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The Info List - Counties Of Estonia



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COUNTIES (Estonian : maakond, plural maakonnad) are the first-level administrative subdivisions of Estonia
Estonia
. Estonian territory is composed of 15 counties, including 13 on the mainland and 2 on islands. The government (maavalitsus) of each county is led by a maavanem (governor) who represents the national government (Vabariigi Valitsus) at the regional level. Governors are appointed by the national government for a term of five years.

Each county is further divided into municipalities of two types: urban municipalities (towns, linnad) and rural municipalities (parishes, vallad).

CONTENTS

* 1 List of counties * 2 History * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links

LIST OF COUNTIES

Population
Population
figures are those of 1 January 2016.

List of counties of Estonia
Estonia
Coat of arms COUNTY CAPITAL Area
Area
(km2) POPULATION Pop. density (inhab. /km2)

Harju County
County
Tallinn
Tallinn
4,333 576,265 127.5

Hiiu County
County
Kärdla 989 9,348 8.6

Ida-Viru County
County
Jõhvi 3,364 146,506 44.4

Jõgeva County
County
Jõgeva 2,604 31,298 12.1

Järva County
County
Paide
Paide
2,623 30,709 11.6

Lääne County
County
Haapsalu
Haapsalu
2,383 24,580 10.1

Lääne-Viru County
County
Rakvere 3,627 59,580 16.5

Põlva County
County
Põlva 2,165 28,218 12.7

Pärnu
Pärnu
County
County
Pärnu
Pärnu
4,807 82,997 17.2

Rapla County
County
Rapla 2,980 34,148 11.7

Saare County
County
Kuressaare 2,673 33,481 11.7

Tartu
Tartu
County
County
Tartu
Tartu
2,993 145,003 50.2

Valga County
County
Valga 2,044 30,524 14.8

Viljandi
Viljandi
County
County
Viljandi
Viljandi
3,422 47,853 13.9

Võru County
County
Võru 2,305 33,973 14.5

HISTORY

Main article: History of Estonia
Estonia

50 km

Map of south Baltic region circa 1705.

In the first centuries AD, political and administrative subdivisions began to emerge in Estonia. Two larger subdivisions appeared: the parish (kihelkond) and the county (maakond). The parish consisted of several villages. Nearly all parishes had at least one fortress. The defense of the local area was directed by the highest official, the parish elder. The county was composed of several parishes, also headed by an elder. By the 13th century the following major counties had developed in Estonia: Saaremaa (Osilia), Läänemaa (Rotalia or Maritima), Harjumaa (Harria), Rävala (Revalia), Virumaa (Vironia), Järvamaa (Jervia), Sakala (Saccala), and Ugandi (Ugaunia). Additionally there were several smaller elderships in central Estonia where danger of war was smaller – Vaiga , Mõhu , Nurmekund and Alempois . The exact number and borders of some elderships are disputed.

The first documented mentioning of Estonian political and administrative subdivisions comes from the Chronicle of Henry of Livonia , written in the 13th Century during the Northern Crusades
Northern Crusades
.

The Autonomy of the Estonia
Estonia
counties and parishes ended after conquered and divided between Denmark
Denmark
, Livonian Order , Bishopric of Dorpat and Bishopric of Ösel-Wiek . The name of Rävala became Reval, replacing the name of an Estonian town Lindanisse, later Tallinn
Tallinn
. Ugandi, Sakala and the smaller elderships disappeared from common usage.

In the 1580s, after the Livonian war as Sweden
Sweden
had conquered Northern Estonia, Harju, Järva, Lääne and Viru counties were officially formed there. Southern Estonia, which belonged to Poland
Poland
1582-1625, was divided into voivodships of Pärnu
Pärnu
and Tartu; the island of Saaremaa belonged to Denmark
Denmark
until 1645. They all became counties as they went under Swedish rule.

This administrative system mostly remained as Estonia
Estonia
went under Russian rule as a result of the Northern War
Northern War
. In 1793 were formed Võru County
County
in the south of Tartumaa, Viljandi
Viljandi
County
County
between Tartu and Pärnu
Pärnu
counties, and Paldiski
Paldiski
County
County
in the west of Harjumaa. In 1796 Paldiski
Paldiski
County
County
was joined with Harjumaa again. Until 1888 Võrumaa and Viljandimaa were not completely independent from Tartumaa and Pärnumaa respectively.

Several changes were made to the borders of counties after Estonia became independent, most notably the formation of Valga County
County
(from parts of Võru, Tartu
Tartu
and Viljandi
Viljandi
counties) and Petseri County
County
(area acquired from Russia with the 1920 Tartu
Tartu
peace treaty).

During the Soviet rule, Petseri County
County
once again became a part of Russia in 1945. Hiiumaa seceded from Läänemaa in 1946, Jõgevamaa from Tartumaa in 1949 and Jõhvimaa (modern Ida- Virumaa ) from Virumaa in 1949. Counties were completely dissolved in 1950 as Estonian SSR was divided into regions (rajoonid) and (until 1953) oblasts . Until the 1960s the borders of regions changed often until 15 of them were left. Out of them, Põlva and Rapla regions became separate, while the others were roughly corresponding to the pre-1950 counties.

Counties were re-established on 1 January 1990 in the borders of the Soviet-era regions. Due to the numerous differences between the current and historical (pre-1940) layouts, the historical borders are still used in ethnology, representing cultural and linguistical differences better.

SEE ALSO

* Ranked list of Estonian counties * Flags of Estonian Counties * Coats of arms of Estonian Counties * ISO 3166-2:EE * Municipalities of Estonia
Estonia

REFERENCES

* ^ " Population
Population
by sex, ethnic nationality and county, 1 January". stat.ee. Statistics Estonia
Estonia
. 31 December 2011. Retrieved 2009-10-18. * ^ Estonia
Estonia
and the Estonians (Studies of Nationalities) Toivo U. Raun p.11 ISBN 0-8179-2852-9

EXTERNAL LINKS

* Local Government