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A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is an Internet
Internet
top-level domain generally used or reserved for a country, sovereign state, or dependent territory identified with a country code. All ASCII
ASCII
ccTLD identifiers are two letters long, and all two-letter top-level domains are ccTLDs. In 2018, the Internet
Internet
Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) began implementing internationalized country code top-level domains, consisting of language-native characters when displayed in an end-user application. Creation and delegation of ccTLDs is described in RFC 1591, corresponding to ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 country codes.

Contents

1 Types 2 Delegation and management 3 History 4 Relation to ISO 3166-1

4.1 Unused ISO 3166-1 codes 4.2 ASCII
ASCII
ccTLDs not in ISO 3166-1 4.3 Historical ccTLDs

5 Internationalized ccTLDs 6 Unconventional usage

6.1 Commercial usage

7 See also 8 Notes and references 9 External links

Types[edit] Main article: Top-level domain § Types As of 2015, IANA distinguishes the following groups of top-level domains:[1]

infrastructure top-level domain (ARPA) generic top-level domains (gTLD) restricted generic top-level domains (grTLD) sponsored top-level domains (sTLD) country code top-level domains (ccTLD) test top-level domains (tTLD) Delegation and management[edit] IANA is responsible for determining an appropriate trustee for each ccTLD. Administration and control are then delegated to that trustee, which is responsible for the policies and operation of the domain. The current delegation can be determined from IANA's list of ccTLDs. Individual ccTLDs may have varying requirements and fees for registering subdomains. There may be a local-presence requirement (for instance, citizenship or other connection to the ccTLD), as, for example, the Canadian (ca) and German (de) domains, or registration may be open.

History[edit] The first registered ccTLDs were .us, .uk, and .il, all registered in 1985. In 1986, .au, .de, .fi, .fr, .jp, .kr, .nl, and .se
.se
were registered.

Relation to ISO 3166-1[edit] .mw-parser-output .templatequote overflow:hidden;margin:1em 0;padding:0 40px .mw-parser-output .templatequote .templatequotecite line-height:1.5em;text-align:left;padding-left:1.6em;margin-top:0 The IANA is not in the business of deciding what is and what is not a country. The selection of the ISO 3166 list as a basis for country code top-level domain names was made with the knowledge that ISO has a procedure for determining which entities should be and should not be on that list.— Jon Postel, RFC 1591[2]

Unused ISO 3166-1 codes[edit] Almost all current ISO 3166-1 codes have been assigned and do exist in DNS. However, some of these are effectively unused. In particular, the ccTLDs for the Norwegian dependency Bouvet Island
Bouvet Island
(bv) and the designation Svalbard and Jan Mayen
Svalbard and Jan Mayen
(sj) do exist in DNS, but no subdomains have been assigned, and it is Norid
Norid
policy to not assign any at present. Two French territories—bl (Saint Barthélemy) and mf (Saint Martin)—still[update] await local assignment by France's government. The code eh, although eligible as ccTLD for Western Sahara, has never been assigned and does not exist in DNS. Only one subdomain is still registered in gb[3] ( ISO 3166-1 for the United Kingdom), and no new registrations are being accepted for it. Sites in the United Kingdom generally use uk (see below). The former .um ccTLD for the U.S. Minor Outlying Islands was removed in April 2008. Under RFC 1591 rules, .um is eligible as a ccTLD on request by the relevant governmental agency and local Internet
Internet
user community.

ASCII
ASCII
ccTLDs not in ISO 3166-1[edit] Several ASCII
ASCII
ccTLDs are in use that are not ISO 3166-1 two-letter codes. Some of these codes were specified in older versions of the ISO list.

uk (United Kingdom): The ISO 3166-1 code for the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is GB. However, the JANET network had already selected uk as a top-level identifier for its pre-existing Name Registration Scheme, and this was incorporated into the DNS root. gb was assigned with the intention of a transition, but this never occurred and the use of uk is now entrenched. su This obsolete ISO 3166 code for the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
was assigned when the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
was still extant; moreover, new su registrations are accepted. ac (Ascension Island): This code is a vestige of IANA's decision in 1996 to allow the use of codes reserved in the ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 reserve list for use by the Universal Postal Union. The decision was later reversed, with Ascension Island
Ascension Island
now the sole outlier. (Three other ccTLDs, gg (Guernsey), im (Isle of Man) and je (Jersey) also fell under this category from 1996 until they received corresponding ISO 3166 codes in March 2006.) eu (European Union): On September 25, 2000, ICANN
ICANN
decided to allow the use of any two-letter code in the ISO 3166-1 reserve list that is reserved for all purposes. Only EU currently meets this criterion. Following a decision by the EU's Council of Telecommunications Ministers in March 2002, progress was slow, but a registry (named EURid) was chosen by the European Commission, and criteria for allocation set: ICANN
ICANN
approved eu as a ccTLD, and it opened for registration on 7 December 2005 for the holders of prior rights. Since 7 April 2006, registration is open to all in the European Economic Area. Historical ccTLDs[edit] ccTLDs may be removed if that country ceases to exist. There are three ccTLDs that have been deleted after the corresponding 2-letter code was withdrawn from ISO 3166-1: cs (for Czechoslovakia), zr (for Zaire) and tp (for East Timor). There may be a significant delay between withdrawal from ISO 3166-1 and deletion from the DNS; for example, ZR ceased to be an ISO 3166-1 code in 1997, but the zr ccTLD was not deleted until 2001. Other ccTLDs corresponding to obsolete ISO 3166-1 codes have not yet been deleted. In some cases they may never be deleted due to the amount of disruption this would cause for a heavily used ccTLD. In particular, the Soviet Union's ccTLD su remains in use more than twenty years after SU was removed from ISO 3166-1. The historical country codes dd for the German Democratic Republic
German Democratic Republic
and yd for South Yemen
South Yemen
were eligible for a ccTLD, but not allocated; see also de and ye. The temporary reassignment of country code cs ( Serbia
Serbia
and Montenegro) until its split into rs and me ( Serbia
Serbia
and Montenegro, respectively) led to some controversies[4][5] about the stability of ISO 3166-1 country codes, resulting in a second edition of ISO 3166-1 in 2007 with a guarantee that retired codes will not be reassigned for at least 50 years, and the replacement of RFC 3066 by RFC 4646 for country codes used in language tags in 2006. The previous ISO 3166-1 code for Yugoslavia, YU, was removed by ISO on 2003-07-23, but the yu ccTLD remained in operation. Finally, after a two-year transition to Serbian rs and Montenegrin me, the .yu
.yu
domain was phased out in March 2010. Australia was originally assigned the oz country code, which was later changed to au with the .oz domains moved to .oz.au.

Internationalized ccTLDs[edit] An internationalized country code top-level domain (IDN ccTLD) is a top-level domain with a specially encoded domain name that is displayed in an end user application, such as a web browser, in its language-native script or alphabet, such as the Arabic alphabet, or a non-alphabetic writing system, such as Chinese characters
Chinese characters
(.中国). IDN ccTLDs are an application of the internationalized domain name (IDN) system to top-level Internet
Internet
domains assigned to countries, or independent geographic regions. ICANN
ICANN
started to accept applications for IDN ccTLDs in November 2009,[6] and installed the first set into the Domain Names System in May 2010. The first set was a group of Arabic names for the countries of Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. By May 2010, 21 countries had submitted applications to ICANN, representing 11 languages.[7] ICANN
ICANN
requires all potential international TLDs to use at least one letter that does not resemble a Latin letter, or have at least three letters, in an effort to avoid IDN homograph attacks. Nor shall the international domain name look like another domain name, even if they have different alphabets. Between Cyrillic and Greek alphabets, for example, this could happen.

Unconventional usage[edit] Main article: Vanity URL This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.Find sources: " Country
Country
code top-level domain" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (March 2011) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Lenient registration restrictions on certain ccTLDs have resulted in various domain hacks. Domain names such as I.am, tip.it, start .at and go .to form well-known English phrases, whereas others combine the second-level domain and ccTLD to form one word or one title, creating domains such as blo .gs of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands (gs), youtu .be of Belgium
Belgium
(be), del.icio .us of the United States
United States
(us), and cr.yp .to of Tonga
Tonga
(to). The .co
.co
domain of Colombia has been cited since 2010 as a potential competitor to generic TLDs for commercial use, because it may be an abbreviation for company.[8] Several ccTLDs allow the creation of emoji domains. Some ccTLDs may also be used for typosquatting. The domain cm of Cameroon
Cameroon
has generated interest due to the possibility that people might miss typing the letter o for sites in the com.[9]

Commercial usage[edit] Some of the world's smallest countries and non-sovereign or colonial entities with their own country codes have opened their TLDs for worldwide commercial use, some of them free like .tk.

See also[edit] List of ccTLDs Country
Country
code top-level domains with commercial licenses gccTLD Country
Country
code second-level domain Notes and references[edit]

^ "IANA root zone database". Iana.org. Retrieved 2015-11-10..mw-parser-output cite.citation font-style:inherit .mw-parser-output .citation q quotes:"""""""'""'" .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration color:#555 .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help .mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output code.cs1-code color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit .mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error display:none;font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-maint display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format font-size:95% .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left padding-left:0.2em .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right padding-right:0.2em

^ Jon Postel
Jon Postel
(March 1994). "RFC 1591 - Domain Name System
Domain Name System
Structure and Delegation". Retrieved 2008-06-22.

^ "DNS loookup for dra.hmg.gb". 2010. Retrieved 2010-07-03.

^ Leslie Daigle (2003-09-24). "IAB input related to the .cs code in ISO 3166". IAB. Retrieved 2008-06-22.

^ Leslie Daigle (2003-09-24). "IAB comment on stability of ISO 3166 and other infrastructure standards". IAB. Retrieved 2008-06-22.

^ " ICANN
ICANN
Bringing the Languages of the World to the Global Internet" (Press release). Internet
Internet
Corporation For Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN). 30 October 2009. Retrieved 30 October 2009.

^ "'Historic' day as first non-Latin web addresses go live". BBC News. May 6, 2010. Retrieved 2010-05-07.

^ "General .CO FAQs: What makes .CO such a unique opportunity?". cointernet.co. Colombia: .CO Internet
Internet
S.A.S. Archived from the original on 2013-05-11. Retrieved 2013-07-20.

^ "The man who owns the Internet". CNN Money. 2007-06-01. Archived from the original on 2010-11-13. Retrieved 2010-11-05.

External links[edit] Official website World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) Domain name
Domain name
dispute resolution World-Wide Alliance of Top Level Domain-names The ICANN
ICANN
Country
Country
Code Names Supporting Organisation (ccNSO) "Alle verdens toppdomener" [All the world's top domains]. Norid
Norid
(in Norwegian). Linkene går til registreringsenheten for det enkelte toppdomene [Links to the registration unit for each top level domain] Robert Baskerville, Robert (Jan 16, 2008). "ccTLD and TLD analysis (of several Zone files)". Archived from the original on 2015-11-03. Retrieved 2008-01-13. vte Country
Country
code top-level domainsISO 3166-1 A  .ac .ad .ae .af .ag .ai .al .am .ao .aq .ar .as .at .au
.au
.aw .ax .az   B  .ba
.ba
.bb .bd .be .bf .bg
.bg
.bh .bi .bj .bm
.bm
.bn .bo .br .bs
.bs
.bt .bw .by .bz   C  .ca
.ca
.cc
.cc
.cd .cf .cg .ch
.ch
.ci
.ci
.ck
.ck
.cl .cm .cn
.cn
.co
.co
.cr
.cr
.cu .cv .cw .cx
.cx
.cy .cz   D  .de .dj
.dj
.dk .dm .do
.do
.dz   E  .ec .ee
.ee
.eg .er .es .et
.et
.eu   F  .fi .fj
.fj
.fk .fm
.fm
.fo .fr   G  .ga .gd .ge
.ge
.gf
.gf
.gg
.gg
.gh .gi .gl .gm .gn .gp .gq .gr .gs .gt .gu .gw .gy   H  .hk
.hk
.hm .hn
.hn
.hr .ht .hu   I  .id .ie
.ie
.il
.il
.im
.im
.in
.in
.io .iq .ir .is .it   J  .je
.je
.jm .jo .jp   K  .ke
.ke
.kg .kh .ki .km .kn .kp .kr .kw
.kw
.ky .kz   L  .la .lb .lc .li .lk .lr .ls .lt .lu .lv .ly   M  .ma .mc
.mc
.md
.md
.me .mg
.mg
.mh .mk .ml
.ml
.mm .mn .mo .mp .mq .mr .ms .mt .mu .mv .mw .mx .my .mz   N  .na .nc .ne .nf .ng .ni .nl .no
.no
.np
.np
.nr .nu
.nu
.nz   O .om   P  .pa
.pa
.pe .pf .pg .ph
.ph
.pk .pl
.pl
.pm .pn .pr
.pr
.ps .pt .pw .py   Q .qa   R  .re .ro .rs
.rs
.ru
.ru
.rw   S  .sa
.sa
.sb
.sb
.sc
.sc
.sd .se
.se
.sg .sh .si .sk .sl .sm .sn .so .sr .ss .st .su
.su
.sv
.sv
.sx .sy .sz   T  .tc .td
.td
.tf .tg
.tg
.th .tj
.tj
.tk .tl
.tl
.tm .tn .to .tr .tt .tv
.tv
.tw .tz   U  .ua .ug
.ug
.uk .us .uy .uz   V  .va
.va
.vc .ve .vg .vi .vn
.vn
.vu   W  .wf .ws   Y  .ye
.ye
.yt   Z  .za .zm .zw

Internationalized (IDN) ccTLDCyrillic scriptArabic scriptBrahmic scriptsChinese charactersOther scripts .бг (bg, Bulgaria) .бел (bel, Belarus) .ею
.ею
(eyu, European Union) .қаз (qaz, Kazakhstan) .мон (mon, Mongolia) .мкд
.мкд
(mkd, North Macedonia) .рф
.рф
(rf, Russia) .срб
.срб
(srb, Serbia) .укр (ukr, Ukraine)

الجزائر. (al-Jazā’ir, Algeria) مصر. (Misr, Egypt) بھارت. (Bharat, India) ایران. (Iran) الاردن. (al-Urdun, Jordan) فلسطين. (Filastin, Palestine) پاکستان. (Pākistān, Pakistan) قطر. (Qatar) السعودية. (al-Saudiah, Saudi Arabia) سوريا. (Sūryā, Syria) تونس. (Tunis, Tunisia) امارات. (Emarat, UAE) عمان. (ʻUmān, Oman) مليسيا. (Maleesya, Malaysia) المغرب. (al-Maġrib, Morocco) سودان. (Sūdān, Sudan) اليمن.
اليمن.
(al-Yaman, Yemen)

.বাংলা (Bangla, Bangladesh) .ভাৰত (Bharôt, India) .ভারত (Bharôt, India) .भारत (Bharat, India) .భారత్ (Bharat, India) .ભારત (Bharat, India) .ਭਾਰਤ (Bharat, India) .ଭାରତ (Bhārata, India) .இந்தியா (Inthiyaa, India) .ລາວ (Lao, Laos) .சிங்கப்பூர் (Cinkappūr, Singapore) .ලංකා (Lanka, Sri Lanka) .இலங்கை (Ilangai, Sri Lanka) .ไทย (Thai, Thailand)

.中国 (Zhōngguó, China) .中國 (Zhōngguó, China) .香港 (Xiānggǎng/Hoeng1gong2, Hong Kong) .澳門 (Àomén/Ou3mun4, Macau) .澳门 (Àomén/Ou3mun4, Macau) .新加坡 (Xīnjiāpō, Singapore) .台灣 (Táiwān, Taiwan) .台湾 (Táiwān, Taiwan)

.հայ (hay, Armenia) .გე (ge, Georgia) .ελ (el, Greece) .한국 (Han-guk, South Korea) Proposed ccTLDs    .κπ (kp, Cyprus) - .ישראל‎ (Yisrael, Israel) - .日本 (Nippon, Japan)

OthersReserved / unassignedAllocated / unusedPhased out / deleted .bl .bq .eh .mf

.bv
.bv
.gb .sj

.an .bu .cs .dd .tp .um .yu
.yu
.zr

See also: Generic top-level domains vte Geocode systemsAdministrative codes HASC NUTS (EU) ONS MARC country codes SGC codes (Canada) UN M.49 (UN) Airport codes IATA airport code ICAO airport code Country
Country
codes IANA country code ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 alpha-3 numeric IOC country code FIFA country code Geodesicplace codesGlobal Geohash Geohash-36 GEOREF Geotude SALB Mapcode Marsden square Military Grid Reference System Munich Orientation Convention Natural Area Code Open Location Code QDGC UN/LOCODE UTM what3words WMO squares North America FIPS country code (FIPS 10-4) FIPS place code (FIPS 55) FIPS county code (FIPS 6-4) FIPS state code (FIPS 5-2) SGC codes Postal codes CEP (Brazil) Postal Index Number
Postal Index Number
(India) ZIP Code
ZIP Code
(United States) Telephony ITU-R country codes ITU-T country calling codes ITU-T mobile calling codes Radio broadcasting Maidenhead Locator System Historical : QRA locator Sport IOC country codes FI

.