Chrysocyon

Maned wolf
Maned wolf
(C. brachyurus)

Cuon

Dhole
Dhole
(C. alpinus)

Lycalopex

Culpeo
Culpeo
(L. culpaeus) Darwin's fox
Darwin's fox
(L. fulvipes) South American gray fox
South American gray fox
(L. griseus) Pampas fox
Pampas fox
(L. gymnocercus) Sechuran fox
Sechuran fox
(L. sechurae) Hoary fox
Hoary fox
(L. vetulus)

Lycaon

African wild dog
African wild dog
(L. pictus)

Nyctereutes

Raccoon
Raccoon
dog (N. procyonoides)

Otocyon

Bat-eared fox
Bat-eared fox
(O. megalotis)

Speothos

Bush dog
Bush dog
(S. venaticus)

Urocyon

Gray fox
Gray fox
(U. cinereoargenteus) Island fox
Island fox
(U. littoralis)

Vulpes (Foxes)

Bengal fox
Bengal fox
(V. bengalensis) Blanford's fox
Blanford's fox
(V. cana) Cape fox
Cape fox
(V. chama) Corsac fox
Corsac fox
(V. corsac) Tibetan sand fox
Tibetan sand fox
(V. ferrilata) Arctic fox
Arctic fox
(V. lagopus) Kit fox
Kit fox
(V. macrotis) Pale fox
Pale fox
(V. pallida) Rüppell's fox
Rüppell's fox
(V. rueppelli) Swift fox
Swift fox
(V. velox) Red fox
Red fox
(V. vulpes) Fennec fox
Fennec fox
(V. zerda)

Family Mustelidae

Lutrinae (Otters)

Aonyx

African clawless otter
African clawless otter
(A. capensis) Oriental small-clawed otter
Oriental small-clawed otter
(A. cinerea)

Enhydra

Sea otter
Sea otter
(E. lutris)

Hydrictis

Spotted-necked otter
Spotted-necked otter
(H. maculicollis)

Lontra

North American river otter
North American river otter
(L. canadensis) Marine otter
Marine otter
(L. felina) Neotropical otter
Neotropical otter
(L. longicaudis) Southern river otter
Southern river otter
(L. provocax)

Lutra

Eurasian otter
Eurasian otter
(L. lutra) Hairy-nosed otter
Hairy-nosed otter
(L. sumatrana)

Lutrogale

Smooth-coated otter
Smooth-coated otter
(L. perspicillata)

Pteronura

Giant otter
Giant otter
(P. brasiliensis)

Mustelinae (including badgers)

Arctonyx

Hog badger
Hog badger
(A. collaris)

Eira

Tayra
Tayra
(E. barbara)

Galictis

Lesser grison
Lesser grison
(G. cuja) Greater grison
Greater grison
(G. vittata)

Gulo

Wolverine
Wolverine
(G. gulo)

Ictonyx

Saharan striped polecat
Saharan striped polecat
(I. libyca) Striped polecat
Striped polecat
(I. striatus)

Lyncodon

Patagonian weasel
Patagonian weasel
(L. patagonicus)

Martes (Martens)

American marten
American marten
(M. americana) Yellow-throated marten
Yellow-throated marten
(M. flavigula) Beech marten
Beech marten
(M. foina) Nilgiri marten
Nilgiri marten
(M. gwatkinsii) European pine marten
European pine marten
(M. martes) Japanese marten
Japanese marten
(M. melampus) Sable
Sable
(M. zibellina)

Pekania

Fisher (P. pennanti)

Meles

Japanese badger
Japanese badger
(M. anakuma) Asian badger
Asian badger
(M. leucurus) European badger
European badger
(M. meles)

Mellivora

Honey badger
Honey badger
(M. capensis)

Melogale (Ferret-badgers)

Bornean ferret-badger
Bornean ferret-badger
(M. everetti) Chinese ferret-badger
Chinese ferret-badger
(M. moschata) Javan ferret-badger
Javan ferret-badger
(M. orientalis) Burmese ferret-badger
Burmese ferret-badger
(M. personata)

Mustela (Weasels and Ferrets)

Amazon weasel
Amazon weasel
(M. africana) Mountain weasel
Mountain weasel
(M. altaica) Stoat
Stoat
(M. erminea) Steppe polecat
Steppe polecat
(M. eversmannii) Colombian weasel
Colombian weasel
(M. felipei) Long-tailed weasel
Long-tailed weasel
(M. frenata) Japanese weasel
Japanese weasel
(M. itatsi) Yellow-bellied weasel
Yellow-bellied weasel
(M. kathiah) European mink
European mink
(M. lutreola) Indonesian mountain weasel
Indonesian mountain weasel
(M. lutreolina) Black-footed ferret
Black-footed ferret
(M. nigripes) Least weasel
Least weasel
(M. nivalis) Malayan weasel
Malayan weasel
(M. nudipes) European polecat
European polecat
(M. putorius) Siberian weasel
Siberian weasel
(M. sibirica) Back-striped weasel
Back-striped weasel
(M. strigidorsa) Egyptian weasel
Egyptian weasel
(M. subpalmata)

Neovison (Minks)

American mink
American mink
(N. vison)

Poecilogale

African striped weasel
African striped weasel
(P. albinucha)

Taxidea

American badger
American badger
(T. taxus)

Vormela

Marbled polecat
Marbled polecat
(V. peregusna)

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q651814 ARKive: procyon-pygmaeus EoL: 328056 GBIF: 5218818 iNaturalist: 41662 ITIS: 621972 IUCN: 1

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