COUNT PALATINE is a high noble title, used to render several comital (of or relating to a count or earl) styles, in some cases also shortened to Palatine , which can have other meanings as well.
* 1.1 Comes palatinus * 1.2 Related terms
* 2 Medieval social structure and development of the Count Palatine
* 3.1 Robertians * 3.2 Counts Palatine of Champagne
* 4 Counts
Palatine of Bavaria
* 5 Counts
Palatine of Burgundy
* 6 Counts
Palatine of Lebanon
* 7 Counts
IMPORTANCE OF A COUNT PALATINE IN MEDIEVAL EUROPE
This Latin title is the original, but also pre-feudal: it originated as a Roman Comes , which was a non-hereditary court title of high rank, the specific part palatinus being the adjective derived from palatium ('palace').
But after the fall of Rome, a new feudal type of title, also known simply as palatinus, started developing. The Frankish kings of the Merovingian dynasty (reigned 480-750) employed a high official, the comes palatinus, who at first assisted the king in his judicial duties and at a later date discharged many of these himself. Other counts palatine were employed on military and administrative work.
In Visigothic Spain, the Officium Palatinum consisted of a number of men with the title of count that managed the various departments of the royal household. The Comes Cubiculariorum oversaw the chamberlains, the Comes Scanciorun directed the cup-bearers, the Comes Stabulorum directed the equerries in charge of the stables, etc. The Ostrogothic kings that ruled in Italy also maintained palatine counts with titles such as Comes Patrimonium, who was in charge of the patrimonial or private real estate of the king, and others.
The system was maintained by the Carolingian sovereigns (reigned 750-1000). A Frankish capitulary of 882 and Hincmar, archbishop of Reims , writing about the same time, testify to the extent to which the judicial work of the Frankish Empire had passed into their hands, and one grant of power was followed by another. (See the twelve legendary Paladins .)
Instead of remaining near the person of the king, some of the counts palatine were sent to various parts of his empire to act as judges and governors, the districts ruled by them being called palatinates. Being in a special sense the representatives of the sovereign, they were entrusted with more extended power than the ordinary counts. In this way came about the later and more general use of the word "palatine", its application as an adjective to persons entrusted with special powers —– but also to the districts over which these powers were exercised.
By the High Middle Ages, the title "count" had become increasingly common, to the point that both great magnates who ruled regions that were the size of duchies, and local castle-lords, might style themselves "count". As the great magnates began to centralize their power over their local castle-lords, they felt the need to assert the difference between themselves and these minor "counts". Therefore, several of these great magnates began styling themselves "Count Palatine", signifying great counts ruling regions equivalent to duchies, such as the Counts Palatine of Champagne in the 13th century. See also Royal Administration of Merovingian and Carolingian Dynasties .
PFALZGRAF is an exclusively German title (from the above Latin comes
palatinus 'count of the palace'), rendered in English also (recorded
since 1548) as palsgrave since medieval times for the permanent
representative of the Frankish king, later of the
Holy Roman Emperor ,
in a palatial domain of the crown (pfalz ). Grafio is probably from
the Greek grafein 'to write', hence 'scribe'; it plausibly comes via
the Byzantine Greek grapheus or suggrapheus "he who calls a meeting,
i.e. the court, together", which denoted a civil servant, rather than
a feudal count. There were dozens of these royal Pfalzen throughout
the Empire, and the monarch travelled between them. The empire had no
real capital . This practice of a mobile, somewhat omnipresent king,
thus also 'eating his taxes' (literally wining and dining), was common
in early feudal Europe. Travel was often already required because of
military considerations. The count responsible for these places was
thus responsible for the palace during the king's absence. In the
empire the word count palatine was also used to designate the
officials who assisted the emperor in exercising the rights which were
reserved for his personal consideration, like granting arms . They
were called imperial counts palatine (in Latin comites palatini
caesarii, or comites sacri palatii; in German, Hofpfalzgrafen. Both
the Latin form (Comes) palatinus and the French (comte) palatin have
been used as part of the full title of Dukes of Burgundy (a branch of
the French royal dynasty) to render their rare German title
which was the style of a (later lost) bordering principality, the
allodial countship of Burgundy (Freigrafschaft Burgund in German)
which came to be known as
In early medieval Poland the Palatinus was next in rank to the King. As he is also the chief commander of the King's army the rank is merged with Wojewoda , with the latter replacing the title of Palatine. During the Fragmentation of Poland each Prince would have his own voivode. When some of these Principalities are reunited into the Kingdom of Poland the Palatines are infeudated with them as there is no local Prince anymore. Or rather on behalf of the King to whom all these princely titles returned. The Principalities are thus made Voivodships (sometimes translated as Palatinates). In the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth the Voivodes sit in the Senat. Throughout its history the dignity remained non-hereditary or semi-hereditary. Today voivodes are government officials.
MEDIEVAL SOCIAL STRUCTURE AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE COUNT PALATINE
During the 11th century, some imperial palatine counts became a valuable political counterweight against the mighty duchies. Surviving old palatine counties were turned into new institutional pillars through which the imperial authority could be exercised. By the reigns of Henry the Fowler and especially of Otto the Great , comites palatini were sent into all parts of the country to support the royal authority by checking the independent tendencies of the great tribal dukes. We hear of a count palatine in Saxony, and of others in Lorraine, in Bavaria and in Swabia, their duties being to administer the royal estates in these duchies.
Next to the Dukes of
The Lotharingian palatines out of the Ezzonian dynasty were important commanders of the imperial army and were often employed during internal and external conflicts (e.g. to suppress rebelling counts or dukes, to settle frontier disputes with the Hungarian and the French kingdom and to lead imperial campaigns).
Although a palatinate could be rooted for decades into one dynasty, the office of the palatine counts became hereditary only during the 12th century. During the 11th century the palatinates were still regarded as beneficia, non-hereditary fiefs. The count palatine in Bavaria, an office held by the family of Wittelsbach, became duke of this land, the lower comital title being then merged into the higher ducal one. The Count Palatine of Lotharinga, changed its name to Count Palatine of the Rhine in 1085, alone remaining independent until 1777. The office having become hereditary, Pfalzgrafen were in existence until the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806. The palatinate of Saxony merged with the Electoral Duchy of Saxony. The Palatinate of the Rhine became an electorate, and both were Imperial Vicars .
The term count palatine was not used in the
MEROVINGIAN AND CAROLINGIAN COUNTS PALATINE
* Chrodobertus II , was named comes palatinus on 2 October 678
* Grimbert, probably son of Chrodobertus II, was comes palatinus of
Neustria from 691 to 720
* Robert I (also known as Rupert I; d. before 764), grandson of
Chrodobertus II, was comes palatinus around 741/742
* Anselm (d. 778 in
See also Royal Administration of Merovingian and Carolingian Dynasties .
COUNTS PALATINE OF CHAMPAGNE
King Lothar of France (954-986) gave Odo I , Count of Blois , one of his most loyal supporters in the struggle against the Robertians and the Counts of Vermandois , in 976 the title of Count Palatine. The title was later inherited by his heirs, and when they died out, by the Counts of Champagne .
COUNTS PALATINE OF BAVARIA
Originally, the Counts
Palatine held the County
* Meginhard I, Count
Palatine of Bavaria in 883
* Arnulf II (d. 954), son of
COUNTS PALATINE OF BURGUNDY
Main article: Free County of Burgundy
In 1169, Emperor Frederick I created the Free County of Burgundy (not to be confused with its western neighbour, the Duchy of Burgundy ). The Counts of Burgundy had the title of Free Count (German: Freigraf), but are sometimes called Counts Palatine.
COUNTS PALATINE OF LEBANON
Khazen family of
Mount Lebanon was endowed with the title
Pope Clement X , in addition to their honors from King Louis XIV ,
who named them consuls of France and "princes of the Maronites", for
their generosity toward Catholic missions in their territory. They
are typically referred to by the title of
Cheikh , which they received
for protecting princes
COUNTS PALATINE OF LOTHARINGIA
From 985, the Ezzonids held the title:
* Herman I (d. before 996), Count
Herman II's widow Adelaide of Weimar-Orlamünde remarried to Henry of Laach , who inherited the County Palatine, but changed the title to Count Palatine of the Rhine .
COUNTS PALATINE OF TüBINGEN
Main article: County Palatine of Tübingen
* Hugo I (1146-1152) * Frederick (d. 1162) co-ruler with Hugo II * Hugo II (1152-1182) * Rudolf I (1182-1219) * Hugo III (1185- c. 1228/30) co-ruler with Rudolf I and Rudolf II, went on to found the Montfort-Bregenz lineage * Rudolf II (d. 1247) * Hugo IV (d. 1267) * Eberhard (d. 1304) * Gottfried I (d. 1316) * Gottfried II (d. 1369) sold the County Palatine of Tübingen to the Württemberg dynasty, went on to found the Tübingen-Lichteneck lineage
COUNTS PALATINE OF THE RHINE
Main article: Count Palatine of the Rhine
In 1085, after the death of Herman II, the County
COUNTS PALATINE OF SAXONY
In the 10th century the Emperor Otto I created the County Palatine of Saxony in the Saale-Unstrut area of southern Saxony. The honour was initially held by a Count of Hessengau , then from the early 11th century by the Counts of Goseck , later by the Counts of Sommerschenburg, and still later by the Landgraves of Thuringia :
* Adalbero (d. 982) was a Count in the
Hessengau and in the Liesgau
Palatine of Saxony from 972,
* Dietrich (d. 995), probably a son of Adalbero, was Count Palatine
of Saxony from 992
* Frederick (d. July 1002 or 15 March 1003), Count in the Harzgau
and in the
Nordthüringgau , was Count
Palatine of Saxony from 995 to
* Burchard I (d. after 3 November 1017), the first count of Goseck
to hold the title, was a count in the
Hassegau from 991, Count
Palatine of Saxony from 1003, Count of
* Henry III (c. 1215 – 15 February 1288), Margrave of Meissen from 1227 until his death, Count Palatine of Saxony and Landgrave of Thuringia from 1247 1265 * Albert II the Degenerate (1240 – 20 November 1314), son of Henry III, Count Palatine of Saxony and Landgrave of Thuringia from 1265 until his death, Margrave of Meissen from 1288 to 1292 * Frederick VII the Bitten (1257 – 16 November 1323), son of Albert II, Count Palatine of Saxony from 1280 to before 1291, Margrave of Meissen before 1291 until his death, Landgrave of Thuringia from 1298 until his death
* Henry I (August 1267 – 7 September 1322), Count Palatine of Saxony from before 1291 until his death, Prince of Brunswick-Grubenhagen from 1291 until his death * ...
COUNTS PALATINE OF SWABIA
* Erchanger I, also known as Berchtold I, Count
Palatine of Swabia
* Erchanger II (d. 21 January 917), probably a son of Erchanger I,
Palatine of Swabia and
Missus dominicus and from 915 until
After 1146, the title went to the Counts Palatine of Tübingen .
EQUIVALENTS IN OTHER STATES
* Serbia in the Middle Ages : Grand Čelnik (велики челник). The Grand Čelnik was the highest court title of the Serbian Despotate , and the title-holders held great provinces, property, and honours, and Radič (fl. 1413–1441) was one of the most powerful ones. * Hungary in the Middle Ages: nádorispán or nádor (see Palatine of Hungary )
* ^ Adel (german) * ^ The sword of the Maronite Prince. Khazen.org. * ^ Origins of the "Prince of Maronite" Title . Khazen.org. * ^ An Interview with Cheikh Malek el-Khazen. CatholicAnalysis.org. Published: 28 July 2014. * ^ Babinger 1992, p. 147: " the "Grand Celnik" (a sort of count palatine) " * ^ Trifunović 1979, p. 61: "Међу њима је највиши углед уживао велики челник (Xребељан, Радич Поступовић и др.). Неки од њих су временом стекли велике области, имања и почасти. Занимљив је и жив пример