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The Council of Ephesus
Ephesus
was a council of Christian bishops convened in Ephesus
Ephesus
(near present-day Selçuk
Selçuk
in Turkey) in AD 431 by the Roman Emperor Theodosius II. This third ecumenical council, an effort to attain consensus in the church through an assembly representing all of Christendom,[1] confirmed the original Nicene Creed,[2] and condemned the teachings of Nestorius, Patriarch of Constantinople, who held that the Virgin Mary
Virgin Mary
may be called the Christotokos, "Birth Giver of Christ" but not the Theotokos, "Birth Giver of God". It met in June and July 431 at the Church of Mary
Church of Mary
in Ephesus
Ephesus
in Anatolia.

Contents

1 Background 2 History

2.1 Political context 2.2 Theological context 2.3 Convocation 2.4 Assembly 2.5 First session - June 22 2.6 Arrival of the Antiochene delegation 2.7 Second Session - July 10 2.8 Third Session - July 11 2.9 Fourth Session - July 16 2.10 Fifth Session - July 17 2.11 Sixth Session - July 22 2.12 Seventh Session - July 31

3 Canons and declarations 4 Confirmation of the Council's Acts 5 Aftermath

5.1 Conciliation

6 References 7 Sources 8 External links

Background[edit] Nestorius' doctrine, Nestorianism, which emphasized the distinction between Christ's human and divine natures and argued that Mary should be called Christotokos (Christ-bearer) but not Theotokos
Theotokos
(God-bearer), had brought him into conflict with other church leaders, most notably Cyril, Patriarch of Alexandria. Nestorius
Nestorius
himself had requested the Emperor to convene the council, hoping that it would prove his orthodoxy; the council in fact condemned his teachings as heresy. The council declared Mary as Theotokos
Theotokos
(God-bearer).[3] Nestorius' dispute with Cyril had led the latter to seek validation from Pope Celestine I, who authorized Cyril to request that Nestorius recant his position or face excommunication. Nestorius
Nestorius
pleaded with the Eastern Roman Emperor Theodosius II
Theodosius II
to call a council in which all grievances could be aired, hoping that he would be vindicated and Cyril condemned. Approximately 250 bishops were present. The proceedings were conducted in a heated atmosphere of confrontation and recriminations and created severe tensions between Cyril and Theodosius II. Nestorius
Nestorius
was decisively outplayed by Cyril and removed from his see, and his teachings were officially anathematized. This precipitated the Nestorian Schism, by which churches supportive of Nestorius, especially in the Persian Empire of the Sassanids, were severed from the rest of Christendom
Christendom
and became known as Nestorian Christianity, or the Church of the East, whose present-day representatives are the Assyrian Church of the East, the Ancient Church of the East, the Chaldean Syrian Church, and the Chaldean Catholic Church. Nestorius himself retired to a monastery, always asserting his orthodoxy. History[edit] Political context[edit] McGuckin cites the "innate rivalry" between Alexandria
Alexandria
and Constantinople
Constantinople
as an important factor in the controversy between Cyril of Alexandria
Alexandria
and Nestorius.[4] However, he emphasizes that, as much as political competition contributed to an "overall climate of dissent", the controversy cannot be reduced merely to the level of "personality clashes" or "political antagonisms". According to McGuckin, Cyril viewed the "elevated intellectual argument about christology" as ultimately one and the same as the "validity and security of the simple Christian life".[5] Even within Constantinople, some supported the Roman-Alexandrian and others supported the Nestorian factions. For example, Pulcheria supported the Roman-Alexandrian popes while the emperor and his wife supported Nestorius.[6] Theological context[edit] See also: Nestorianism Contention over Nestorius' teachings, which he developed during his studies at the School of Antioch, largely revolved around his rejection of the long-used title Theotokos
Theotokos
("Birth-giver of God") for the Virgin Mary. Shortly after his arrival in Constantinople, Nestorius
Nestorius
became involved in the disputes of two theological factions, which differed in their Christology. McGuckin ascribes Nestorius' importance to his being the representative of the Antiochene tradition and characterizes him as a "consistent, if none too clear, exponent of the longstanding Antiochene dogmatic tradition." Nestorius
Nestorius
was greatly surprised that what he had always taught in Antioch without any controversy whatsoever should prove to be so objectionable to the Christians of Constantinople. Nestorius
Nestorius
emphasized the dual natures of Christ, trying to find a middle ground between those who emphasized the fact that in Christ
Christ
God had been born as a man, insisted on calling the Virgin Mary
Virgin Mary
Theotokos
Theotokos
(Greek: Θεοτόκος, "God-bearer"), and those that rejected that title because God as an eternal being could not have been born. Nestorius
Nestorius
suggested the title Christotokos (Χριστοτόκος, "Christ-bearer"), but this proposal did not gain acceptance on either side. Nestorius
Nestorius
tried to answer a question considered unsolved: "How can Jesus
Jesus
Christ, being part man, not be partially a sinner as well, since man is by definition a sinner since the Fall". To solve that he taught that Mary, the mother of Jesus
Mary, the mother of Jesus
gave birth to the incarnate Christ, not the divine Logos who existed before Mary and indeed before time itself. The Logos occupied the part of the human soul (the part of man that was stained by the Fall). But wouldn't the absence of a human soul make Jesus
Jesus
less human? Nestorius
Nestorius
rejected this proposition, answering that, because the human soul was based on the archetype of the Logos, only to become polluted by the Fall, Jesus
Jesus
was "more" human for having the Logos and not "less". Consequently, Nestorius
Nestorius
argued that the Virgin Mary
Virgin Mary
should be called Christotokos, Greek for "Birth Giver of Christ", and not Theotokos, Greek for "Birth Giver of God". Nestorius
Nestorius
believed that no union between the human and divine was possible. If such a union of human and divine occurred, Nestorius believed that Christ
Christ
could not truly be con-substantial with God and con-substantial with us because he would grow, mature, suffer and die (which Nestorius
Nestorius
argued God cannot do) and also would possess the power of God that would separate him from being equal to humans. According to McGuckin, several mid-twentieth-century accounts have tended to "romanticise" Nestorius; in opposition to this view, he asserts that Nestorius
Nestorius
was no less dogmatic, uncompromising than Cyril and that he was fully just as prepared to use his political and canonical powers as Cyril or any of the other hierarchs of the period.[7] Nestorius's opponents charged him with detaching Christ's divinity and humanity into two persons existing in one body, thereby denying the reality of the Incarnation. Eusebius, a layman who later became the bishop of the neighbouring Dorylaeum was the first to accuse Nestorius of heresy but his most forceful opponent was Patriarch Cyril of Alexandria. Cyril argued that Nestorianism
Nestorianism
split Jesus
Jesus
in half and denied that he was both human and divine. Cyril appealed to Pope Celestine I, charging Nestorius
Nestorius
with heresy. The Pope agreed and gave Cyril his authority to serve a notice to Nestorius
Nestorius
to recant his views within ten days or else be excommunicated. Before acting on the Pope's commission, Cyril convened a synod of Egyptian bishops which condemned Nestorius
Nestorius
as well. Cyril then sent four suffragan bishops to deliver both the Pope's commission as well as the synodal letter of the Egyptian bishops. Cyril sent a letter to Nestorius
Nestorius
known as "The Third Epistle of Saint Cyril to Nestorius." This epistle drew heavily on the established Patristic Constitutions and contained the most famous article of Alexandrian Orthodoxy: "The Twelve Anathemas of Saint Cyril." In these anathemas, Cyril excommunicated anyone who followed the teachings of Nestorius. For example, "Anyone who dares to deny the Holy Virgin the title Theotokos
Theotokos
is Anathema!" Nestorius
Nestorius
however, still would not repent. McGuckin points out that other representatives of the Antiochene tradition such as John of Antioch, Theodoret and Andrew of Samosata were able to recognize "the point of the argument for Christ's integrity" and concede the "ill-advised nature of Nestorius' immoveability."[8] Concerned at the potential for a negative result at a council, they urged Nestorius
Nestorius
to yield and accept the use of the title Theotokos
Theotokos
when referring to the Virgin Mary.[9] For example, John of Antioch wrote to Nestorius
Nestorius
urging him to submit to the Pope's judgment and cease stirring up controversy over a word that he disliked (Theotokos) but which could be interpreted as having an orthodox meaning especially in light of the fact that many saints and doctors of the church had sanctioned the word by using it themselves. John wrote to Nestorius, "Don't lose your head. Ten days! It will not take you twenty-four hours to give the needed answer.... Ask advice of men you can trust. Ask them to tell you the facts, not just what they think will please you.... You have the whole of the East against you, as well as Egypt." Despite this advice from his colleagues, Nestorius
Nestorius
persisted in maintaining the rightness of his position. Convocation[edit]

Council of Ephesus
Ephesus
in 431, in the Basilica of Fourvière, Lyon

On 19 November, Nestorius, anticipating the ultimatum which was about to be delivered, convinced Emperor Theodosius II
Theodosius II
to summon a general council through which Nestorius
Nestorius
hoped to convict Cyril of heresy and thereby vindicate his own teachings. Theodosius issued a Sacra calling for the metropolitan bishops to assemble in the city of Ephesus, which was a special seat for the veneration of Mary, where the theotokos formula was popular. Each bishop was to bring only his more eminent suffragans. The date set by the Emperor for the opening of the council was Pentecost (7 June) 431.[10] McGuckin notes that the vagueness of the Sacra resulted in wide variations of interpretation by different bishops. In particular, the vastness of John of Antioch's ecclesiastical territory required a lengthy period to notify and gather his delegates. Because the overland trip from Antioch to Ephesus
Ephesus
was long and arduous, John composed his delegation of his metropolitan bishops who were restricted to bring no more than two suffragans each. By doing so, he minimized the number who would have to travel to Ephesus. Neither of the emperors attended the council. Theodosius appointed Count Candidian as the head of the imperial palace guard to represent him, to supervise the proceedings of the Council, and to keep good order in the city of Ephesus. Despite Nestorius' agenda of prosecuting Cyril, Theodosius intended for the council to focus strictly on the christological controversy. He thus gave Candidianus strict directions to remain neutral and not to interfere in the theological proceedings. It is generally assumed that Candidian initially maintained his neutrality as instructed by the emperor and only gradually became more biased towards Nestorius. McGuckin, however, suggests that Candidian may have favored Nestorius
Nestorius
from the start.[11][12] Assembly[edit] Celestine sent Arcadius and Projectus, to represent himself and his Roman council; in addition, he sent the Roman priest, Philip, as his personal representative. Cyril Patriarch of Alexandria
Alexandria
was president of the council. Celestine had directed the papal legates not to take part in the discussions, but to give judgment on them.[13] Bishops arrived in Ephesus
Ephesus
over a period of several weeks. While waiting for the other bishops to arrive, they engaged in informal discussions characterized as tending to "exasperate rather than heal their differences".[14] The metropolitan of Ephesus, Memnon, was already present with his 52 bishops. Nestorius
Nestorius
and his 16 bishops were the first to arrive shortly after Easter. As archbishop of the imperial city of Constantinople, he traveled with a detachment of troops who were under the command of Count Candidian. McGuckin notes that the troops were not there to serve as Nestorius' bodyguard but to support Candidian in his role as the emperor's representative. However, McGuckin theorizes that Candidian's progressive abandonment of neutrality in favor of Nestorius
Nestorius
may have created the perception that Candidian's troops were, in fact, there to support Nestorius.[15] Candidian ordered all monks and lay strangers to leave the city; he further instructed the bishops not to leave on any pretext until the council was concluded.[14] Several sources comment that the purpose of this injunction was to prevent bishops from leaving the council to appeal to the emperor directly.[citation needed] According to McGuckin, Memnon, as bishop of Ephesus, commanded the "fervent and unquestioned loyalty" of the local populace and thus could count on the support of local factions to counterbalance the military might of Candidian's troops.[16] In view of the verdict of Rome against Nestorius, Memnon refused to have communion with Nestorius, closing the churches of Ephesus
Ephesus
to him.[17] Cyril brought with him 50 bishops, arriving only a few days before Pentecost.[18] There were very few bishops representing the West, as the papal representatives would not arrive until July.[19] The Palestinian delegation of 16 bishops and Metropolitan Flavian of Philippi arrived 5 days after the date that had been set for opening the council, and aligned themselves with Cyril.[19] At this point, Cyril announced his intention to open the council; however, Candidian enjoined him from doing so on the grounds that the Roman and Antiochean delegations had not arrived yet.[9] Cyril initially acceded to Candidian's injunction knowing that he could not legally convene a council without the official reading of the Emperor's Sacra.[20] A number of bishops, who were undecided between Nestorius
Nestorius
and Cyril, did not want to give Cyril, as one party in the dispute, the right to chair the meeting and decide the agenda;[21] however, they began to take Cyril's side for various reasons.[22] Various circumstances including a detour necessitated by flooding as well as sickness and death of some of the delegates seriously delayed John of Antioch and his bishops.[23] It was rumored that John might be delaying his arrival in order to avoid participating in a council which was likely to condemn Nestorius
Nestorius
as a heretic.[13] First session - June 22[edit] Two weeks after the date set for the council, John and the bulk of his Syrian group (42 members) had not yet appeared. At this point, Cyril formally opened the council on Monday 22 June by enthroning the Gospels in the centre of the church, as a symbol of Christ's presence among the assembled bishops.[24] Despite three separate summons, Nestorius
Nestorius
refused to acknowledge Cyril's authority to stand in judgment of him and considered the opening of the council before the arrival of the Antiochene contingent as a "flagrant injustice".[9][13] The 68 bishops who opposed opening the council entered the church in protest, arriving with Count Candidian who declared that the assembly was illegal and must disperse.[25] He urged Cyril to wait four more days for the Syrian delegation to arrive.[26] However, since even the bishops opposed to opening the council were now present, Cyril maneuvered Candidian by means of a ruse to read out the text of the Emperor's decree of convocation, which the assembly then acclaimed as recognition of its own legality.[27] Arrival of the Antiochene delegation[edit] When John of Antioch and his Syrian bishops finally reached Ephesus five days after the council, they met with Candidian who informed them that Cyril had begun a council without them and had ratified Celestine's conviction of Nestorius
Nestorius
as a heretic. Angered at having undertaken such a long and arduous journey only to have been pre-empted by actions taken by Cyril's council, John and the Syrian bishops held their own Council with Candidian presiding.[28][29] This council condemned Cyril for espousing the Arian, Apollinarian and Eunomian heresies and condemned Memnon for inciting violence. The bishops at this council deposed both Cyril and Memnon.[9] Initially, the emperor concurred with the actions of John's council but eventually withdrew his concurrence.[citation needed] Second Session - July 10[edit] The second session was held in Memnon's episcopal residence. Philip, as papal legate, opened the proceedings by commenting that the present question regarding Nestorius
Nestorius
had already been decided by Pope Celestine as evidenced by his letter, which had been read to the assembled bishops in the first session. He indicated that he had a second letter from Celestine which was read to the bishops now in attendance. The letter contained a general exhortation to the council, and concluded by saying that the legates had instructions to carry out what the pope had decided on the question and expressed Celestine's confidence that the council would agree. The bishops indicated their approval by acclaiming Celestine and Cyril. Projectus indicated that the papal letter enjoined the council to put into effect the sentence pronounced by Celestine. Firmus, the Exarch of Caesarea in Cappadocia, responded that the pope's sentence had already been carried out in the first session. The session closed with the reading of the pope's letter to the emperor.[13] Third Session - July 11[edit] Having read the Acts of the first session, the papal legates indicated that all that was required was that the council's condemnation of Nestorius
Nestorius
be formally read in their presence. When this had been done, the three legates each confirmed the council's actions, signing the Acts of all three sessions. The council sent a letter to Theodosius indicating that the condemnation of Nestorius
Nestorius
had been agreed upon not only by the bishops of the East meeting in Ephesus
Ephesus
but also of the bishops of the West who had convened at a synod in Rome convened by Celestine. The bishops asked Theodosius to allow them to go home since so many of them suffered from their presence at Ephesus.[13] Fourth Session - July 16[edit] At the fourth session, Cyril and Memnon presented a formal protest against John of Antioch for convening a separate conciliabulum. The council issued a summons for him to appear before them, but he would not even receive the envoys who were sent to serve him the summons.[13] Fifth Session - July 17[edit] Next day the fifth session was held in the same church. John had set up a placard in the city accusing the synod of the Apollinarian heresy. He was again cited, and this was counted as the third canonical summons. He paid no attention. In consequence the council suspended and excommunicated him, together with thirty-four bishops of his party, but refrained from deposing them. Some of John's party had already deserted him, and he had gained only a few. In the letters to the emperor and the pope which were then dispatched, the synod described itself as now consisting of 210 bishops. The long letter to Celestine gave a full account of the council, and mentioned that the pope's decrees against the Pelagians had been read and confirmed.[13] Sixth Session - July 22[edit] At this session, the bishops approved Canon 7 which condemned any departure from the creed established by the First Council of Nicaea, in particular an exposition by the priest Charisius. According to a report from Cyril to Celestine, Juvenal of Jerusalem tried and failed to create for himself a patriarchate from the territory of the Antiochene patriarchate in which his see lay. He ultimately succeeded in this goal twenty years later at the Council of Chalcedon.[13] Seventh Session - July 31[edit] At this session, the council approved the claim of the bishops of Cyprus
Cyprus
that their see had been anciently and rightly exempt from the jurisdiction of Antioch. The council also passed five canons condemning Nestorius
Nestorius
and Caelestius and their followers as heretics and a sixth one decreeing deposition from clerical office or excommunication for those who did not accept the Council's decrees. Canons and declarations[edit]

Cyril of Alexandria

The Council denounced Nestorius' teaching as erroneous and decreed that Jesus
Jesus
was one person (hypostasis), and not two separate persons, yet possessing both a human and divine nature. The Virgin Mary
Virgin Mary
was to be called Theotokos
Theotokos
a Greek word that means "God-bearer" (the one who gave birth to God). The Council declared it "unlawful for any man to bring forward, or to write, or to compose a different (ἑτέραν) Faith as a rival to that established by the holy Fathers assembled with the Holy Ghost in Nicæa".[2] It quoted the Nicene Creed
Nicene Creed
as adopted by the First Council of Nicaea in 325, not as added to and modified by the First Council of Constantinople
Constantinople
in 381.[30][31][32][33] In addition to its condemnation of Nestorianism, the council also condemned Pelagianism.[2] Eight canons were passed:

Canon 1-5 condemned Nestorius
Nestorius
and Caelestius and their followers as heretics Canon 6 decreed deposition from clerical office or excommunication for those who did not accept the Council's decrees Canon 7 condemned any departure from the creed established by the First Council of Nicaea
First Council of Nicaea
(325), in particular an exposition by the priest Charisius. Canon 8 condemned interference by the Bishop
Bishop
of Antioch in affairs of the Church in Cyprus
Cyprus
and decreed generally, that no bishop was to "assume control of any province which has not heretofore, from the very beginning, been under his own hand or that of his predecessors ... lest the Canons of the Fathers be transgressed".[2]

Confirmation of the Council's Acts[edit] The bishops at Cyril's council outnumbered those at John of Antioch's council by nearly four to one. In addition, they had the agreement of the papal legates and the support of the population of Ephesus
Ephesus
who supported their bishop, Memnon. However, Count Candidian and his troops supported Nestorius
Nestorius
as did Count Irenaeus. The emperor had always been a firm supporter of Nestorius, but had been somewhat shaken by the reports of the council. Cyril's group was unable to communicate with the emperor because of interference from supporters of Nestorius
Nestorius
both at Constantinople
Constantinople
and at Ephesus. Ultimately, a messenger disguised as a beggar was able to carry a letter to Constantinople
Constantinople
by hiding it in a hollow cane. Although Emperor Theodosius had long been a staunch supporter of Nestorius, his loyalty seems to have been shaken by the reports from Cyril's council and caused him to arrive at the extraordinary decision to ratify the depositions decreed by both councils. Thus, he declared that Cyril, Memnon, and John were all deposed. Memnon and Cyril were kept in close confinement. But in spite of all the efforts of the Antiochene party, the representatives of the envoys whom the council was eventually allowed to send, with the legate Philip, to the Court, persuaded the emperor to accept Cyril's council as the true one. Seeing the writing on the wall and anticipating his fate, Nestorius requested permission to retire to his former monastery. The synod was dissolved in the beginning of October, and Cyril arrived amid much joy at Alexandria
Alexandria
on 30 October. Pope Celestine had died on July 27 but his successor, Sixtus III, gave papal confirmation to the council's actions. Aftermath[edit] Further information: Church of the East

Christological spectrum during the 5th-7th centuries showing the views of The Church of the East
Church of the East
(light blue), Miaphysite (light red) and the western churches i.e. Eastern Orthodox and Catholic (light purple)

The events created a major schism between the followers of the different versions of the council, which was only mended by difficult negotiations. The factions that supported John of Antioch acquiesced in the condemnation of Nestorius
Nestorius
and, after additional clarifications, accepted the decisions of Cyril's council. However, the rift would open again during the debates leading up to the Council of Chalcedon. Persia had long been home to a Christian community that had been persecuted by the Zoroastrian majority, which had accused it of Roman leanings. In 424, the Persian Church declared itself independent of the Byzantine and all other churches, in order to ward off allegations of foreign allegiance. Following the Nestorian Schism, the Persian Church increasingly aligned itself with the Nestorians, a measure encouraged by the Zoroastrian ruling class. The Persian Church became increasingly Nestorian in doctrine over the next decades, furthering the divide between Christianity
Christianity
in Persia and in the Roman Empire. In 486 the Metropolitan of Nisibis, Barsauma, publicly accepted Nestorius' mentor, Theodore of Mopsuestia, as a spiritual authority. In 489 when the School of Edessa in Mesopotamia was closed by Byzantine Emperor Zeno for its Nestorian teachings, the school relocated to its original home of Nisibis, becoming again the School of Nisibis, leading to a wave of Nestorian immigration into Persia. The Persian patriarch Mar Babai I (497–502) reiterated and expanded upon the church's esteem for Theodore, solidifying the church's adoption of Nestorianism.[34] Conciliation[edit] In 1994, the Common Christological Declaration between the Catholic Church and the Assyrian Church of the East
Church of the East
marked the resolution of a dispute between those two churches that had existed since the Council of Ephesus. They expressed their common understanding of doctrine concerning the divinity and humanity of Christ, and recognized the legitimacy and rightness of their respective descriptions of Mary as, on the Assyrian side, "the Mother of Christ
Christ
our God and Saviour", and, on the Catholic side, as "the Mother of God" and also as "the Mother of Christ".[35] References[edit]

^ Richard Kieckhefer (1989). "Papacy". Dictionary of the Middle Ages. ISBN 0-684-18275-0. ^ a b c d Schaff, Philip; Wace, Henry, eds. (1890), The Seven Ecumenical Councils (archive.org, tertullian.org), Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers: Second Series, 14, The Seven Ecumenical Councils, Grand Rapids, Michigan, U.S.A.: Eerdmans Pub Co., ISBN 0-8028-8129-7  ^ Carl E. Braaten and Robert W. Jenson (2004), Mary, Mother of God ^ McGuckin, p. 12 ^ McGuckin, pp. 19-21 ^ Gabra, Gawdat (2009). The A to Z of the Coptic Church. Scarecrow Press. p. 97.  ^ McGuckin, p. 21 ^ McGuckin, pp. 22-23 ^ a b c d Kelly, Joseph (2009). The ecumenical councils of the Catholic Church: a history. Liturgical Press.  ^ McGuckin, pp. 53-54 ^ McGuckin, p. 53 ^ "Saint Cyril of Alexandria
Cyril of Alexandria
and the Council of Ephesus". Retrieved 2011-09-25.  ^ a b c d e f g h "Catholic Encyclopedia - Council of Ephesus".  ^ a b Robertson, John Craigie (1854). History of the Christian Church. John Murray. p. 405. Retrieved 9 November 2015.  ^ McGuckin, p. 54 ^ McGuckin, p.55 ^ McGuckin, pp. 57-58 ^ McGuckin, pp. 54-56 ^ a b McGuckin, p. 57 ^ McGuckin, p. 78; Nonetheless he must have been acutely aware that he could claim no legal status for his synod under imperial law until the official reading of the Emperor's Sacra had taken place. ^ McGuckin, p. 60 ^ McGuckin, pp. 60-65 ^ McGuckin, pp. 58-59 ^ McGuckin, p. 77 ^ McGuckin, pp. 77-78 ^ Gibbon. The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. p. 115.  ^ McGuckin, p. 79; When Candidian finished reading the Sacra he surely realised the full extent of his mistake. The Bishops acclaimed long life to the Emperor in demonstrative professions of loyalty, but now with the text officially declaimed in the symbolic presence of the whole Episcopal gathering the Synod of Ephesus
Ephesus
was in formal session, legally as well as canonically sanctioned. ^ McGuckin, p. 59 ^ J. B. Bury (1958). History of the later Roman Empire from the death of Theodosius I to the death of Justinian. Courier Dover Publications. pp. 353–. ISBN 978-0-486-20398-0. Retrieved 8 October 2011.  ^ Extracts from the Acts of the Council of Ephesus, The Epistle of Cyril to Nestorius ^ Johannes Roldanus, The Church in the Age of Constantine (Taylor & Francis 2006 ISBN 978-0-41540903-2), p. 140 ^ John Anthony McGuckin (editor), The Encyclopedia of Eastern Orthodox Theology (Wiley 2010 ISBN 978-1-44439254-8), p. 166 ^ Adrian Fortescue, The Orthodox Eastern Church (Kessinger 2004 reprint ISBN 9781417910601), p. 383 ^ "Nestorian". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved January 28, 2010. ^ Common Christological Declaration between the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
and the Assyrian Church of the East
Church of the East
Archived January 4, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.

Sources[edit]

Bellitto, Christopher M. The General Councils: a History of the Twenty-One Church Councils From Nicaea to Vatican II. Mahwah, New Jersey: Paulist P, 2002. 22-25. Loon, Hans van (2009). The Dyophysite Christology
Christology
of Cyril of Alexandria. Leiden-Boston: BRILL.  McGuckin, John Anthony (1994). St. Cyril of Alexandria: The Christological Controversy, its History, Theology, and Texts. Leiden: BRILL. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Council of Ephesus.

Eight canons promulgated by the Council of Ephesus Medieval Sourcebook: Documents and letters concerning the Council of Ephesus Extracts from the Acts of the council Catholic Encyclopedia: Ephesus, Council of Michael J. Svigel, "The Phantom Heresy:Did the Council of Ephesus (431) Condemn Chiliasm?" (Note that while this article argues that chiliasm was not explicitly condemned at this council, the line in the Nicene Creed
Nicene Creed
stating that "His [Jesus'] kingdom shall have no end" is often interpreted as having been inserted in opposition to chiliasm, and this creed was reaffirmed by this council. In particular, if the Kingdom of Christ
Christ
shall have no end, then it will not terminate after 1000 years, and it is argued that it was with this intent that the phrase was added. However, in 2004 Francis X. Gumerlock published an article in Fides et Historia
Fides et Historia
36:2 [Summer/Fall 2004]: 83-95, in which he argued that the Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed did not, in fact, condemn chiliasm. See full article at francisgumerlock.com Legion of Mary: The Council Of Ephesus
Ephesus
— 431 A.D.

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v t e

History of Christianity

Centuries:1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th 12th 13th 14th 15th 16th 17th 18th 19th 20th 21st

Ministry of Jesus and Apostolic Age

Jesus

Ministry Crucifixion Resurrection

Holy Spirit Leadership

Apostles Seventy disciples Paul the Apostle Council of Jerusalem

Great Commission New Testament

Background Gospels Acts Pauline epistles General epistles Revelation

Ante-Nicene Period

Judaism split Justin Martyr Ignatius Persecution Fathers Irenaeus Marcionism Canon Tertullian Montanism Origen

Late ancient

Constantine Monasticism Councils: Nicaea I Creed Athanasius Arianism Jerome Augustine Constantinople
Constantinople
I Ephesus
Ephesus
I Chalcedon

Eastern Christianity

Eastern Orthodoxy Church of the East Oriental Orthodoxy Chrysostom Nestorianism Iconoclasm Great Schism Fall of Constantinople Armenia Georgia Greece Egypt Syria Ethiopia Bulgaria Ottoman Empire Russia America

Middle Ages

Pelagianism Gregory I Celtic Germanic Scandinavian Kievan Rus' Investiture Anselm Abelard Bernard of Clairvaux Bogomils Cathars Crusades Waldensians Inquisition Scholasticism Dominic Francis Bonaventure Aquinas Wycliffe Avignon Papal Schism Bohemian Reformation Hus Conciliarism

Catholicism

Primacy development Papacy Timeline Lateran IV Trent Counter-Reformation Thomas More Leo X Guadalupe Jesuits Jansenists Xavier Monastery dissolution Wars Teresa Vatican I and II Modernism

Reformation

Protestantism

Erasmus Five solae Eucharist Calvinist–Arminian debate Arminianism Dort Wars

Lutheranism

Martin Luther 95 Theses Diet of Worms Melanchthon Orthodoxy Eucharist Book of Concord

Calvinism

Zwingli Calvin Presbyterianism Scotland Knox TULIP Dort Three Forms of Unity Westminster

Anglicanism

Timeline Henry VIII Cranmer Settlement 39 Articles Common Prayer Puritans Civil War

Anabaptism

Radical Reformation Grebel Swiss Brethren Müntzer Martyrs' Synod Menno Simons Smyth

1640–1789

Revivalism English denominations Baptists Congregationalism First Great Awakening Methodism Millerism Pietism Neo- and Old Lutherans

1789–present

Camp meeting Holiness movement Independent Catholic denominations Second Great Awakening Restoration Movement Jehovah's Witnesses Mormonism Seventh-day Adventist Adventism Third Great Awakening Azusa Revival Fundamentalism Ecumenism Evangelicalism Jesus
Jesus
movement Mainline Protestant Pentecostalism Charismatics Liberation theology Christian right Christian left Genocide by ISIL

Timeline Missions Timeline Martyrs Theology Eastern Orthodoxy Oriental Orthodoxy Protestantism Catholicism

v t e

History of the Catholic Church

General

History of the Catholic Church

By country or region

History of the Papacy Timeline of the Catholic Church Catholic ecumenical councils History of the Roman Curia Catholic Church
Catholic Church
art Religious institutes Christian monasticism Papal States Role of Christianity
Christianity
in civilization

Church beginnings, Great Church

Jesus John the Baptist Apostles

Peter John Paul

Saint Stephen Great Commission Council of Jerusalem Apostolic Age Apostolic Fathers Ignatius of Antioch Irenaeus Pope Victor I Tertullian

Constantine to Pope Gregory I

Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
and Christianity Arianism Archbasilica of St. John Lateran First Council of Nicaea Pope Sylvester I First Council of Constantinople Biblical canon Jerome Vulgate Council of Ephesus Council of Chalcedon Benedict of Nursia Second Council of Constantinople Pope Gregory I Gregorian chant

Early Middle Ages

Third Council of Constantinople Saint Boniface Byzantine Iconoclasm Second Council of Nicaea Charlemagne Pope Leo III Fourth Council of Constantinople East–West Schism

High Middle Ages

Pope Urban II Investiture Controversy Crusades First Council of the Lateran Second Council of the Lateran Third Council of the Lateran Pope Innocent III Latin Empire Francis of Assisi Fourth Council of the Lateran Inquisition First Council of Lyon Second Council of Lyon Bernard of Clairvaux Thomas Aquinas

Late Middle Ages

Pope Boniface VIII Avignon Papacy Pope Clement V Council of Vienne Knights Templar Catherine of Siena Pope Alexander VI

Reformation Counter-Reformation

Reformation Counter-Reformation Thomas More Pope Leo X Society of Jesus Ignatius of Loyola Francis Xavier Dissolution of the Monasteries Council of Trent Pope Pius V Tridentine Mass Teresa of Ávila John of the Cross Philip Neri Robert Bellarmine

Baroque
Baroque
Period to the French Revolution

Pope Innocent XI Pope Benedict XIV Suppression of the Society of Jesus Anti-clericalism Pope Pius VI Shimabara Rebellion Edict of Nantes Dechristianization of France during the French Revolution

19th century

Pope Pius VII Pope Pius IX Dogma of the Immaculate Conception
Immaculate Conception
of the Virgin Mary Our Lady of La Salette Our Lady of Lourdes First Vatican Council Papal infallibility Pope Leo XIII Mary of the Divine Heart Prayer of Consecration to the Sacred Heart Rerum novarum

20th century

Pope Pius X Our Lady of Fátima Persecutions of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
and Pius XII Pope Pius XII Pope Pius XII
Pope Pius XII
Consecration to the Immaculate Heart of Mary Dogma of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary Lateran Treaty Pope John XXIII Second Vatican Council Pope Paul VI Pope John Paul I Pope John Paul II World Youth Day

1995 2000

21st century

Catholic Church
Catholic Church
sexual abuse cases Pope Benedict XVI World Youth Day

2002 2005 2008 2011 2013 2016

Pope Francis

Pope portal Vatican City portal Catholicism portal

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 163039

.