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Count
Count
palatine is a high noble title,[1] used to render several comital (of or relating to a count or earl) styles, in some cases also shortened to Palatine, which can have other meanings as well.

Contents

1 Importance of a Count
Count
Palatine in Medieval Europe

1.1 Comes
Comes
palatinus 1.2 Related titles

2 Merovingian
Merovingian
and Carolingian Counts Palatine

2.1 Robertians 2.2 Counts Palatine of Champagne

3 Holy Roman Empire

3.1 Counts Palatine of Bavaria 3.2 Counts Palatine of Burgundy 3.3 Counts Palatine of Lotharingia 3.4 Counts Palatine of Tübingen 3.5 Counts Palatine of the Rhine 3.6 Counts Palatine of Saxony 3.7 Counts Palatine of Swabia

4 Papal counts palatine 5 See also 6 References 7 Sources

Importance of a Count
Count
Palatine in Medieval Europe[edit] Comes
Comes
palatinus[edit] This Latin title is the original, but also pre-feudal: it originated as a Roman Comes, which was a non-hereditary court title of high rank, the specific part palatinus being the adjective derived from palatium ('palace'). But after the fall of Rome, a new feudal type of title, also known simply as palatinus, started developing. The Frankish kings of the Merovingian
Merovingian
dynasty (reigned 480–750) employed a high official, the comes palatinus, who at first assisted the king in his judicial duties and at a later date discharged many of these himself. Other counts palatine were employed on military and administrative work.[2] In Visigothic Spain, the Officium Palatinum consisted of a number of men with the title of count that managed the various departments of the royal household. The Comes
Comes
Cubiculariorum oversaw the chamberlains, the Comes
Comes
Scanciorun directed the cup-bearers, the Comes Stabulorum directed the equerries in charge of the stables, etc. The Ostrogothic kings that ruled in Italy also maintained palatine counts with titles such as Comes
Comes
Patrimonium, who was in charge of the patrimonial or private real estate of the king, and others. The system was maintained by the Carolingian sovereigns (reigned 750–1000). A Frankish capitulary of 882 and Hincmar, archbishop of Reims, writing about the same time, testify to the extent to which the judicial work of the Frankish Empire had passed into their hands, and one grant of power was followed by another.[2] (See the twelve legendary Paladins.) Instead of remaining near the person of the king, some of the counts palatine were sent to various parts of his empire to act as judges and governors, the districts ruled by them being called palatinates. Being in a special sense the representatives of the sovereign, they were entrusted with more extended power than the ordinary counts. In this way came about the later and more general use of the word "palatine", its application as an adjective to persons entrusted with special powers—but also to the districts over which these powers were exercised.[2] By the High Middle Ages, the title "count" had become increasingly common, to the point that both great magnates who ruled regions that were the size of duchies, and local castle-lords, might style themselves "count". As the great magnates began to centralize their power over their local castle-lords, they felt the need to assert the difference between themselves and these minor "counts". Therefore, several of these great magnates began styling themselves "Count Palatine", signifying great counts ruling regions equivalent to duchies, such as the Counts Palatine of Champagne in the 13th century. See also Royal Administration of Merovingian
Merovingian
and Carolingian Dynasties. Related titles[edit] In early medieval Poland the Palatinus was next in rank to the King. As he is also the chief commander of the King's army the rank is merged with Wojewoda, with the latter replacing the title of Palatine. During the Fragmentation of Poland
Fragmentation of Poland
each Prince
Prince
would have his own voivode. When some of these Principalities are reunited into the Kingdom of Poland the Palatines are infeudated with them as there is no local Prince
Prince
anymore. Or rather on behalf of the King
King
to whom all these princely titles returned. The Principalities are thus made Voivodships (sometimes translated as Palatinates). In the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
the Voivodes sit in the Senat. Throughout its history the dignity remained non-hereditary or semi-hereditary. Today voivodes are government officials. As successor to the Byzantine emperor after the fall of Constantinople in 1453, the Ottoman sultan
Ottoman sultan
also claimed the right to bestow the office. Thus Giovanni Bellini
Giovanni Bellini
was named Comes
Comes
palatinus by Emperor Frederick III in 1469 and later again in 1481 by Sultan Mehmet II. Grand Čelnik (велики челник).[3] The Grand Čelnik was the highest court title of the Serbian Despotate, and the title-holders held great provinces, property, and honours, and Radič (fl. 1413–1441) was one of the most powerful ones.[4] Hungary in the Middle Ages: nádorispán or nádor (see Palatine of Hungary) The term count palatine was not used in the United Kingdom. Just as Count
Count
always remained reserved for continental territories, even though the equivalence of earl became clear by rendering it in Latin also as Comes, earl palatine was the exclusively British title for the incumbent of a British county palatine. Merovingian
Merovingian
and Carolingian Counts Palatine[edit] Robertians[edit]

Chrodobertus II, was named comes palatinus on 2 October 678 Grimbert, probably son of Chrodobertus II, was comes palatinus of Neustria
Neustria
from 691 to 720 Robert I (also known as Rupert I; d. before 764), grandson of Chrodobertus II, was comes palatinus around 741/742 Anselm (d. 778 in Roncesvalles), son of Robert Adalard, was comes palatinus in 877 Cobbo the Younger

See also Royal Administration of Merovingian
Merovingian
and Carolingian Dynasties. Counts Palatine of Champagne[edit] King
King
Lothar of France
Lothar of France
(954–986) gave Odo I, Count
Count
of Blois, one of his most loyal supporters in the struggle against the Robertians and the Counts of Vermandois, in 976 the title of Count
Count
Palatine. The title was later inherited by his heirs, and when they died out, by the Counts of Champagne. Holy Roman Empire[edit] Further information: Count
Count
Palatine (Imperial) and Kaiserpfalz Pfalzgraf (Old High German phalanzgrāvo) is the German equivalent of the title, Graf
Graf
being the German term for "count" or "earl", and Pfalz being the German reflex of Latin palatium. The German title has also been rendered palsgrave in English (recorded 1548). Count
Count
Palatines were the permanent representatives of the Frankish king, later of the Holy Roman Emperor, in a palatial domain of the crown. There were dozens of these royal Pfalzen throughout the early Empire, and the emperor would travel between them, as there was no imperial capital. In the empire the word count palatine was also used to designate the officials who assisted the emperor in exercising the rights which were reserved for his personal consideration,[2] like granting arms. They were called imperial counts palatine (in Latin comites palatini caesarii, or comites sacri palatii; in German, Hofpfalzgrafen. Both the Latin form (Comes) palatinus and the French (comte) palatin have been used as part of the full title of Dukes of Burgundy (a branch of the French royal dynasty) to render their rare German title Freigraf, which was the style of a (later lost) bordering principality, the allodial countship of Burgundy (Freigrafschaft Burgund in German) which came to be known as Franche-Comté. During the 11th century, some imperial palatine counts became a valuable political counterweight against the mighty duchies. Surviving old palatine counties were turned into new institutional pillars through which the imperial authority could be exercised. By the reigns of Henry the Fowler
Henry the Fowler
and especially of Otto the Great, comites palatini were sent into all parts of the country to support the royal authority by checking the independent tendencies of the great tribal dukes. We hear of a count palatine in Saxony, and of others in Lorraine, in Bavaria and in Swabia, their duties being to administer the royal estates in these duchies.[2] Next to the Dukes of Lotharingia, Bavaria, Swabia and Saxony, who had become dangerously powerful feudal princes, loyal supporters of the German Emperor
Emperor
were installed as counts palatine. The Lotharingian palatines out of the Ezzonian dynasty were important commanders of the imperial army and were often employed during internal and external conflicts (e.g. to suppress rebelling counts or dukes, to settle frontier disputes with the Hungarian and the French kingdom and to lead imperial campaigns). Although a palatinate could be rooted for decades into one dynasty, the office of the palatine counts became hereditary only during the 12th century. During the 11th century the palatinates were still regarded as beneficia, non-hereditary fiefs. The count palatine in Bavaria, an office held by the family of Wittelsbach, became duke of this land, the lower comital title being then merged into the higher ducal one.[2] The Count
Count
Palatine of Lotharinga, changed its name to Count
Count
Palatine of the Rhine in 1085, alone remaining independent until 1777. The office having become hereditary, Pfalzgrafen were in existence until the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806.[2] The palatinate of Saxony merged with the Electoral Duchy of Saxony. The Palatinate of the Rhine became an electorate, and both were Imperial Vicars. Counts Palatine of Bavaria[edit] Originally, the Counts Palatine held the County Palatine (around Regensburg), and were subordinate to the Dukes of Bavaria, rather than to the king. The position gave its holder a leading position in the legal system of the Duchy.

Meginhard I, Count
Count
Palatine of Bavaria in 883 Arnulf II (d. 954), son of Duke
Duke
Arnulf I of Bavaria, constructed Scheyern Castle around 940 Berthold (d. 999), son of Arnulf II, Count
Count
Palatine of Bavaria between 954 and 976 with interruptions, ancestor of the Counts of Andechs Hartwig I (d. 985), Count
Count
Palatine of Bavaria from 977 until his death Aribo I (d. c. 1020, son-in-law of Hartwig I, Count
Count
Palatine of Bavaria from 985 until his death Hartwig II (d. 1027), son of Aribo I, Count
Count
Palatine of Bavaria from 1020 to 1026 Aribo II (d. 1102), son of Hartwig II, Count
Count
Palatine of Bavaria from 1026 to 1055 Kuno I (d. c. 1082/1083), Count
Count
Palatine of Bavaria Rapoto I (d. 1099), Count
Count
Palatine of Bavaria from c. 1083 to 1093 Engelbert I (d. 1122), nephew of both of Aribo II's wives, Count Palatine of Bavaria from 1099 to 1120 Otto IV (c. 1083 – 1156), probably a descendant of Arnulf II, Count
Count
Palatine of Bavaria from 1120 until his death. He moved his residence from Scheyern Castle to Wittelsbach Castle and founded the House of Wittelsbach. Otto V (c. 1117 – 1183), Count
Count
Palatine of Bavaria from 1156 to 1180. He became Duke
Duke
of Bavaria in 1180 as Otto I; his descendants ruled the Duchy until 1918. Otto VII (d. 1189), younger son of Otto IV, Count
Count
Palatine of Bavaria from 1180 until his death Otto VIII (d. 1209), son of Otto VI, Count
Count
Palatine of Bavaria from 1189 to 1208, infamous for murdering King
King
Philip of Germany in 1208 Rapoto II (d. 1231), brother-in-law of Otto VIII, Count
Count
Palatine of Bavaria from 1208 until his death Rapoto III (d. 1248), son of Rapoto II, Count
Count
Palatine of Bavaria from 1231 until his death. He was the last Count
Count
Palatine; after his death the Duke
Duke
of Bavaria usurp the rights and possessions of the Counts Palatine.

Counts Palatine of Burgundy[edit] Main article: Free County of Burgundy In 1169, Emperor
Emperor
Frederick I created the Free County of Burgundy
Free County of Burgundy
(not to be confused with its western neighbour, the Duchy of Burgundy). The Counts of Burgundy had the title of Free Count
Count
(German: Freigraf), but are sometimes called Counts Palatine. Counts Palatine of Lotharingia[edit]

Wigeric (915 – before 922), Count
Count
Palatine of Lotharingia
Lotharingia
and Count in the Bidgau Gottfried (c. 905 – after 949), Count
Count
Palatine of Lotharingia
Lotharingia
and Count
Count
in the Jülichgau

From 985, the Ezzonids
Ezzonids
held the title:

Herman I (d. before 996), Count
Count
Palatine of Lotharingia
Lotharingia
and Count
Count
in the Bonngau, the Eiffelgau, the Zülpichgau and the Auelgau Ezzo (d. 1034), son of Herman I, Count
Count
in the Auelgau and the Bonngau, Count
Count
Palatine of Lotharingia
Lotharingia
from 1020, married Mathilda of Saxony, the daughter of Emperor
Emperor
Otto II Otto (d. 1047), son of Ezzo, Count
Count
Palatine of Lotharingia
Lotharingia
from 1035 to 1045, then Duke
Duke
of Swabia as Otto II from 1045 until his death Henry I (d. 1061), son of Ezzo's brother Hezzelin I, Count
Count
Palatine of Lotharingia
Lotharingia
from 1045 to 1060 Herman II (1049–1085), son of Henry I, Count
Count
Palatine of Lotharingia from 1061 to 1085 (until 1064 under the guardianship of Anno II, Archbishop of Cologne), also Count
Count
in the Ruhrgau and the Zülpichgau and Count
Count
of Brabant

Herman II's widow Adelaide of Weimar-Orlamünde remarried to Henry of Laach, who inherited the County Palatine, but changed the title to Count
Count
Palatine of the Rhine. Counts Palatine of Tübingen[edit] Main article: County Palatine of Tübingen

Hugo I (1146–1152) Frederick (d. 1162) co-ruler with Hugo II Hugo II (1152–1182) Rudolf I (1182–1219) Hugo III (1185– c. 1228/30) co-ruler with Rudolf I and Rudolf II, went on to found the Montfort-Bregenz lineage Rudolf II (d. 1247) Hugo IV (d. 1267) Eberhard (d. 1304) Gottfried I (d. 1316) Gottfried II (d. 1369) sold the County Palatine of Tübingen to the Württemberg dynasty, went on to found the Tübingen-Lichteneck lineage

Counts Palatine of the Rhine[edit] Main article: Count
Count
Palatine of the Rhine In 1085, after the death of Herman II, the County Palatine of Lotharingia
Lotharingia
lost its military importance in Lorraine. The territorial authority of the Count
Count
Palatine was reduced to his territories along the Rhine. Consequently, he is called the Count
Count
Palatine of the Rhine after 1085. The Golden Bull of 1356
Golden Bull of 1356
made the Count
Count
Palatine of the Rhine an Elector. He was therefore known as the Elector Palatine. Counts Palatine of Saxony[edit] In the 10th century the Emperor
Emperor
Otto I created the County Palatine of Saxony in the Saale-Unstrut
Saale-Unstrut
area of southern Saxony. The honour was initially held by a Count
Count
of Hessengau, then from the early 11th century by the Counts of Goseck, later by the Counts of Sommerschenburg, and still later by the Landgraves of Thuringia:

Adalbero (d. 982) was a Count
Count
in the Hessengau
Hessengau
and in the Liesgau, Count
Count
Palatine of Saxony from 972, Dietrich (d. 995), probably a son of Adalbero, was Count
Count
Palatine of Saxony from 992 Frederick (d. July 1002 or 15 March 1003), Count
Count
in the Harzgau
Harzgau
and in the Nordthüringgau, was Count
Count
Palatine of Saxony from 995 to 996 Burchard I (d. after 3 November 1017), the first count of Goseck
Goseck
to hold the title, was a count in the Hassegau
Hassegau
from 991, Count
Count
Palatine of Saxony from 1003, Count
Count
of Merseburg
Merseburg
from 1004, and imperial governor from 1012 Siegfried (d. 25 April 1038), was Count
Count
Palatine of Saxony in 1028 Frederick I (d. 1042), a younger son of Burchard I, was Count
Count
of Goseck
Goseck
and in the Hassegau
Hassegau
and was Count
Count
Palatine of Saxony in 1040 William (d. 1062), Count
Count
of Weimar, probably Count
Count
Palatine of Saxony in 1042 Dedo (fell in battle in Pöhlde on 5 May 1056), son of Frederick I, Count
Count
Palatine of Saxony from 1042 to 1044 Frederick II (d. 27 May 1088), younger brother of Dedo, Count
Count
Palatine of Saxony in 1056 Frederick III (murdered near Zscheiplitz
Zscheiplitz
on 5 February 1087), son of Frederick II Frederick IV (d. 1125 in Dingelstedt am Huy), son of Frederick III, Count
Count
Palatine in 1114 Frederick V (d. 18 October 1120 or 1121), grandson of Frederick I, Count
Count
of Sommerschenburg, Count
Count
Palatine of Saxony in 1111 Frederick VI (d. 19 May 1162), son of Frederick V, Count
Count
of Sommerschenburg, Count
Count
Palatine of Saxony from 1123 to 1124 Herman II (murdered on 30 January 1152), Count
Count
of Formbach, Margrave of Meissen from 1124 to 1130 (deposed), Count
Count
Palatine of Saxony from 1129 to 1130, married in 1148 to Liutgard of Stade, who had divorced Frederick VI in 1144 Adalbert (d. 1179), son of Frederick VI, Count
Count
Palatine of Sommerschenburg from 1162 until his death Louis III (d. 1190), Landgrave
Landgrave
of Thuringia
Thuringia
from 1172 until his death, appointed Count
Count
Palatine of Saxony on the Diet of Gelnhausen
Gelnhausen
on 13 April 1180, abdicated in favour of Herman I in 1181 Herman III (c. 1155 – 25 April 1215 in Gotha), younger brother of Louis III, Count
Count
Palatine of Saxony from 1181 until his death, Landgrave
Landgrave
of Thuringia
Thuringia
from 1190 until his death Louis IV (28 October 1200 – 11 September 1227), son of Herman I, Count
Count
Palatine of Saxony and Landgrave
Landgrave
of Thuringia
Thuringia
from 1217 until his death Henry Raspe (1204 – 16 February 1247), son of Herman I, Landgrave
Landgrave
of Thuringia
Thuringia
from 1227 until his death, Count
Count
Palatine of Saxony from 1231 until his death, anti-king of Germany opposing Frederick II and his son Conrad IV from 1246

After Henry Rapse's death, the County Palatine of Saxony and the Landgraviate of Thuringia
Thuringia
were given to the House of Wettin, based on a promise made by Emperor
Emperor
Frederick II:

Henry III (c. 1215 – 15 February 1288), Margrave
Margrave
of Meissen from 1227 until his death, Count
Count
Palatine of Saxony and Landgrave
Landgrave
of Thuringia
Thuringia
from 1247 1265 Albert II the Degenerate (1240 – 20 November 1314), son of Henry III, Count
Count
Palatine of Saxony and Landgrave
Landgrave
of Thuringia
Thuringia
from 1265 until his death, Margrave
Margrave
of Meissen from 1288 to 1292 Frederick VII the Bitten (1257 – 16 November 1323), son of Albert II, Count
Count
Palatine of Saxony from 1280 to before 1291, Margrave
Margrave
of Meissen before 1291 until his death, Landgrave
Landgrave
of Thuringia
Thuringia
from 1298 until his death

King
King
Rudolph I of Germany
Rudolph I of Germany
gave the County Palatine of Saxony to the House of Welf:

Henry I (August 1267 – 7 September 1322), Count
Count
Palatine of Saxony from before 1291 until his death, Prince
Prince
of Brunswick-Grubenhagen from 1291 until his death ...

Counts Palatine of Swabia[edit]

Erchanger I, also known as Berchtold I, Count
Count
Palatine of Swabia in 880/892 Erchanger II (d. 21 January 917), probably a son of Erchanger I, was Count
Count
Palatine of Swabia and Missus dominicus and from 915 until his death Duke
Duke
of Swabia [...] Frederick I, (c. 1020 – shortly after 1053), Count
Count
Palatine of Swabia from 1027 to 1053 Frederick II (c. 997/999 – c. 1070/1075), father of Frederick I and ancestor of the Hohenstaufen
Hohenstaufen
dynasty, Count
Count
Palatine of Swabia from 1053 to 1069 Manegold the Elder (c. 1034/1043 – shortly before summer 1094), son-in-law of Frederick II, Count
Count
Palatine of Swabia from 1070 to 1094 Louis of Staufen, son of Frederick I, Count
Count
Palatine of Swabia from 1094 to 1103, founder of St. Faith's Church, Sélestat Louis of Westheim, probably a son of his predecessor, Count
Count
Palatine of Swabia from 1103 to 1112 Manegold the Younger, son of Manegold the Elder, Count
Count
Palatine of Swabia from 1112 to 1125 Adalbert of Lauterburg, son of Manegold the Elder, Count
Count
Palatine of Swabia from 1125 to 1146

After 1146, the title went to the Counts Palatine of Tübingen. Papal counts palatine[edit] Further information: Order of the Golden Spur A papal count palatine ( Comes
Comes
palatinus lateranus, properly Comes sacri Lateranensis palatii " Count
Count
of the Sacred Palace of Lateran"[5]) began to be conferred by the pope in the 16th century. This title was merely honorary and by the 18th century had come to be conferred so widely as to be nearly without consequence. The origin of the title lies in the 14th century. Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor
Emperor
conferred the title of Comes
Comes
palatini Lateranensis on one Fenzio di Albertino di Prato, on15 August 1357, at Prague.[6] The Order of the Golden Spur
Order of the Golden Spur
began to be associated with the inheritable patent of nobility in the form of count palatinate during the Renaissance; Emperor
Emperor
Frederick III named Baldo Bartolini, professor of civil law at the University of Perugia, a count palatinate in 1469, entitled in turn to confer university degrees.[7] Pope
Pope
Leo X
Leo X
designated all of the secretaries of the papal curia comites aulae Lateranensis (counts of the Lateran court) in 1514 and bestowed upon them the rights of an imperial count palatine.[citation needed] If an imperial count palatine possessed both an imperial and the papal appointment, he bore the title of " Comes
Comes
palatine imperiali Papali et auctoritate" ( Count
Count
palatine by Imperial and Papal authority). The Order of the Golden Spur, linked with the title of count palatinate, was widely conferred after the Sack of Rome, 1527, by Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor; the text of surviving diplomas conferred hereditary nobility to the recipients. Among the recipients was Titian
Titian
(1533), who had painted an equestrian portrait of Charles.[8] Close on the heels of the Emperor's death in 1558, its refounding in Papal hands is attributed to Pope
Pope
Pius IV in 1559.[9] Benedict XIV
Benedict XIV
(In Supremo Militantis Ecclesiæ, 1746) granted to the Knights of the Holy Sepulchre
Knights of the Holy Sepulchre
the right to use the title of Count
Count
of the Sacred Palace of Lateran. By the mid-18th century the Order of the Golden Spur
Order of the Golden Spur
was being so indiscriminately bestowed that Casanova remarked "The Order they call the Golden Spur was so disparaged that people irritated me greatly when they asked me the details of my cross;"[10] The Order was granted to "those in the pontifical government, artists, and others, whom the pope should think deserving of reward. It is likewise given to strangers, no other condition being required, but that of professing the catholic religion."[11] See also[edit]

Imperial Vicar Count
Count
Palatine (Imperial) County palatine
County palatine
of Cephalonia and Zakynthos Kaiserpfalz Count
Count
palatine of Hungary

References[edit]

^ Adel (german) ^ a b c d e f g  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Holland, Arthur William (1911). "Palatine". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 20 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 595–596.  ^ Babinger 1992, p. 147: " the "Grand Celnik" (a sort of count palatine) " ^ Trifunović 1979, p. 61: "Међу њима је највиши углед уживао велики челник (Xребељан, Радич Поступовић и др.). Неки од њих су временом стекли велике области, имања и почасти. Занимљив је и жив пример челника Радича" ^ Rock, P.M.J. (1908) Pontifical Decorations In The Catholic Encyclopedia. ^ Paul F. Grendler, The Universities of the Italian Renaissance (2004), p. 184, note 130; the title empowered Fenzio to confer the license of doctor of civil law. ^ "Bartolini also received the Knighthood
Knighthood
of the Golden Spur, a title that sometimes accompanied the office of count palatinate in the Renaissance" Grendler 2004:184 note 134. ^ C Hope, " Titian
Titian
as a Court Painter", Oxford Art Journal, 1979. ^ Thomas Robson, The British Herald; or, Cabinet of armorial bearings of the nobility... (1830) s.v. "Golden Spur, in Rome" and plate 4 (fig. 21) and 5 (figs 3 and 7). ^ "L'ordre qu'on appelle de l'Éperon d'Or était si décrié qu'on m'ennuyait beaucoup quand on demandait des nouvelles de ma croix." (Histoire de ma vie, 8;ix);. ^ Robson 1830.

Sources[edit]

EtymologyOnLine Titles of counts palatine of Burgundy Titles of counts palatine of the Rhine Westermann, Großer Atlas zur Weltgeschichte (has a map of known Pfalz

.