The COUNCIL–MANAGER GOVERNMENT FORM is one of two predominant forms
of local government in the
* 1 Form
* 2 History in the
* 2.1 Recent hybrids * 2.2 “Model City Charter”
* 3 History in the Republic of Ireland * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 External links
Under the council–manager form of government for municipalities, the elected governing body (commonly called a city council, city commission, board of aldermen or board of selectmen ) is responsible for the legislative function of the municipality such as establishing policy , passing local ordinances , voting appropriations , and developing an overall vision. County and other types of local government follow the same pattern, with a different title for the governing body members that matches the title of the body.
The legislative body, which is voted into office by public elections, appoints a professional manager to oversee the administrative operations, implement its policies, and advise it. The position of “mayor ” present in this type of legislative body is a largely ceremonial title, and may be selected by the council from among its members or elected as an at-large council member with no executive functions.
The city manager position in this form of municipal government is similar to that of corporate chief executive officer (CEO), providing professional management to the board of directors. Council–manager government is much like a publicly traded corporation . In a corporation, the board of directors appoints a CEO, makes major decisions and wields representative power on behalf of shareholders. In council–manager government, the elected council appoints a city manager, makes major decisions, and wields representative power on behalf of the citizens. The city manager is, in turn, responsible for hiring a city staff to carry out implementation of city ordinances.
This system of government is used in 40.1% of American cities with populations of 2,500 or more, according to the 2011 Municipal Yearbook published by the International City/County Management Association (ICMA), a professional organization for city managers and other top appointed local government administrators/CAOs.
HISTORY IN THE UNITED STATES
The concept of the council–manager form of government was a product of a confluence of the prevailing modes of thought during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Probably the foremost influence was the Progressive Movement ; following along the thought lines of the movement, the municipal reformers of that time wanted to rid municipalities of the pervasive “political machine ” form of government and the abuses of the spoils system . The thought was to have a politically impartial administrator or manager to carry out the administrative function.
Another influence was the “
A third influence behind the council–manager idea was that of the organizational structure of the for-profit corporation, with its board of directors, which hires a professional CEO to run its operations.
Sumter, South Carolina , has the distinction of being the first city
Currently, thirty-eight of Virginia's thirty-nine cities have a council–manager form of government, with the capital, Richmond , being the only exception. Richmond switched to a strong-mayor–council plan in 2004, after having had a council–manager system since 1948, as many large cities have because of their greater areas and populations.
The council–manager system has grown considerably in popularity since the start of the 20th century. In 1935, ICMA recognized 418 U.S. cities and seven counties using the system.
The council–manager form of government developed, at least in part,
as a response to some perceived limitations of the city commission
government form. The council–manager form became the preferred
alternative for progressive reform, and after
World War I
By 2001, 3,302 cities with a population over 2,500 and 371 counties
used the council–manager system.
Phoenix, Arizona is the largest
city in the
Indeed, much has been written over the last decade regarding the variety of hybrid forms of local governments that have evolved from the two pure forms (council–manager and mayor–council). The cities that have modified their organizational structure from one of the pure forms now commonly are termed “adaptive” community organizations.
These variations necessitate a delineation of the distinguishing features of the council–manager form of government. ICMA has listed at least three defining characteristics that distinguish a truly council–manager government:
* All governmental authority rests with the council, or other sovereign elected body, except for certain duties that are assigned by charter or other law to the manager, however, the manager always is employed at the pleasure of the elected body. * The appointed executive, a manager, officially is allocated the executive or administrative functions in codified form, minimum functions not being at the whim of a mayor, for example. * The manager must be responsible to, hired by, and can be dismissed only by the entire council, not one individual, such as a mayor or chairperson.
“MODEL CITY CHARTER”
The MODEL CITY CHARTER (MCC), published by the National Civic League , formerly the National Municipal League, is closely associated to the council–manager form of government. The Model City Charter is in its eighth edition, adopted in 2003. Since its second edition, adopted in 1915, the model charter for municipalities has recommended this council–manager form of government.
HISTORY IN THE REPUBLIC OF IRELAND
Main article: Council Manager (Republic of Ireland)
Following the turmoil of
World War I
Both Dublin and Cork city councils were so removed. In both cities, there was a body of opinion that the services provided by the councils were delivered more efficiently and fairly under the commissioners than under the previous system, where the executive function had been, in effect, vested in the councils and their committees.
In 1926, a committee of commercial and industrial interests in Cork
came together to consider a scheme of city government. Having regard
to the city's experience of commissioners and recent experience in the
After discussion between the minister for local government and local representatives, the minister, Richard Mulcahy, introduced as a government measure, the Cork City Management Bill (1929) and it became law despite opposition. The minister proposed and the Oireachtas enacted similar provision for Dublin City in 1930. Similar laws were passed for Limerick in 1934 and Waterford in 1939 under the Fianna Fáil government.
Under the County (Management) Act (1940), which was brought into operation in August 1942, a county manager is the manager of every borough or town in that county, but since the 1990s, has the power to delegate these functions to any other officer of that borough or town council.
The system was modified also in subsequent legislation, particularly
the City and County Management (Amendment) Act (1955), which made some
adjustments to give greater power to the council members, and the
Local Government Act 1985, which provided for the council–manager
The above acts have been replaced since that time, in substantially the same form, by the Local Government Act 2001 .
* ^ Svara, James H. (2008). Strengthening Local Government
Leadership and Performance: Reexamining and Updating the Winter
Commission Goals. Public Administration Review, December 2008, Special
Issue, vol 68, pp S37–S49.
* ^ ICMA information brochure
* ^ ICMA forms of government
* ^ Local Government Management, ICMA
* ^ 2011 Municipal Yearbook
* ^ A B C Stillman, Richard J. (1974). The Rise of the City
Manager: A Public Professional in Local Government. Albuquerque:
University of New Mexico Press.
* ^ "Staunton, Virginia: Birthplace of the Council Manager Form of
Government". City of Staunton. Archived from the original on November
20, 2005. Retrieved 2008-11-11.
* ^ Ammons, David N. and Charldean Newell. (1989). City Executives:
Leadership Roles, Work Characteristics, and Time Management. State
University of NY Press.
* ^ "From the Mayor\'s Office". City of Phoenix. Archived from the
original on 2008-08-22. Retrieved 2008-09-04.
* ^ Carr, Jered B. and Shanthi Karuppusamy. "The Adapted Cities
Framework: On Enhancing Its Use in Empirical Research" Urban Affairs
Review, 2008, pgs.875–886.
* ^ Svara, James H. and Kimberly L. Nelson. “Taking Stock of the
Council–Manager Form at 100”. Public Management Magazine, August
2008. ICMA Publications
* ^ Svara, James, on
National Civic League
* City Mayors feature on US council managers * International City/County Management