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The Council of Europe
Europe
(CoE; French: Conseil de l'Europe) is an international organisation whose stated aim[1] is to uphold human rights, democracy and the rule of law in Europe[2]. Founded in 1949, it has 47 member states, covers approximately 820 million people and operates with an annual budget of approximately half a billion euros.[3] The organisation is distinct from the 28-nation European Union
European Union
(EU), although it is sometimes confused with it, partly because the EU has adopted the original European Flag which was created by the Council of Europe
Europe
in 1955,[4] as well as the European Anthem.[5] No country has ever joined the EU without first belonging to the Council of Europe.[6] The Council of Europe
Europe
is an official United Nations Observer.[7] Unlike the EU, the Council of Europe
Europe
cannot make binding laws, but it does have the power to enforce select international agreements reached by European states on various topics. The best known body of the Council of Europe
Europe
is the European Court of Human Rights, which enforces the European Convention on Human Rights. The Council's two statutory bodies are the Committee of Ministers, comprising the foreign ministers of each member state, and the Parliamentary Assembly, composed of members of the national parliaments of each member state. The Commissioner for Human Rights
Commissioner for Human Rights
is an independent institution within the Council of Europe, mandated to promote awareness of and respect for human rights in the member states. The Secretary General heads the secretariat of the organisation. Other major CoE bodies include the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines. The headquarters of the Council of Europe
Europe
are in Strasbourg, France. English and French are its two official languages. The Committee of Ministers, the Parliamentary Assembly and the Congress also use German, Italian, Russian, and Turkish for some of their work.

Contents

1 History 2 Aims and achievements 3 Institutions

3.1 Headquarters and buildings

4 Member states, observers, partners 5 Co-operation

5.1 Non-member states 5.2 European Union 5.3 United Nations 5.4 Non-governmental organisations

6 Characteristics

6.1 Privileges and immunities 6.2 Symbol and anthem

7 Criticism and controversies 8 See also 9 References 10 External links

History[edit]

Plaque commemorating the first session of the Council of Europe Assembly at Strasbourg
Strasbourg
University

Britain's wartime leader Sir Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
was the first to suggest the creation of "a Council of Europe" in a BBC radio broadcast on 21 March 1943, while the second world war was still raging. In his own words, he tried to "peer through the mists of the future to the end of the war", once victory had been achieved, and think about how to re-build and maintain peace on a shattered continent. Given that Europe
Europe
had been at the origin of two world wars, the creation of such a body would be, he suggested, "a stupendous business". He returned to the idea during a well-known speech at the University of Zurich
University of Zurich
on 19 September 1946, [8][9] throwing the full weight of his considerable post-war prestige behind it.

Session of the Council of Europe's Assembly in the former House of Europe
Europe
in Strasbourg
Strasbourg
in 1967. Willy Brandt, German minister for Foreign Affairs, is speaking.

The future structure of the Council of Europe
Europe
was discussed at a specific congress of several hundred leading politicians, government representatives and civil society in The Hague, Netherlands, in 1948. There were two schools of thought competing: some favoured a classical international organisation with representatives of governments, while others preferred a political forum with parliamentarians. Both approaches were finally combined through the creation of a Committee of Ministers (in which governments were represented) and a Consultative Assembly (in which parliaments were represented), the two main bodies mentioned in the Statute of the Council of Europe. This dual intergovernmental and inter-parliamentary structure was later copied for the European Communities, North Atlantic Treaty Organization and the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe. The Council of Europe
Europe
was founded on 5 May 1949 by the Treaty of London. The Statute was signed in London on that day by ten states: Belgium, Denmark, France, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden
Sweden
and the United Kingdom. Three months later, on 10 August 1949, 100 members of the Council's Consultative Assembly, parliamentarians drawn from twelve nations ( Turkey
Turkey
and Greece
Greece
had by then joined the original ten founding members), met in Strasbourg
Strasbourg
for its first plenary session, held over 18 sittings and lasting nearly a month. They debated how to reconcile and reconstruct a continent still reeling from war, yet already facing a new East-West divide, launched the concept of a trans-national court to protect the basic human rights of every European citizen, and took the first steps towards what would in time become the European Union. Aims and achievements[edit] Article 1(a) of the Statute states that "The aim of the Council of Europe
Europe
is to achieve a greater unity between its members for the purpose of safeguarding and realising the ideals and principles which are their common heritage and facilitating their economic and social progress."[10] Membership is open to all European states who seek harmony, cooperation, good governance and human rights, accepting the principle of the rule of law and are able and willing to guarantee democracy, fundamental human rights and freedoms. While the member states of the European Union
European Union
transfer part of their national legislative and executive powers to the European Commission and the European Parliament, Council of Europe
Europe
member states maintain their sovereignty but commit themselves through conventions/treaties (international law) and co-operate on the basis of common values and common political decisions. Those conventions and decisions are developed by the member states working together at the Council of Europe. Both organisations function as concentric circles around the common foundations for European co-operation and harmony, with the Council of Europe
Europe
being the geographically wider circle. The European Union could be seen as the smaller circle with a much higher level of integration through the transfer of powers from the national to the EU level. "The Council of Europe
Europe
and the European Union: different roles, shared values."[11] Council of Europe
Europe
conventions/treaties are also open for signature to non-member states, thus facilitating equal co-operation with countries outside Europe. The Council of Europe's most famous achievement is the European Convention on Human Rights, which was adopted in 1950 following a report by the Council of Europe's Parliamentary Assembly, and followed on from the United Nations
United Nations
'Universal Declaration of Human Rights' (UDHR).[12] The Convention created the European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg. The Court supervises compliance with the European Convention on Human Rights and thus functions as the highest European court. It is to this court that Europeans can bring cases if they believe that a member country has violated their fundamental rights and freedoms. The various activities and achievements of the Council of Europe
Europe
can be found in detail on its official website. The Council of Europe works in the following areas:

Building of the European Court of Human Rights

Protection of the rule of law and fostering legal co-operation through some 200 conventions and other treaties,[13] including such leading instruments as the Convention on Cybercrime, the Convention on the Prevention of Terrorism, Conventions against Corruption and Organised Crime,[14][15][16] the Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings, and the Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine.[17] CODEXTER, designed to co-ordinate counter-terrorism measures The European Commission
European Commission
for the Efficiency of Justice (CEPEJ) Protection of human rights, notably through:

the European Convention on Human Rights the European Committee for the Prevention of Torture the European Commission
European Commission
against Racism and Intolerance the Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings[18] the Convention on the Protection of Children against Sexual Exploitation and Sexual Abuse[19] The Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence.[20] social rights under the European Social Charter linguistic rights under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages minority rights under the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities Media freedom under Article 10 of the European Convention on Human Rights and the European Convention on Transfrontier Television

Protection of democracy through parliamentary scrutiny and election monitoring by its Parliamentary Assembly as well as assistance in democratic reforms, in particular by the Venice Commission. Promotion of cultural co-operation and diversity under the Council of Europe's Cultural Convention of 1954 and several conventions on the protection of cultural heritage as well as through its Centre for Modern Languages in Graz, Austria, and its North-South Centre in Lisbon, Portugal. Promotion of the right to education under Article 2 of the first Protocol to the European Convention on Human Rights
European Convention on Human Rights
and several conventions on the recognition of university studies and diplomas (see also Bologna Process
Bologna Process
and Lisbon
Lisbon
Recognition Convention). Promotion of fair sport through the Anti-Doping Convention[21] Promotion of European youth exchanges and co-operation through European Youth Centres in Strasbourg
Strasbourg
and Budapest, Hungary. Promotion of the quality of medicines throughout Europe
Europe
by the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines
European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines
and its European Pharmacopoeia.

Institutions[edit]

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The institutions of the Council of Europe
Europe
are:

The Secretary General, who is elected for a term of five years by the Parliamentary Assembly and heads the Secretariat of the Council of Europe. Mr Thorbjørn Jagland, the former Prime Minister of Norway
Norway
was elected Secretary General of the Council of Europe
Europe
in September 2009. In June 2014, he was re-elected, and his second term in office commenced on 1 October 2014. The Committee of Ministers, comprising the Ministers of Foreign Affairs of all 47 member states who are represented by their Permanent Representatives and Ambassadors accredited to the Council of Europe. Committee of Ministers' presidencies are held in alphabetical order for six months following the English alphabet: Turkey
Turkey
11/2010-05/2011, Ukraine
Ukraine
05/2011-11/2011, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
11/2011-05/2012, Albania 05/2012-11/2012, Andorra
Andorra
11/2012-05/2013, Armenia
Armenia
05/2013-11/2013, Austria
Austria
11/2013-05/2014, and so on.[22]

Council's Parliamentary Assembly hemicycle

The Parliamentary Assembly (PACE), which comprises national parliamentarians from all member states. It elects its President for a year with the possibility of being re-elected for another year. In January 2016, Pedro Agramunt
Pedro Agramunt
from Spain
Spain
was elected President of the Parliamentary Assembly. In 2017, October 6 Stella Kyriakides from Cyprus
Cyprus
has been elected President of the PACE following the resignation of Pedro Agramunt.[23] She will remain in office until the opening of the next ordinary session in January, 2018. National parliamentary delegations to the Assembly must reflect the political spectrum of their national parliament, i.e. comprise government and opposition parties. The Assembly appoints members as rapporteurs with the mandate to prepare parliamentary reports on specific subjects. The British MP Sir David Maxwell-Fyfe
Sir David Maxwell-Fyfe
was rapporteur for the drafting of the European Convention on Human Rights. Dick Marty's reports on secret CIA
CIA
detentions and rendition flights in Europe
Europe
became quite famous in 2006 and 2007. Other Assembly reports were instrumental in, for example, the abolition of the death penalty in Europe, highlighting the political and human rights situation in Chechnya, identifying who was responsible for disappeared persons in Belarus, chronicling threats to freedom of expression in the media and many other subjects. The Congress of the Council of Europe
Europe
(Congress of Local and Regional Authorities of Europe), which was created in 1994 and comprises political representatives from local and regional authorities in all member states. The most influential instruments of the Council of Europe
Europe
in this field are the European Charter of Local Self-Government of 1985 and the European Outline Convention on Transfrontier Co-operation between Territorial Communities or Authorities of 1980.[24][25] The European Court of Human Rights, created under the European Convention on Human Rights of 1950, is composed of a judge from each member state elected for a single, non-renewable term of nine years by the Parliamentary Assembly and is headed by the elected President of the Court. The current President of the Court is Guido Raimondi from Italy. Under the recent Protocol No. 14 to the European Convention on Human Rights, the Court's case-processing was reformed and streamlined. Ratification of Protocol No. 14 was delayed by Russia
Russia
for a number of years, but won support to be passed in January 2010. The Commissioner for Human Rights
Commissioner for Human Rights
is elected by the Parliamentary Assembly for a non-renewable term of six years since the creation of this position in 1999. Since April 2012, this position has been held by Nils Muižnieks
Nils Muižnieks
from Latvia.[26] The Conference of INGOs. NGOs can participate in the INGOs Conference of the Council of Europe. Since the [Resolution (2003)8] adopted by the Committee of Ministers
Committee of Ministers
on 19 November 2003, they are given a "participatory status".[27] The Joint Council on Youth of the Council of Europe. The European Steering Committee (CDEJ) on Youth and the Advisory Council (CCJ) on Youth of the Council of Europe
Europe
form together the Joint Council on Youth (CMJ). The CDEJ brings together representatives of ministries or bodies responsible for youth matters from the 50 States Parties to the European Cultural Convention. The CDEJ fosters co-operation between governments in the youth sector and provides a framework for comparing national youth policies, exchanging best practices and drafting standard-setting texts. The Advisory Council on Youth comprises 30 representatives of non-governmental youth organisations and networks. It provides opinions and input from youth NGOs on all youth sector activities and ensures that young people are involved in the Council’s other activities. Information Offices of the Council of Europe
Europe
in many member states.

European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines.

The CoE system also includes a number of semi-autonomous structures known as "Partial Agreements", some of which are also open to non-member states:

The Council of Europe
Europe
Development Bank in Paris The European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines
European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines
with its European Pharmacopoeia The European Audiovisual Observatory The European Support Fund Eurimages for the co-production and distribution of films The Pompidou Group – Cooperation Group to Combat Drug Abuse and Illicit Trafficking in Drugs The European Commission
European Commission
for Democracy
Democracy
through Law, better known as the Venice Commission The Group of States Against Corruption
Group of States Against Corruption
(GRECO) The European and Mediterranean Major Hazards Agreement (EUR-OPA) which is a platform for co-operation between European and Southern Mediterranean countries in the field of major natural and technological disasters. The Enlarged Partial Agreement on Sport, which is open to accession by states and sport associations.[28] The North-South Centre of the Council of Europe
Europe
in Lisbon
Lisbon
(Portugal) The Centre for Modern Languages is in Graz
Graz
(Austria)

Headquarters and buildings[edit] See also: European Institutions in Strasbourg

Aerial shot of the Palais de l' Europe
Europe
in Strasbourg

Council of Europe's Agora building

The seat of the Council of Europe
Europe
is in Strasbourg, France. First meetings were held in Strasbourg's University Palace in 1949, but the Council of Europe
Europe
soon moved into its own buildings. The Council of Europe's eight main buildings are situated in the Quartier européen, an area in the northeast of Strasbourg
Strasbourg
spread over the three districts of Le Wacken, La Robertsau and Quartier de l'Orangerie, where are also located the four buildings of the seat of the European Parliament
European Parliament
in Strasbourg, the Arte
Arte
headquarters and the seat of the International Institute of Human Rights. Building in the area started in 1949 with the predecessor of the Palais de l'Europe, the House of Europe
Europe
(demolished in 1977), and came to a provisional end in 2007 with the opening of the New General Office Building, later named "Agora", in 2008.[29] The Palais de l' Europe
Europe
(Palace of Europe) and the Art Nouveau
Art Nouveau
Villa Schutzenberger (seat of the European Audiovisual Observatory) are in the Orangerie district, and the European Court of Human Rights, the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines and the Agora Building are in the Robertsau district. The Agora building has been voted "best international business center real estate project of 2007" on 13 March 2008, at the MIPIM
MIPIM
2008.[30] The European Youth Centre is located in the Wacken district. Besides its headquarters in Strasbourg, the Council of Europe
Europe
is also present in other cities and countries. The Council of Europe Development Bank has its seat in Paris, the North-South Centre of the Council of Europe
Europe
is established in Lisbon, Portugal, and the Centre for Modern Languages is in Graz, Austria. There are European Youth Centres in Budapest, Hungary, and in Strasbourg. The European Wergeland Centre, a new Resource Centre on education for intercultural dialogue, human rights and democratic citizenship, operated in cooperation with the Norwegian Government, opened in Oslo, Norway, in February 2009.[31] The Council of Europe
Europe
has offices in Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Georgia, Moldova, Montenegro, Serbia, and Ukraine; information offices in Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Georgia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Russian Federation, Slovakia, Slovenia, the Republic of Macedonia, and Ukraine; and a projects office in Turkey. All these offices are establishments of the Council of Europe
Europe
and they share its juridical personality with privileges and immunities. Due to persistent budgetary shortages, the Council of Europe
Europe
is expected to cut down significantly the number of its activities, and thus the number of its employees, from 2011 on. This will notably affect the economy of the city of Strasbourg, where a total of 2,321 people (on 1 January 2010) are doing salaried work for the CoE. Most offices in foreign countries are expected to be closed as well.[32] Member states, observers, partners[edit] Main article: Member states of the Council of Europe The Council of Europe
Europe
was founded on 5 May 1949 by Belgium, Denmark, France, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden
Sweden
and the United Kingdom. Greece
Greece
and Turkey
Turkey
joined three months later, and Iceland
Iceland
and West Germany
West Germany
the next year. It now has 47 member states, with Montenegro
Montenegro
being the latest to join. Article 4 of the Council of Europe
Europe
Statute specifies that membership is open to any "European" State. This has been interpreted liberally from the beginning (when Turkey
Turkey
was admitted) to include transcontinental states such as Russia, Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan. Nearly all European states have acceded to the Council of Europe, with the exceptions of Belarus
Belarus
(human rights concerns), Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
(human rights concerns), and the Vatican City
Vatican City
(a theocracy), as well as some of the territories with limited recognition. Besides the status as a full member, the Council of Europe
Europe
has established other instruments for cooperation and participation of non-member states: observer, applicant, special guest, and partner for democracy. Co-operation[edit] Non-member states[edit] The Council of Europe
Europe
works mainly through conventions. By drafting conventions or international treaties, common legal standards are set for its member states. However, several conventions have also been opened for signature to non-member states. Important examples are the Convention on Cybercrime (signed for example, by Canada, Japan, South Africa and the United States), the Lisbon
Lisbon
Recognition Convention on the recognition of study periods and degrees (signed for example, by Australia, Belarus, Canada, the Holy See, Israel, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, New Zealand and the United States), the Anti-doping Convention (signed, for example, by Australia, Belarus, Canada
Canada
and Tunisia) and the Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats (signed for example, by Burkina Faso, Morocco, Tunisia and Senegal as well as the European Community). Non-member states also participate in several partial agreements, such as the Venice Commission, the Group of States Against Corruption
Group of States Against Corruption
(GRECO), the European Pharmacopoeia
European Pharmacopoeia
Commission and the North-South Centre. Invitations to sign and ratify relevant conventions of the Council of Europe
Europe
on a case-by-case basis are sent to three groups of non-member entities:[33]

Non-European states: Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Bahamas, Bolivia, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Chile, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Honduras, South Korea, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Malaysia, Mauritius, Morocco, New Zealand, Panama, Peru, Philippines, Senegal, South Africa, Syria, Tajikistan, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Uruguay, Venezuela and the observers Canada, Israel, Japan, Mexico, United States. European states: Kosovo, Kazakhstan, Belarus
Belarus
and the observer Vatican City. the European Community
European Community
and later the European Union
European Union
after its legal personality was established by the ratification of the EU's Lisbon Treaty.

European Union[edit]

A clickable Euler diagram
Euler diagram
showing the relationships between various multinational European organisations and agreements.

v t e

The Council of Europe
Europe
is not to be confused with the Council of the European Union
European Union
(the "Council of Ministers") or the European Council. These belong to the European Union, which is separate from the Council of Europe, although they have shared the same European flag and anthem since the 1980s because they both work for European integration. The Council of Europe
Europe
is not to be confused with the European Union itself. The Council of Europe
Europe
is an entirely separate body[34] from the European Union. It is not controlled by it. Cooperation between the European Union
European Union
and the Council of Europe
Europe
has recently been reinforced, notably on culture and education as well as on the international enforcement of justice and Human Rights.[35] The European Union
European Union
is expected to accede to the European Convention on Human Rights (the Convention). There are also concerns about consistency in case law – the European Court of Justice
European Court of Justice
(the EU's court in Luxembourg) is treating the Convention as part of the legal system of all EU member states in order to prevent conflict between its judgements and those of the European Court of Human Rights
European Court of Human Rights
(the court in Strasbourg
Strasbourg
interpreting the Convention). Protocol No. 14 of the Convention is designed to allow the EU to accede to it and the EU Treaty of Lisbon
Lisbon
contains a protocol binding the EU to join. The EU would thus be subject to its human rights law and external monitoring as its member states currently are.[36][37] United Nations[edit] The beginning of co-operation between the CoE and the UN started with the agreement signed by the Secretariats of these institutions on 15 December 1951. On 17 October 1989, the General Assembly of the United Nations approved a resolution on granting observer status to the Council of Europe
Europe
which was proposed by several member states of the CoE.[38] Currently Council of Europe
Europe
holds observer status with the United Nations
United Nations
and is regularly represented in the UN General Assembly. It has organised the regional UN conferences against racism and on women and co-operates with the United Nations
United Nations
at many levels, in particular in the areas of human rights, minorities, migration and counter-terrorism. In November 2016, the UN General Assembly
UN General Assembly
adopted by consensus Resolution (A/Res/71/17) on Cooperation between the United Nations
United Nations
and the Council of Europe
Europe
whereby it acknowledged the contribution of Council of Europe
Europe
to the protection and strengthening of human rights and fundamental freedoms, democracy and the rule of law, welcomed the ongoing co-operation in a variety of fields. Non-governmental organisations[edit] Non-governmental organisations (NGOs) can participate in the INGOs Conference of the Council of Europe
Europe
and become observers to inter-governmental committees of experts. The Council of Europe drafted the European Convention on the Recognition of the Legal Personality of International Non-Governmental Organisations in 1986, which sets the legal basis for the existence and work of NGOs in Europe. Article 11 of the European Convention on Human Rights
European Convention on Human Rights
protects the right to freedom of association, which is also a fundamental norm for NGOs. The rules for Consultative Status for INGOs appended to the resolution (93)38 "On relation between the Council of Europe
Europe
and non-governmental organisations", adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 18 October 1993 at the 500th meeting of the Ministers' Deputies. On 19 November 2003 the Committee of Ministers
Committee of Ministers
changed the consultative status into a participatory status, "considering that it is indispensable that the rules governing the relations between the Council of Europe
Europe
and NGOs evolve to reflect the active participation of international non-governmental organisations (INGOs) in the Organisation's policy and work programme".[39] Characteristics[edit] Privileges and immunities[edit] The General Agreement on Privileges and Immunities of the Council of Europe
Europe
grants the organisation certain privileges and immunities.[40] The working conditions of staff are governed by the Council's staff regulations, which are public.[41] Salaries and emoluments paid by the Council of Europe
Europe
to its officials are tax-exempt on the basis of Article 18 of the General Agreement on Privileges and Immunities of the Council of Europe.[40] Symbol and anthem[edit] Main articles: Symbols of Europe
Europe
and Flag of Europe The Council of Europe
Europe
created, and has since 1955 used as its official symbol, the European Flag with 12 golden stars arranged in a circle on a blue background. Its musical anthem since 1972, the "European Anthem", is based on the "Ode to Joy" theme from Ludwig van Beethoven's Ninth symphony. On 5 May 1964, the 15th anniversary of its founding, the Council of Europe
Europe
established 5 May as Europe
Europe
Day.[42] The wide private and public use of the European Flag is encouraged to symbolise a European dimension. To avoid confusion with the European Union which subsequently adopted the same flag in the 1980s, as well as other European institutions, the Council of Europe
Europe
often uses a modified version with a lower-case "e" surrounding the stars which is referred to as the "Council of Europe
Europe
Logo".[42][43] Criticism and controversies[edit] In recent years, the Council of Europe
Europe
has been criticised for doing too little to stand up to the transgressions of some of its members. In 2013 The Economist
The Economist
agreed, saying that the "Council of Europe's credibility is on the line".[44] Both Human Rights Watch
Human Rights Watch
and the European Stability Initiative have called on the Council of Europe
Europe
to undertake concrete actions to show that it is willing and able to return to its "original mission to protect and ensure human rights".[45] Issues have been raised regarding Azerbaijan's relationship to the Council of Europe, including allegations that Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
has, over a sustained period, provided bribes to Council members to vote down criticism of the authoritarian rule of the Aliyev regime and support motions advantageous to Azerbaijan. Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
joined the Council of Europe
Europe
in 2001. In September 2014 Human Rights Watch, said that Azerbaijan's "systematic crackdown on human rights defenders and other perceived government critics shows sheer contempt for its commitments to the Council of Europe".[46] In 2017 Council member and Italian politician Luca Volontè was accused by Italian prosecutors of receiving over 2.3 million euro in bribes in exchange for working for Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
in the parliamentary assembly, and that in 2013 he played a key role in orchestrating the defeat of a highly critical report on the abuse of political prisoners in Azerbaijan.[47][48] The money was paid to Volontè in monthly installments of 100,000 euro, starting in 2013, via four anonymous offshore companies. The payments stopped in 2014 when Volontè's bank reported them as suspicious transactions to the Milan prosecutor's office.[49] Arif Mammadov, former head of the Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
representation at the Council of Europe, has stated that Azerbaijan's delegation at the Council had 25 million dollars available to "bribe members of the delegations and Pace generally".[50] See also[edit]

Europe
Europe
portal

CAHDI CODEXTER Common European Framework of Reference for Languages Conference of Specialised Ministers Council of Europe
Europe
Archives European Anti-fraud Office European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages European Court of Human Rights European Social Charter European Union Film Award of the Council of Europe Group of States Against Corruption Moneyval European Commission
European Commission
against Racism and Intolerance (ECRI) International organisations in Europe, and co-ordinated organisations List of linguistic rights in European constitutions North–South Centre of the Council of Europe Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe Venice Commission World Anti-Doping Agency

References[edit]

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Europe
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Europe
The European anthem, Retrieved: 18 April 2016 ^ Council of Europe
Europe
How to Distinguish Us, Retrieved: 18 April 2016 ^ "Intergovernmental Organizations". www.un.org.  ^ " Winston Churchill
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Europe
Convention on the Protection of Children against Sexual Exploitation and Sexual Abuse".  ^ "Full list". Treaty Office.  ^ "Anti-Doping Convention".  ^ "Chairmanship". Committee of Ministers. Retrieved 2017-12-13.  ^ "PACE: News". assembly.coe.int. Retrieved 2017-11-04.  ^ "In brief". Congress of Local and Regional Authorities. Retrieved 2017-12-13.  ^ "History". Congress of Local and Regional Authorities. Retrieved 2017-12-13.  ^ "Home - Commissioner for Human Rights". Commissioner for Human Rights. Retrieved 2017-12-13.  ^ "A word from the President on the occasion of the 40th anniversary of the Conference of INGOs of the Council of Europe".  ^ "Enlarged Partial Agreement on Sport". Council of Europe.  ^ "Inauguration of the Agora Building" (PDF) (Press release) (in French). Council of Europe. 30 January 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 May 2008.  ^ "2008 List of MIPIM
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Europe
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Europe
and the European Union
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Europe
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European Union
and the treaty establishing the European community" (PDF). Open Europe. 24 July 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 August 2007. Retrieved 5 August 2008.  ^ "The Council of Europe's Relations with the United Nations". www.coe.int. Retrieved 2017-08-25.  ^ [1] (Resolution Res (2003)8) ^ a b General Agreement on Privileges and Immunities of the Council of Europe, Council of Europe ^ Resolutions on the Council of Europe
Europe
Staff Regulations, Council of Europe ^ a b "Flag, anthem and logo: the Council of Europe's symbols". Council of Europe. Archived from the original on 31 July 2008. Retrieved 5 August 2008.  ^ "Logo of the Council of Europe". Council of Europe. Archived from the original on 2011-01-02. Retrieved 5 August 2008.  ^ The Economist
The Economist
(23 March 2013). " Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
and the Council of Europe". Retrieved 29 September 2014.  ^ European Stability Initiative. "What the 2014 Havel Prize says about the Council of Europe
Europe
– and what should happen now" (29 September 2014). ESI web. Retrieved 29 September 2014.  ^ Human Rights Watch
Human Rights Watch
(29 September 2014). "Azerbaijan: Government Repression Tarnishes Chairmanship Council of Europe's Leadership Should Take Action". Retrieved 29 September 2014.  ^ Jennifer Rankin, Council of Europe
Europe
urged to investigate Azerbaijan bribery allegations, The Guardian, 1 February 2017 [2]. ^ Matthew Valencia, Heaping on the Caviar Diplomacy ^ Gabanelli, Milena. "Il Consiglio d'Europa e il caso Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
tra regali e milioni". Corriere della Sera (in Italian). Retrieved 2017-01-30.  ^ Jennifer Rankin, Fresh claims of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
vote-rigging at European human rights body, The Guardian, 20 April 2017 [3].

External links[edit]

Official website General Agreement on Privileges and Immunities of the Council of Europe, Paris, 2 September 1949

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1 Provisionally referred to by the Council of Europe
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