The COUP OF 18 BRUMAIRE brought General
* 1 Context * 2 Events of 18 Brumaire, Year VIII * 3 Events of 19 Brumaire
* 4 Aftermath
* 4.1 Marx
* 5 References * 6 External links
After Habsburg-controlled Austria declared war on 12 March 1799,
Dazzled by Napoleon's campaign in the Middle East, the public
received him with an ardor that convinced Sieyès he had found the
general indispensable to his planned coup. However, from the moment
of his return,
Perhaps the gravest potential obstacles to a coup were in the army.
Some generals, such as
Prior to the coup, troops were conveniently deployed around
EVENTS OF 18 BRUMAIRE, YEAR VIII
On the morning of 18 Brumaire,
Lucien Bonaparte falsely persuaded the
Councils that a
Jacobin coup was at hand in Paris, and induced them to
depart for the safety of the suburban
Château de Saint-Cloud .
Later that morning,
Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès
The resignation of three of the five Directors prevented a quorum and thus practically abolished the Directory, but the two Jacobin Directors, Louis-Jérôme Gohier and Jean-François-Auguste Moulin , continued to protest furiously. Both men were arrested by Napoleon's ally, General Jean Victor Marie Moreau , and by the following day they were compelled to give up their resistance.
In contrast to the Directory, the two Councils were not yet intimidated and continued meeting.
EVENTS OF 19 BRUMAIRE
By the following day, the deputies had, for the most part, realized that they were facing an attempted coup rather than being protected from a Jacobin rebellion. Faced with their recalcitrance, Napoleon stormed into the chambers, escorted by a small force of grenadiers . While perhaps unplanned, this proved to be the coup within the coup: from this point, this was a military affair.
Napoleon's reception by the
Council of Five Hundred was even more
hostile. His grenadiers entered just as the legality of Barras'
resignation was being challenged by the Jacobins in the chamber. Upon
A motion was raised in the
Council of Five Hundred to declare
The Ancients passed a decree which adjourned the Councils for three
months, appointed Napoleon, Sieyès, and Ducos provisional consuls,
and named the
The Directory was crushed, but the coup within the coup was not yet
complete. The use of military force had certainly strengthened
Napoleon's hand vis à vis Sieyès and the other plotters. With the
Council routed, the plotters convened two commissions, each consisting
of twenty-five deputies from the two Councils. The plotters
essentially intimidated the commissions into declaring a provisional
government, the first form of the Consulate with Napoleon, Sieyès,
and Ducos as Consuls. The lack of reaction from the streets proved
that the revolution was, indeed, over. "A shabby compound of brute
force and imposture, the 18th
Brumaire was nevertheless condoned, nay
applauded, by the French nation. Weary of revolution, men sought no
more than to be wisely and firmly governed." Resistance by Jacobin
officeholders in the provinces was quickly crushed. Twenty Jacobin
deputies were exiled, and others were arrested. The commissions then
drew up the "short and obscure
Constitution of the Year VIII
Bonaparte thus completed his coup within a coup by the adoption of a constitution under which the First Consul, a position he was sure to hold, had greater power than the other two. In particular, he appointed the Senate and the Senate interpreted the constitution. The Sénat conservateur allowed him to rule by decree, so the more independent Conseil d\'État and Tribunat were relegated to unimportant roles. It led ultimately to the rise of the First French Empire .
* ^ A B C D E F Holland 1911 .
* ^ Doyle, p.374.
* ^ A B C D E Doyle, p. 375.
* ^ Lefebvre, p. 199.
* ^ Rapport, 1998
* ^ Crook, Malcolm (1999). "The Myth Of The 18 Brumaire". H-France
* Doyle, William (1990). The Oxford History of the French Revolution (2 ed.). Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199252985 . * Lefebvre, Georges ; Soboul, Albert (1962). The Directory. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. OCLC 668426465 . * Lefebvre, Georges. The French Revolution Volume II: from 1793 to 1799 (1964) pp 252–56 * Rapport, Michael (January 1998). "Napoleon\'s rise to power". History Today. * This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Holland, Arthur William (1911). "French Revolution, The". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica . 11 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 154–171.