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The County
County
of Gorizia
Gorizia
(Italian: Contea di Gorizia, German: Grafschaft Görz, Slovene: Goriška grofija, Friulian: Contee di Gurize), from 1365 Princely County
County
of Gorizia, was a State of the Holy Roman Empire. Originally mediate Vogts of the Patriarchs of Aquileia, the Counts of Gorizia
Gorizia
(Meinhardiner) ruled over several fiefs in the area of Lienz and in the Friuli
Friuli
region of northeastern Italy
Italy
with their residence at Gorizia
Gorizia
(Görz). In 1253 the Counts of Gorizia
Gorizia
inherited the County
County
of Tyrol, from 1271 onwards ruled by the Gorizia-Tyrol branch which became extinct in the male line in 1335. The younger line ruled the comital lands of Gorizia and Lienz
Lienz
until its extinction in 1500, whereafter the estates were finally acquired by the Austrian House of Habsburg.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Gorizia-Tyrol 1.2 Habsburg

2 Counts 3 See also 4 References 5 External links

History[edit]

Bruck Castle, Lienz

Count Meinhard I, a descendant of the Meinhardiner noble family with possessions around Lienz
Lienz
in the Duchy of Bavaria, is mentioned as early as 1107. As a vogt official of the Patriarchs of Aquileia, he was enfeoffed with large estates in the former March of Friuli, including the town of Gorizia, and from 1127 on called himself a Graf von Görz. The borders of the county changed frequently in the following four centuries, due to frequent wars with Aquileia
Aquileia
and other counties, but also to the subdivision of the territory in two main nuclei: one around the Bavarian ancestral seat of Lienz
Lienz
on the upper Drava
Drava
River up to Innichen
Innichen
in the Puster Valley, the other centered on Gorizia
Gorizia
in Friuli
Friuli
itself. Gorizia-Tyrol[edit] Meinhard's descendant Count Meinhard III of Gorizia, a follower of the Hohenstaufen emperor Frederick II, upon the extinction of the ducal House of Babenberg
House of Babenberg
was appointed administrator of Styria in 1248. He campaigned the adjacent Duchy of Carinthia
Duchy of Carinthia
but was defeated by the troops of Duke Bernhard von Spanheim
Bernhard von Spanheim
and his son Archbishop Philip of Salzburg at Greifenburg
Greifenburg
in 1252. Nevertheless, the county reached the apex of its power, when Meinhard III inherited County
County
of Tyrol (as Meinhard I) from his father-in-law Count Albert IV one year later.

Gorizia
Gorizia
Castle

After Count Meinhard III had died in 1258, his sons at first ruled jointly until in 1271 they divided their heritage: While the elder Meinhard IV took the comital Tyrolean lands west of the Puster Valley, his brother Albert retained the Meinhardiner ancestral lands around Lienz
Lienz
and Gorizia. After his death, the County
County
of Gorizia
Gorizia
was again partitoned among his sons into the "inner county" at Gorizia, ruled by Henry III, and the "outer county" around Lienz
Lienz
und Albert II. When Count Henry III was assassinated in 1323, the Gorizia
Gorizia
lands were shattered into four countries. The Counts of Gorizia
Gorizia
temporarily controlled the Italian March of Treviso (Marca Trevigiana) and the remains of the Istrian march around Pazin
Pazin
(Mitterburg), which Count Albert III of Görz bequeathed to the House of Habsburg
House of Habsburg
in 1365. In 1365 Count Meinhard VI of Görz was granted the princely title by the Luxemborg emperor Charles IV, the county was thereon called Gefürstete Grafschaft Görz. The Meinhardiner nevertheless suffered a steep decline under their powerful neighbours, the Austrian lands of the Habsburg dynasty and the Republic of Venice. After the Habsburgs had acquired the Carinthian duchy with the March of Carniola
March of Carniola
in 1335 and the County
County
of Tyrol in 1363, the remaining Gorizia
Gorizia
lands of Lienz were a thorn in their side, separating the dynasty's "hereditary lands". Venice had conquered the former Patriarchate territories in Friuli, which were incorporated into the Domini di Terraferma
Domini di Terraferma
by 1434. The Council of Ten
Council of Ten
strived for the adjacent "inner county" lands around Gorizia
Gorizia
up to the Venetian Stato da Màr
Stato da Màr
territories in Istria. Due to the pressure, the Gorizia
Gorizia
counts took their residence at Bruck Castle in Lienz. Habsburg[edit]

Inner and Outer Gorizia
Gorizia
territories (in white), late 15th century

In 1429 the county was reunited under the single rule of Count Henry VI. His son, the last count Leonhard, died in 1500 and despite claims raised by Venice, according to a contract of inheritance the county fell to the Habsburg emperor Maximilian I. While the Lienz
Lienz
area was administrated with the Tyrolean crown land, the "inner county" of Gorizia
Gorizia
remained an Imperial State
Imperial State
of the Holy Roman Empire
Roman Empire
ruled by the Inner Austrian Archdukes as part of the Austrian Circle, governed by a capitano. Its territory included the Isonzo Valley down to Aquileia, the area of Cormons
Cormons
and Duino, and the former Venetian fortress of Gradisca, which was conquered by Imperial troops in 1511. Monfalcone
Monfalcone
formed a Venetian exclave in the county from 1420 to 1797. In 1647 Emperor Ferdinand III separated the "County of Gradisca" from Gorizia
Gorizia
for his courtier Johann Anton von Eggenberg, until in 1747 both were again merged to form the Princely County
County
of Gorizia
Gorizia
and Gradisca, a crown land of the Habsburg Monarchy. Counts[edit]

Gorizia
Gorizia
coat of arms, Ingeram Codex, 1459

Meginhard, Count in the Puster Valley
Puster Valley
(died about 1090) Engelbert I, son, 1090–1122 Meinhard I, brother, 1122–1142 Henry II, son of Meinhard I, 1142–1150 Engelbert II, brother, 1150–1191, also Margrave of Istria
Istria
from 1188 Engelbert III, son, 1191–1220 Meinhard II the Elder, brother, 1220–1231 Meinhard III, son of Engelbert III, 1231–1258, also Count of Tyrol (as Meinhard I of Gorizia-Tyrol) from 1253 Meinhard IV, son, 1258–1271, Count of Tyrol 1258–1295 (as Meinhard II of Gorizia-Tyrol), also Duke of Carinthia from 1286

Albert I, brother, 1258–1304

Henry III, son of Albert I, 1304–1323 John Henry IV, son, 1323–1338, under tutelage of his uncle Albert II of Gorizia
Gorizia
until 1325 Albert III, son of Albert II, 1338–1374

Meinhard VI, brother, 1338–1385 Henry V, brother, 1338–1362

Henry VI, son of Meinhard VI, 1385–1454 John II, son, 1454–1462

Leonhard, brother, 1454–1500

Line extinct, county inherited by the Habsburg king Maximilian I, Archduke of Austria. See also[edit]

House of Gorizia History of Gorizia Austrian Empire History of Slovenia

References[edit]

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External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to County
County
of Görz.

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