Within the United Kingdom, a unitary sovereign state , Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales have gained a degree of autonomy through the process of devolution . The UK Parliament and British Government deal with all _reserved matters _ for Northern Ireland and Scotland and all _non-transferred matters_ for Wales, but not in general matters that have been devolved to the Northern Ireland Assembly , Scottish Parliament and National Assembly for Wales . Additionally, devolution in Northern Ireland is conditional on co-operation between the Northern Ireland Executive and the Government of Ireland (see North/South Ministerial Council ) and the British Government consults with the Government of Ireland to reach agreement on some non-devolved matters for Northern Ireland (see British–Irish Intergovernmental Conference ). England, comprising the majority of the population and area of the United Kingdom, remains fully the responsibility of the UK Parliament centralised in London .
England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales are not themselves listed in the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) list of countries . However the ISO list of the subdivisions of the UK, compiled by British Standards and the UK's Office for National Statistics , uses "country" to describe England, Scotland and Wales. Northern Ireland, in contrast, is described as a "province" in the same lists. Each has separate national governing bodies for sports and compete separately in many international sporting competitions, including the Commonwealth Games . Northern Ireland also forms joint All-Island sporting bodies with the Republic of Ireland for most sports, including rugby union .
The Channel Islands and the Isle of Man are dependencies of the Crown and are not part of the UK. Similarly, the British overseas territories , remnants of the British Empire , are not part of the UK.
Historically, from 1801, following the Acts of Union , until 1921 the whole island of Ireland was a country within the UK. Ireland was split into two separate jurisdictions in 1921: Southern Ireland and Northern Ireland . Southern Ireland left the United Kingdom under the Irish Free State Constitution Act 1922 .
* 1 Key facts
* 1.1 Statistics
* 2 Terminology
* 2.1 Acts of Parliament
* 2.1.1 Current legal terminology
* 2.2 Other official usage
* 2.2.1 Current
* 3 Identity and nationality * 4 Competitions * 5 See also
* 6 References
* 6.1 Citations * 6.2 Sources
NAME FLAG CAPITAL LEGISLATURE LEGAL SYSTEMS JURISDICTION
LONDON UK PARLIAMENT UK ADMINISTRATIVE LAW UNITED KINGDOM
NAME POPULATION (2015) POPULATION (%) AREA (KM²) AREA (%) POP. DENSITY (PER KM²; 2011) GVA * (£; 2015) GVA* (%; 2015) GVA PER CAPITA* (£; 2015)
England 54,786,300 84% 130,279 54% 406.55 1,433 billion 86% 26,159
Northern Ireland 1,851,600 3% 13,562 6% 130.81 34 billion 2% 18,584
Scotland 5,373,000 8% 77,933 32% 67.22 127 billion 8% 23,685
Wales 3,099,100 5% 20,735 9% 147.43 56 billion 3% 18,002
UNITED KINGDOM 65,110,000 100% 242,509 100% 259.16 1,666 BILLION 100% 25,351
* Figures for GVA do not include oil and gas revenues generated beyond the UK's territorial waters, in the country\'s continental shelf region .
Further information: Terminology of the British Isles
Various terms have been used to describe England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales.
ACTS OF PARLIAMENT
Documents relevant to personal and legislative unions of the countries of the United Kingdom TREATY OF WINDSOR 1175
TREATY OF YORK 1237
TREATY OF PERTH 1266
TREATY OF MONTGOMERY 1267
TREATY OF ABERCONWY 1277
STATUTE OF RHUDDLAN 1284
TREATY OF EDINBURGH–NORTHAMPTON 1328
TREATY OF BERWICK 1357
POYNINGS\\' LAW 1495
LAWS IN WALES ACTS 1535–42
CROWN OF IRELAND ACT 1542
TREATY OF EDINBURGH 1560
UNION OF THE CROWNS 1603
UNION OF ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND ACT 1603
ACT OF SETTLEMENT 1701
ACT OF SECURITY 1704
ALIEN ACT 1705
TREATY OF UNION 1706
ACTS OF UNION 1707
PERSONAL UNION OF 1714 1714
WALES AND BERWICK ACT 1746
IRISH CONSTITUTION 1782
ACTS OF UNION 1800
GOVERNMENT OF IRELAND ACT 1920
ANGLO-IRISH TREATY 1921
ROYAL AND PARLIAMENTARY TITLES ACT 1927
N. IRELAND (TEMPORARY PROVISIONS) ACT 1972
NORTHERN IRELAND ASSEMBLY 1973
N. IRELAND CONSTITUTION ACT 1973
NORTHERN IRELAND ACT 1998
GOVERNMENT OF WALES ACT 1998
SCOTLAND ACT 1998
GOVERNMENT OF WALES ACT 2006
SCOTLAND ACT 2012
EDINBURGH AGREEMENT 2012
WALES ACT 2014
SCOTLAND ACT 2016
WALES ACT 2017
* v * t * e
* The Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542 annexed the legal system of Wales to England to create the single entity commonly known for centuries simply as England, but later officially renamed England and Wales . Wales was described (in varying combinations) as the "country", "principality", and "dominion" of Wales. Outside Wales, England was not given a specific name or term. The Laws in Wales Acts have subsequently been repealed. * The Acts of Union 1707 refer to both England and Scotland as a "part" of a united kingdom of Great Britain * The Acts of Union 1800 use "part" in the same way to refer to England and Scotland. However, they use the word "country" to describe Great Britain and Ireland respectively, when describing trade between them * The Government of Ireland Act 1920 described Great Britain, Southern Ireland and Northern Ireland as "countries" in provisions relating to taxation. * The Northern Ireland Act 1998 , which repealed the Government of Ireland Act 1920, does not use any term to describe Northern Ireland.
Current Legal Terminology
The Interpretation Act 1978 provides statutory definitions of the terms "England", "Wales" and the "United Kingdom", but neither that Act nor any other current statute defines "Scotland" or "Northern Ireland". Use of the first three terms in other legislation is interpreted following the definitions in the 1978 Act. The definitions in the 1978 Act are listed below:
* "England" means, "subject to any alteration of boundaries under Part IV of the Local Government Act 1972 , the area consisting of the counties established by section 1 of that Act, Greater London and the Isles of Scilly ." This definition applies from 1 April 1974. * "United Kingdom" means " Great Britain and Northern Ireland." This definition applies from 12 April 1927. * "Wales" means the combined area of 13 historic counties , including Monmouthshire , re-formulated into 8 new counties under section 20 of the Local Government Act 1972, as originally enacted, but subject to any alteration made under section 73 of that Act (consequential alteration of boundary following alteration of watercourse). In 1996 these 8 new counties were redistributed into the current 22 unitary authorities .
In the Scotland Act 1998 there is no delineation of Scotland, with the definition in section 126 simply providing that Scotland includes "so much of the internal waters and territorial sea of the United Kingdom as are adjacent to Scotland".
The Parliamentary Voting System and Constituencies Act 2011 refers to England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland as "_parts_" of the United Kingdom in the following clause: "Each constituency shall be wholly in one of the four parts of the United Kingdom (England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland)."
OTHER OFFICIAL USAGE
The Royal Fine Art Commission 's 1847 report on decorating the Palace of Westminster referred to "the nationality of the component parts of the United Kingdom" being represented by their four respective patron saints.
"Regions": For purposes of NUTS 1 collection of statistical data in a format that is compatible with similar data that is collected elsewhere in the European Union , the United Kingdom has been divided into twelve regions of approximately equal size. Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland are regions in their own right while England has been divided into nine regions.
The official term REST OF THE UK (RUK or rUK) is used in Scotland, for example in export statistics and in legislating for student funding . This term is also used in the context of potential Scottish independence to mean the UK without Scotland.
IDENTITY AND NATIONALITY
Further information: Demography of the United Kingdom
According to the British Social Attitudes Survey , there are broadly two interpretations of British identity, with ethnic and civic dimensions:
The first group, which we term the ethnic dimension, contained the items about birthplace, ancestry, living in Britain, and sharing British customs and traditions. The second, or civic group, contained the items about feeling British, respecting laws and institutions, speaking English, and having British citizenship.
Of the two perspectives of British identity, the civic definition has become the dominant idea and in this capacity, Britishness is sometimes considered an institutional or overarching state identity. This has been used to explain why first-, second- and third-generation immigrants are more likely to describe themselves as British, rather than English, Northern Irish, Scottish or Welsh, because it is an "institutional, inclusive" identity, that can be acquired through naturalisation and British nationality law ; the vast majority of people in the United Kingdom who are from an ethnic minority feel British. However, this attitude is more common in England than in Scotland or Wales; "white English people perceived themselves as English first and as British second, and most people from ethnic minority backgrounds perceived themselves as British, but none identified as English, a label they associated exclusively with white people". Contrariwise, in Scotland and Wales "there was a much stronger identification with each country than with Britain."
Studies and surveys have reported that the majority of the Scots and Welsh see themselves as both Scottish/Welsh and British though with some differences in emphasis. The Commission for Racial Equality found that with respect to notions of nationality in Britain, "the most basic, objective and uncontroversial conception of the British people is one that includes the English, the Scots and the Welsh". However, "English participants tended to think of themselves as indistinguishably English or British, while both Scottish and Welsh participants identified themselves much more readily as Scottish or Welsh than as British". Some people opted "to combine both identities" as "they felt Scottish or Welsh, but held a British passport and were therefore British", whereas others saw themselves as exclusively Scottish or exclusively Welsh and "felt quite divorced from the British, whom they saw as the English". Commentators have described this latter phenomenon as "nationalism ", a rejection of British identity because some Scots and Welsh interpret it as "cultural imperialism imposed" upon the United Kingdom by "English ruling elites", or else a response to a historical misappropriation of equating the word "English" with "British", which has "brought about a desire among Scots, Welsh and Irish to learn more about their heritage and distinguish themselves from the broader British identity". The propensity for nationalistic feeling varies greatly across the UK, and can rise and fall over time.
The state-funded Northern Ireland Life and Times Survey, part of a joint project between the University of Ulster and Queen\'s University Belfast , has addressed the issue of identity in since it started polling in 1998. It reported that 37% of people identified as British, whilst 29% identified as Irish and 24% identified as Northern Irish. 3% opted to identify themselves as Ulster, whereas 7% stated 'other'. Of the two main religious groups, 68% of Protestants identified as British as did 6% of Catholics; 60% of Catholics identified as Irish as did 3% of Protestants. 21% of Protestants and 26% of Catholics identified as Northern Irish.
For Northern Ireland, however, the results of the Life & Times Survey are not the whole story. The poll asks for a single preference, whereas many people easily identify as any combination of British and Irish, or British, Northern Irish and Irish, or Irish and Northern Irish. The 2014 Life & Times Survey addressed this to an extent by choosing two of the options from the identity question: British and Irish. It found that, while 28% of respondents stated they felt "British _not_ Irish" and 26% felt "Irish _not_ British", 39% of respondents felt some combination of both identities. Six percent chose 'other description'.
The identity question is confounded further by identity with politics and religion, and particularly by a stance on the constitutional status of Northern Ireland. Again in 2014 the Life border:solid #aaa 1px">
* United Kingdom portal
* ^ "The Countries of the UK". statistics.gov.uk. Retrieved 12 July 2015. * ^ " Devolution Glossary". _Cabinet Office_. Archived from the original on 25 November 2010. "United Kingdom: Term used most frequently for the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the modern sovereign state comprising England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland." * ^ 2011 Census – Population. According to the 2011 census, the population of England was 53,012,456, and the population of the United Kingdom was 63,181,775, therefore England comprises 84% of the UK population. * ^ _A_ _B_ Region and Country Profiles, Key Statistics and Profiles, October 2013, ONS. Retrieved 9 August 2015. According to the ONS, England has an area of 130,279 km², and the UK has an area of 242,509 km², therefore England comprises 54% of the area of the UK. * ^ _A_ _B_ "ISO Newsletter ii-3-2011-12-13" (PDF). Retrieved 4 July 2017. * ^ "Sport Northern Ireland Performance Governing Bodies of Sport". Sportni.net. 2009-12-01. Retrieved 2014-02-23. * ^ "Population estimates - Office for National Statistics". _www.ons.gov.uk_. Retrieved 2016-06-30. * ^ _A_ _B_ Office for National Statistics. "Regional gross value added (income approach), UK: 1997 to 2015, December 2015". Retrieved 5 March 2017. * ^ _A_ _B_ Laws in Wales Act 1535, Clause I * ^ Laws in Wales Act 1542 * ^ Laws in Wales Act 1535 (repealed 21.12.1993) Archived January 2, 2008, at the Wayback Machine . * ^ "Laws in Wales Act 1542 (repealed)". _www.statutelaw.gov.uk_. Retrieved 4 July 2017. * ^ _e. g._ "... to be raised in that Part of the united Kingdom now called _England_", "...that Part of the united Kingdom now called _Scotland_, shall be charged by the same Act..." Article IX * ^ _e. g._ "That, from the first Day of January one thousand eight hundred and one, all Prohibitions and Bounties on the Export of Articles, the Growth, Produce, or Manufacture of either Country, to the other, shall cease and determine; and that the said Articles shall thenceforth be exported from one Country to the other, without Duty or Bounty on such Export"; Union with Ireland Act 1800, Article Sixth. * ^ "About Parliament > Art in Parliament > Online Exhibitions > The Palace of Westminster > National Patron Saints > St David and Wales". _Official website_. UK Parliament. Retrieved 3 January 2016. * ^ "Regulation (EC) No 1059/2003 of the European Parliament and of the Council of the European Union of 26 May 2003 on the establishment of a common classification of territorial units for statistics (NUTS)". The European Parliament and the Council of the European Union. Retrieved 2010-12-22. * ^ "RUK exports". Scottish Government. Retrieved 13 August 2011. * ^ "Response to Scottish Government proposals for RUK fees" (PDF). Edinburgh University Students\' Association . Retrieved 13 August 2011. * ^ Park 2005 , p. 153. * ^ Langlands, Rebecca (1999). " Britishness or Englishness? The Historical Problem of National Identity in Britain". _Nations and Nationalism_. 5: 53–69. doi :10.1111/j.1354-5078.1999.00053.x . * ^ Bradley, Ian C. (2007). _Believing in Britain: The Spiritual Identity of 'Britishness'_. I. B. Tauris. ISBN 978-1-84511-326-1 . * ^ Frith, Maxine (2004-01-08). "Ethnic minorities feel strong sense of identity with Britain, report reveals". _ The Independent _. London: independent.co.uk. Retrieved 2009-07-07. * ^ Commission for Racial Equality 2005 , p. 35 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Commission for Racial Equality 2005 , p. 22 * ^ Ward 2004 , pp. 2–3. * ^ Kumar, Krishan (2003). "The Making of English National Identity" (PDF). assets. cambridge.org. Retrieved 2009-06-05. * ^ "The English: Europe\'s lost tribe". _ BBC News _. news.bbc.co.uk. 1999-01-14. Retrieved 2009-06-05. * ^ "Devolution, Public Attitudes and National Identity" (PDF). www. devolution.ac.uk. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-12-01. "The rise of the Little Englanders". London: The Guardian, John Carvel, social affairs editor. 28 November 2000. Retrieved 30 April 2010. * ^ " Northern Ireland Life and Times Survey home page". University of Ulster and Queen's University Belfast. Retrieved 2011-05-08. * ^ " Northern Ireland Life and Times Survey 2014, national identity module". University of Ulster and Queen's University Belfast. Retrieved 2015-08-08. * ^ _A_ _B_ " Northern Ireland Life and Times Survey 2014, Political Attitudes module". University of Ulster and Queen's University Belfast. Retrieved 2015-08-08. * ^ " Devolution and Britishness". _ Devolution and Constitutional Change_. UK's Economic and Social Research Council. * ^ " Scotland Rejects Independence in Record-Breaking Referendum - NBC News". Retrieved 4 July 2017. * ^ "Sport England". _Sport England website_. Sport England . 2013. Retrieved 25 October 2013. * ^ "Sport Northern Ireland". _Sport Northern Ireland website_. Sport Northern Ireland. 2013. Retrieved 25 October 2013. * ^ "Sportscotland". _ Sportscotland website_. Sportscotland . 2013. Retrieved 25 October 2013. * ^ "Sport Wales". _Sport Wales website_. Sport Wales . 2013. Retrieved 25 October 2013. * ^ _A_ _B_ _World and Its Peoples_, Terrytown (NY): Marshall Cavendish Corporation, 2010, p. 111, In most sports, except soccer, Northern Ireland participates with the Republic of Ireland in a combined All- Ireland team. * ^ "Irish and GB in Olympic Row". BBC Sport. 27 January 2004. Retrieved 29 March 2010.
* Gallagher, Michael (2006). _The United Kingdom Today_. London: Franklin Watts. ISBN 978-0-7496-6488-6 . * Park, Alison (2005), _British Social Attitudes: The 21st Report_, SAGE, ISBN 978-0-7619-4278-8 * Commission for Racial Equality (November 2005), _Citizenship and Belonging: What is Britishness?_ (PDF), Commission for Racial Equality, ISBN 1-85442-573-0 * Ward, Paul (2004), _ Britishness Since 1870_, Routledge, ISBN 978-0-203-49472-1
* v * t * e
Countries, territories and dependencies of the United Kingdom
* Akrotiri and Dhekelia 1 * Anguilla * Bermuda * British Antarctic Territory 2 * British Indian Ocean Territory * British Virgin Islands * Cayman Islands * Falkland Islands * Gibraltar * Montserrat * Pitcairn Islands * Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha * South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands * Turks and Caicos Islands
* List of countries that have gained independence from the United Kingdom
1 Sovereign Base Areas . 2 Partial suspension of sovereignty due to the Antarctic Treaty .
* v * t * e
Regional level (in England )
* Combined authorities * Directly elected mayoralties * Greater London Authority
* English mayoral referendums
* London, 1998 * 2012
* North East England
* _2004 _
* _1979 _ * 1997
* _1979 _ * 1997 * 2011
HEADS OF DEVOLVED GOVERNMENTS
Organisations and laws of the legislatures and governments of the UK and the devolved areas
Commissions (UK Parliament )
* Kilbrandon Commission * Holtham Commission * Silk Commission * McKay Commission
Commissions (devolved legislatures)
* National Assembly for Wales
* Richard Commission * Holtham Commission
* Calman Commission * Smith Commission
* Greater London Authority Acts
* 1999 * 2007
* Northern Ireland Acts
* 1998 * 2006
* Referendums ( Scotland ">SELECT COMMITTEES
* Northern Ireland Affairs * Scottish Affairs * Welsh Affairs
Departments and Territorial Offices (MOJ )
* Cabinet Office - Devolution Secretariat * Ministry of Justice - Devolution Directorate-General * Office of the Advocate General for Scotland * Northern Ireland Office * Scotland Office * Wales Office
* Northern England
* Other parts of Southern England
* Full fiscal autonomy
* Administrations of England
* English Regional Assemblies, 1998-2010
* Administrations of London
* Administrations of Northern Ireland
* 1922–72 * 1974
* Legislatures of Northern Ireland
* 1922–72 * 1973–74 * 1982–86
* Northern Ireland-related legislation of the UK Parliament
* Ireland, 1886 * Ireland, 1893 * Ireland, 1914 * Ireland, 1920 * Irish Free State, 1922 * Northern Ireland, 1974
1. Rejected referendums are _italicised_. The others were fully or partially approved. 2. There is no law-making body for any regionally devolved area. 3. Administrations of regionally devolved areas are omitted. CATEGORY
* v * t * e
United Kingdom articles
* Economic * Empire * Maritime * Military
* terminology * Great Britain
* Lakes and lochs * Mountains * Rivers * Volcanoes
* Energy /Renewable energy
* Biodiesel * Coal * Geothermal * Hydraulic frac. * Hydroelectricity * Marine * North Sea oil * Solar * Wind
* English * Scottish
* Flora * Forestry * Mining
* Constitution * Courts * Elections
* Foreign relations
* Human rights
* Intersex * LGBT * Transgender
* Judiciary * Law * Law enforcement * Legislation
* House of Commons * House of Lords
* Political parties
* Civil service * Departments
* Prime Minister
* Bank of England