1 History 2 Focus and expansion
2.1 Covance Research Products
3 Animal health and welfare
3.1 Ebola virus 3.2 Allegations of primate abuse
3.2.1 Münster, Germany 3.2.2 Vienna, Virginia, United States
3.3 New code
4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading
History Covance's origins go back to 1968, when Environmental Sciences Corporation – which manufactured equipment related to laboratory animals – opened for business in the basement of a former grocery store in Seattle, Washington. In 1972 it purchased and took the name of Hazleton Laboratories, a contract laboratory that conducted toxicology testing. In 1977 Corning Glass Works purchased a stake in Hazleton. According to material on the Funding Universe website, by 1982 Hazleton had become the largest independent biological testing company and life sciences laboratory in the United States, as well as the largest manufacturer of equipment in the world. The company carried out toxicology tests on animals of drugs, cosmetics, pesticides, and industrial chemicals, and bred rhesus monkeys and beagles for its own labs, as well as for chemical and drug companies, hospitals, universities and government agencies. Funding Universe writes that it also offered chemical analysis of new compound products for various industries, tested chemicals for gene mutations, and carried out research with monoclonal antibodies. In 1989 Corning Glass Works purchased G.H. Besselaar Associates, which conducted clinical trials to help drugs gain approval from the Food and Drug Administration, and Hazleton purchased Microtest Ltd., a molecular toxicology center in York, England. Corning Glass Works then changed its name to Corning, and created Corning Lab Services, which included Besselaar and Hazelton. In 1991 and 1992 Corning Lab Services acquired SciCor and Philadelphia Association of Clinical Trials; in 1993 Hazleton, Besselaar, and SciCor were combined, becoming Corning Pharmaceutical Services, then Corning Life Sciences. On January 9, 1995, Corning Pharmaceutical Services announced the acquisition of National Packaging Systems, Inc., an Allentown, PA based clinical trial packaging company; the company was renamed Corning National Packaging Inc. In April 1996 Corning spun off its lab testing and pharmaceutical services, creating two new companies, Quest Diagnostics and Covance, the latter with a head office in Princeton, New Jersey. Corning National Packaging Inc, with facilities in Allentown, PA, Horsham, England, and Basel, Switzerland was rebranded as Covance Pharmaceutical Packaging Services Inc. By 1998 Covance had net revenues of $731.6 million and a net income of $48.6 million. By 2012 it had annual revenues of over $2 billion, and over 11,000 employees in more than 60 countries. On February 14, 2001, Covance completed the sale of Covance Pharmaecutical Packaging Services Inc., later renamed Fisher Clinical Services, to Fisher Scientific International for a sum of $137.5 million. The net proceeds from the sale, approximately $110 million, were used to repay other Covance debt. Focus and expansion
Headquarters of Covance Inc., Princeton, New Jersey
The company's primary focus is serving the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries. As part of its clinical and non-clinical development services, it provides testing services to the environmental, food, and nutritional-supplement industries, and provides custom antibody products and services to the research community for neurological disorders. It also offers cell-type-specific marker antibodies for neuroscience; suites of products for both Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease; and an online antibody store, including phospho-specific and secondary antibodies. The company provides commercialization services to pharmaceutical, biotechnology and medical-device companies. Reimbursement and health economics consulting services are offered through its “Market Access Services” division, and post-approval services are provided through the company’s periapproval services group. Covance's Nutrition division provides food and dietary supplements analysis services. In 2009 Covance and Kellogg announced that Covance will provide analytical chemistry, microbiology, and stability testing for Kellogg products, a deal valued at $42 million. Covance continued its expansion with acquisitions of drug-development companies. In August 2005 it acquired GFI Clinical Services, an 80-bed clinical pharmacology business, from West Pharmaceutical Services, Inc. In May 2006 it acquired Signet Laboratories, Inc., a provider of monoclonal antibodies used in the research of cancer, infectious disease and neurodegenerative disease. In August 2008 it purchased early drug development facilities in Greenfield, Indiana, from Eli Lilly for $50 million; in a contract valued at $1.6 billion, Covance agreed to provide Eli Lilly with drug development services for 10 years. It also planned to provide services to other pharmaceutical and biotechnology clients at the Greenfield site. Covance's Nutritional Chemistry and Food Safety(NCFS) testing capabilities are extended with a new 10,000 sqft NCFS laboratory opened in Harrogate, England. The lab complements services delivered from Madison, WI; Battle Creek, MI; Greenfield, IN; and Singapore. Covance Research Products A division of the company, Covance Research Products, Inc. (CRP), based in Denver, Pennsylvania, offers antibody products and antibody-development services to the research community. CRP also deals in the import and sale of laboratory animals. According to its website, CRP breeds and sells dogs, rabbits, guinea pigs, non-human primates, and pigs. It has also bred and trademarked new breeds of animals, including the "Mini-Mongrel" dog. The company also imports wild-caught primates. Covance's animal-testing programs and facilities are AAALAC-accredited, ISO 9001:2000-registered, OLAW-assured, and USDA-research registered. According to the company, CRP programs and facilities are overseen by attending staff veterinarians and AALAS-certified technicians. Animal health and welfare Ebola virus In December 1989 a number of cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) were imported from Mindanao Island in the Philippines with the Ebola virus to Covance's Hazleton Research Products' Primate Quarantine Unit in Reston, Virginia. The company was using monkeys there to test cosmetics and drugs, according to The Washington Post. The virus was confirmed in one monkey and suspected in others among a group of 100. In March 1996 two macaques that had been shipped to Hazleton in Alice, Texas, tested positive for the Ebola virus from a group of 100 obtained from the same supplier. The strains were not infectious to humans, and no human illnesses were reported. Allegations of primate abuse The company became the subject of controversy following allegations in 2003–2005 by the British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection and People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals that non-human primates were being abused in its laboratories in Germany and the United States. No violations of the law were found by the authorities in the first case, and a small fine was levied in the second. In response, the company drew up a new welfare code to guide its treatment of laboratory animals. Münster, Germany
Photograph taken by Friedrich Mülln for the BUAV inside Covance, Münster, 2003
In 2003 the British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection (BUAV) sent a German investigative journalist, Friedrich Mülln, into the Covance facility in Münster, Germany's largest primate-testing center, where he filmed undercover for five months. The footage was shown on German public television in December 2003. Nature reported that it showed animal keepers dancing with half-anaesthetized monkeys, making their heads move to the rhythm of the music. It also showed staff handling the monkeys roughly and shouting at them. The monkeys were seen living isolated in small wire cages with little or no natural light and no environmental enrichment, with high noise levels caused by staff shouting and playing the radio, and undergoing surgery with no post-operative care. In response, Covance maintained that clips showing different technicians working in different buildings had been edited together, resulting in a sequence of events that did not take place. The company also said there was group housing and pair housing for some monkeys, but the BUAV chose not to show that. Covance said they planned to upgrade the housing to comply with future European Union guidelines. Jane Goodall, a primatologist, described the monkeys' living conditions as horrendous. Another primatologist, Stephen Brend, argued that using monkeys in such a stressed state was "bad science," and that trying to extrapolate useful data in such circumstances was an "untenable proposition." The environment minister for North Rhine-Westphalia asked the public prosecutor to investigate, and said that if the allegations were borne out, the company would lose its licence to keep primates. According to the European Biomedical Research Association, a lobby group, the authorities inspected Covance and insisted that the company install video cameras to monitor staff working with primates. Covance appealed through the courts, which ruled that video monitoring would infringe the rights of the staff. The public prosecutor's office viewed the film and questioned witnesses, and concluded that Covance "had not rendered themselves liable to prosecution" and that the state veterinary officer "had not failed in his supervisory duties." Vienna, Virginia, United States People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) found similar conditions in Covance's Vienna, Virginia, lab when it sent an undercover investigator to obtain a job there as a technician from April 2004 to March 2005. In June 2005 Covance filed a lawsuit in the United States against PETA and the investigator for fraud, breach of employee contract, and "conspiracy to harm the company's business by deceitfully infiltrating and videotaping the ... facility." The company filed a parallel lawsuit in England in an attempt to stop PETA showing the tape; the British judge called the footage "highly disturbing," and ruled that there was a legitimate public interest in the material being shown. Covance and PETA agreed to a settlement that resulted in no payment to Covance, and with PETA allowed to continue to publish the video. PETA accepted a five-year ban on attempts to infiltrate Covance facilities. Covance announced in March 2006 that inspections by the Food & Drug Administration had "resulted in no findings to substantiate any claims made against the facility." Inspections by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) resulted in 16 citations in April 2006. The USDA declined to give details; according to Covance the violations ranged from "administrative issues to scope of veterinary authority." The company agreed to pay a settlement of $8,720. New code In response to the controversy, Covance issued a statement undertaking to observe a number of principles, including treating the animals in its care with respect, abiding by all applicable laws and regulations, employing alternatives where appropriate, minimizing animal discomfort and stress, training employees, and encouraging them to report any misconduct. See also
International primate trade Laboratory animal sources List of Ebola outbreaks Nafovanny Non-human primate experiments
^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-08-26. Retrieved 2014-08-24. ^ Staff. "2014-BIT-Brochure" (PDF). Bio-IT World Expo. Cambridge Healthtech Institute. p. 13 (col 2). Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 March 2016. Retrieved 17 June 2016. (Registration required (help)). ^ a b "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-08-26. Retrieved 2014-08-24. ^ a b "About Covance" Archived 2012-04-24 at the Wayback Machine., Covance. ^ Covance website Archived 2005-10-31 at the Wayback Machine.. ^ "Corning/covance Spin-off Agreement". TechAgreements.com. Archived from the original on 2009-01-13. Retrieved 2008-10-01. ^ For it running the largest primate laboratory in Germany, see Schiermeier, Quirin. "Primate lab faces closure threat over mistreatment charge" Archived 2008-09-06 at the Wayback Machine., Nature, 427, 4, January 1, 2004.
For Covance's description of its breeding facilities, see "About CRP", Covance Research Products. Also see "Primates", Covance Research Products. Clemons, Donna J. et al. "Safety and Efficacy Evaluation using Nonhuman primates", in Abee, Christian R. Nonhuman Primates in Biomedical Research: Biology and Management. Academic Press, 2012, p. 493ff.
^ "UPDATE 3-LabCorp to pay $6.1 bln for drug trial company Covance". Reuters. 3 Nov 2014. Archived from the original on 19 February 2015. Retrieved 18 May 2015. ^ a b "Covance History" Archived 2012-03-04 at the Wayback Machine., fundinguniverse.com; taken from Derdak, Thomas and Pederson, Jay P. International Directory of Company Histories. St. James Press, 2000, Volume 30.
For Corning's acquisition of Hazleton Laboratories in 1987 (it purchased a stake in it in 1977), see "COMPANY NEWS; Corning-Hazleton". The New York Times. 1987-01-03. For Corning's acquisition of SciCor in 1991, see "Business Briefs". The New York Times. 1991-03-30. Archived from the original on 2016-03-06. Also see "ACRO Remembers Industry Pioneer G. Hein Besselaar, MD, PhD". ACROHealth.org. 2004-03-18. Archived from the original on January 16, 2009.
^ Template:Site news ^ "Fisher Scientific Completes Acquisition of Pharmaceutical Packaging Services Business from Covance Inc". The Free Library. 2001-02-14. ^ "Covance Completes Sale of Pharmaceutical Packaging Business to Fisher Scientific". The Free Library. 2001-02-14. ^ "Periapproval Services". Archived from the original on February 29, 2008. Retrieved 2008-10-04. ^ "Market Access Services". Archived from the original on 2008-10-19. Retrieved 2008-10-04. ^ "Food and Dietary Supplements at Covance". Archived from the original on 2010-11-14. Retrieved 2011-01-07. ^ Kellogg "US: Kellogg, Covance sign food testing deal" Archived 2012-03-14 at the Wayback Machine., Just-food, December 2, 2009. ^ "Investor Relations at Covance: Press Release" Archived 2007-11-01 at the Wayback Machine., Covance. ^ "The Geomics and Proteomics Information portal - Coavance Acquires Signet Laboratories". Technology Networks. 2006-06-01. Archived from the original on 2007-09-29. Retrieved 2008-08-10. ^ "Covance, Lilly Deal Grows on CRO Industry". ClinicalTrialsToday.com. 2008-08-08. Archived from the original on March 28, 2009. Retrieved 2008-10-04. ^ "Covance to Open Nutritional Chemistry and Food Safety Site in UK". foodsafetymagazine.com. 2014-01-23. Archived from the original on 2015-09-24. Retrieved 2014-03-23. ^ "About CRP", Covance Research Products.
Also see "Primates", Covance Research Products.
^ "HOME". www.crpinc.com. Archived from the original on 30 November 2016. Retrieved 1 May 2018. ^ Cohn, D'Vera. "Deadly Ebola Virus Found In Va. Laboratory Monkey;Animals Sent to Reston From Philippines" Archived 2012-11-29 at the Wayback Machine., The Washington Post, December 1, 1989. ^ "TDH Schedules Briefing on Investigation into Monkeys with Ebola", Texas Department of State Health Services, April 15, 1996.
Flores, Matt. "Monkey ebola virus likely not harmful to humans", San Antonio Express News, April 17, 1996. Rollin, Pierre E. et al. "Ebola (Subtype Reston) Virus among Quarantined Nonhuman Primates Recently Imported from the Philippines to the United States" Archived 2016-03-11 at the Wayback Machine., The Journal of Infectious Diseases, Vol. 179, Supplement 1. Ebola: The Virus and the Disease (Feb., 1999), pp. S108-S114/
^ "Breeder wants his monkeys spared", CNN, April 18, 1996.
"Known Cases and Outbreaks of Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever, in Chronological Order". CDC Special Pathogens Branch (SPB). Archived from the original on 2008-08-29. Retrieved 2008-10-04.
^ "Covance under fire in Germany" Archived 2013-03-17 at the Wayback Machine., in-Pharama, December 19, 2003.
Schiermeier, Quirin. "Primate lab faces closure threat over mistreatment charge" Archived 2008-09-06 at the Wayback Machine., Nature, 427, 4, January 1, 2004. For the legal response to the first (BUAV) case, see European Biomedical Research Association. "Covance cleared of primate charges" Archived 2007-09-28 at the Wayback Machine., 2004. Benz, Kathy & McManus, Michael. "PETA accuses lab of animal cruelty" Archived 2009-09-14 at the Wayback Machine., CNN, May 17, 2005. For the Covance animal welfare code, see "Animal Welfare Statement" Archived 2010-10-10 at the Wayback Machine., Covance, undated. For the fine in the second (PETA) case, see "Covance announces conclusion of U.S. Food and Drug Administration and Department of Agriculture Inspections of its Vienna, VA facility", March 31, 2006. Also see Owen, Marna. Animal Rights: Noble Cause Or Needless Effort?. Twenty-First Century Books (USA Today), 2009, p. 5ff
^ a b c Schiermeier, Quirin. "Primate lab faces closure threat over mistreatment charge" Archived 2008-09-06 at the Wayback Machine., Nature, 427, 4, January 1, 2004. ^ a b "Covance: Footage banned from British website" Archived 2011-08-30 at the Wayback Machine., British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection, hosted by PETA, accessed April 26, 2012.
"Inside Covance: BUAV/ECEAE launches first ever undercover investigation in an animal testing laboratory in Germany", Europäische Koalition zur Beendigung von Tierversuchen, press release, December 9, 2003.
^ a b European Biomedical Research Association. "Covance cleared of primate charges" Archived 2007-09-28 at the Wayback Machine., 2004, accessed August 18, 2007. ^ Benz, Kathy & McManus, Michael. "PETA accuses lab of animal cruelty" Archived 2009-09-14 at the Wayback Machine., CNN, May 17, 2005.
"Covance: Undercover Investigation in Virginia" Archived 2010-05-31 at the Wayback Machine., PETA, April 26, 2004 – March 11, 2005. "Covance photo gallery" Archived December 3, 2006, at the Wayback Machine., People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals.
^ a b "Local briefing", The Washington Post, June 24, 2005.
"Covance Prevails in PETA Lawsuit; Court Enters Order Requiring PETA to Comply With Ban on Infiltration" Archived 2007-09-29 at the Wayback Machine., PR Newswire (source: Covance), undated.
^ Wagman, Bruce A.; Waisman, Sonia S.; and Frasch, Pamela D. Animal Law: Cases and Materials. Carolina Academic Press, 4th edition, 2009, pp. 515–516. ^ Pfister, Bonnie. "Firm fined $8,720 after PETA video", Associated Press, April 1, 2006.
"Covance announces conclusion of U.S. Food and Drug Administration and Department of Agriculture Inspections of its Vienna, VA facility", March 31, 2006.
^ "Animal Welfare Statement" Archived 2010-10-10 at the Wayback Machine., Covance, August 1, 2013.
Official site Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "Known Cases and Outbreaks of Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever, in Chronological Order", 12 October 2011. Covance. "2011 Annual report". Covance Laboratories Inc v. People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals, et al., Chancery No. 2005–2590 (Va. Cir. Ct., Fairfax City, June 3, 2005. Covance Laboratories Ltd, et al. v. Covance Campaign, et al., Claim Nom 5C-00295, High Court of Justice, Chancery Division, June 16, 2005. Mirowski, Philip and Van Horn, Robert. "The Contract Research Organization and the Commercialization of Scientific Research", Social Studies of Science, Vol. 35, No. 4 (August 2005), pp. 503–548.
v t e
Pharmaceutical companies of the United States
Abbott Laboratories Acorda Therapeutics Aderis Advaxis Alcon Alexion Alkermes Allergan Alnylam Amgen Avax Technologies Baxter BioCryst Biogen Bioverativ Biovest Biovista Bristol-Myers Squibb Century Ceragenix Combe CytoSport CytRx Danco Laboratories Eli Lilly Endo
Galena Biopharma Genentech Gilead Sciences Ionis Institute for OneWorld Health Intercept Johnson & Johnson
Ethicon Janssen Biotech McNeil Consumer Healthcare Ortho-McNeil
Kinetic Concepts Mallinckrodt McKesson Melinta Therapeutics Melior Discovery Mentholatum Merck & Co. Myriad Genetics Northwest Biotherapeutics Norwich Pharma NovaBay Ovation Perrigo Pfizer
Pharmaceutical Product Development Prasco Laboratories Procter & Gamble Proteon Therapeutics Purdue Pharma Quark Regeneron Repros Therapeutics RespireRx Sarepta Therapeutics Savage Laboratories Sheffield Spectrum Tec Laboratories Titan Trevena Inc Upsher-Smith Ventria Bioscience Vertex West Pharmaceutical Services
ALZA Amylin ARIAD Barr Biolex Bradley CancerVax Cephalon CoTherix Covance Covidien Cubist Cutter Laboratories DNAPrint Genomics Epix Forest Laboratories Genta ImClone Systems ISTA King KV Leiner Health Products Martek Biosciences Massengill Miles Laboratories Naurex Nereus Nuvelo Organon Ortho OSI Parke-Davis Qualitest Rib-X Schering-Plough Smith, Kline & French Sterling Drug Tanox TAP Trubion Upjohn Verus Vion ViroPharma Wyeth Zonite
List of pharmaceutical companies
v t e
Animal testing Alternatives to animal testing Animal testing on invertebrates Animal testing on frogs Animal testing on non-human primates Animal testing on rabbits Animal testing on rodents Experimentation on prisoners History of animal testing History of model organisms Laboratory animal sources Toxicology testing
Animal rights Animal welfare Pain and suffering in laboratory animals Biomedical research Great Ape research ban International trade in primates
Brown Dog affair Britches Cambridge University primates Pit of despair Silver Spring monkeys Unnecessary Fuss
Charles River Laboratories, Inc. Covance Envigo Harlan Huntingdon Life Sciences Laboratory animal suppliers in the United Kingdom Nafovanny Shamrock Farm
Anti-Vivisection Coalition Americans for Medical Progress American Association for Laboratory Animal Science American Association for the Advancement of Science Boyd Group British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection Dr Hadwen Trust Foundation For Biomedical Research National Anti-Vivisection Society New England Anti-Vivisection Society People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) ALF Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine Primate Freedom Project Pro-Test SPEAK Research Defence Society Speaking of Research SHAC Stop Sequani Animal Testing Understanding Animal Research
Colin Blakemore Carl Cohen Gill Langley Ingrid Newkirk Neal Barnard Jerry Vlasak Simon Festing Tipu Aziz
EU Directive 2010/63/EU (EU) Animal testing regulations Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986 (UK) Animal Welfare Act 1999 (NZ) Animal Welfare Act of 1966 (US)
Animal testing Animal rights An