The Info List - Council Of The European Union

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The Council of the European Union
European Union
(often still referred to as the Council of Ministers, or sometimes just called the Council (Latin: Consilium) is the third of the seven Institutions of the European Union (EU) as listed in the Treaty on European Union.[1] It is part of the essentially bicameral EU legislature (the other legislative body being the European Parliament) and represents the executive governments of the EU's member states.[2] It is based in the Europa building in Brussels.[3] According to the old dictum, "The Commission proposes, and the Council disposes". The Council of Ministers is the only EU Institution that is not "European". Rather, it is a forum where ministers from Member States may validly express and represent their own national interests.


1 Composition 2 History 3 Powers and functions

3.1 Legislative procedure 3.2 Foreign affairs 3.3 Budgetary authority

4 Organisation

4.1 Presidency 4.2 Configurations 4.3 Administration 4.4 Voting system

5 Location 6 See also 7 References 8 External links

Composition[edit] The Council meets in 10 different configurations of 28 national ministers (one per state). The precise membership of these configurations varies according to the topic under consideration; for example, when discussing agricultural policy the Council is formed by the 28 national ministers whose portfolio includes this policy area (with the related European Commissioners contributing but not voting). The Presidency of the Council rotates every six months among the governments of EU member states, with the relevant ministers of the respective country holding the Presidency at any given time ensuring the smooth running of the meetings and setting the daily agenda.[4] The continuity between presidencies is provided by an arrangement under which three successive presidencies, known as Presidency trios, share common political programmes. The Foreign Affairs Council (national foreign ministers) is however chaired by the Union's High Representative.[5] Its decisions are made by qualified majority voting in most areas, unanimity in others, or just simple majority for procedural issues. Usually where it operates unanimously, it only needs to consult the Parliament. However, in most areas the ordinary legislative procedure applies meaning both Council and Parliament share legislative and budgetary powers equally, meaning both have to agree for a proposal to pass. In a few limited areas the Council may initiate new EU law itself.[4] The General Secretariat of the Council of the European Union, also known as Council Secretariat, assists the Council of the European Union, the Presidency of the Council of the European Union, the European Council
European Council
and the President of the European Council. The Secretariat is headed by the Secretary-General of the Council of the European Union. The Secretariat is divided into seven directorates-general, each administered by a director-general. History[edit]

European Union

This article is part of a series on the politics and government of European Union


Juncker Commission President Juncker (EPP) Vice Presidents College Civil Service Secretary-General Selmayr

Legislature President Tajani (EPP)

Largest groups

EPP (Manfred Weber) S&D (Gianni Pittella)

8th session (2014–19)

751 MEPs


Vice Presidents Quaestor

Conference Legislative procedure

Council of the EU Presidency


General Foreign Justice and Home Economic


Legislative procedure Voting Secretariat


Uwe Corsepius

Directorates-general COREPER


Court of Justice

Members Rulings

General Court

Central Bank

President Draghi

ESCB Euro EMU Eurozone

Court of Auditors

Budget OLAF

Other bodies

Agencies Investment Bank CoR EESC Ombudsman National parliaments

Policies and issues

Foreign relations

High Representative

Federica Mogherini

Ext. Action Service Foreign Policy Defence Policy Customs Union Enlargement

Budget Four Freedoms

Economic Area Area of FS&J Schengen Area


Agricultural Energy Fisheries Regional


Identity Pro-Europeanism Euroscepticism


Supranationalism Federalism United States of Europe Multi-speed Opt-outs Enhanced co-op Withdrawal


1979, 1984, 1989 1994, 1999, 2004, 2009 2014 (last election) Political parties Constituencies



Treaty on European Union Acquis

Primacy Subsidiarity


Rome Single European Act Maastricht Amsterdam Nice Lisbon

Article 50

Fundamental Rights Membership Treaties of Accession

1972, 1979, 1985, 1994, 2003, 2005, 2011

European Council

President Tusk (EPP)

Parties List of meetings

Other countries Atlas

v t e

Further information: History of the European Union The Council first appeared in the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) as the " Special
Council of Ministers", set up to counterbalance the High Authority (the supranational executive, now the Commission). The original Council had limited powers: issues relating only to coal and steel were in the Authority's domain, and the Council's consent was only required on decisions outside coal and steel. As a whole, the Council only scrutinised the High Authority (the executive). In 1957, the Treaties of Rome
Treaties of Rome
established two new communities, and with them two new Councils: the Council of the European Atomic Energy Community (EAEC) and the Council of the European Economic Community
European Economic Community
(EEC). However, due to objections over the supranational power of the Authority, their Councils had more powers; the new executive bodies were known as "Commissions".[6] In 1965 the Council was hit by the "empty chair crisis". Due to disagreements between French President
French President
Charles de Gaulle
Charles de Gaulle
and the Commission's agriculture proposals, among other things, France boycotted all meetings of the Council. This halted the Council's work until the impasse was resolved the following year by the Luxembourg compromise. Although initiated by a gamble of the President of the Commission, Walter Hallstein, who later on lost the Presidency, the crisis exposed flaws in the Council's workings.[7] Under the Merger Treaty of 1967, the ECSC's Special
Council of Ministers and the Council of the EAEC (together with their other independent institutions) were merged into the Council of the EEC, which would act as a single Council of the European Communities. In 1993, the Council adopted the name 'Council of the European Union', following the establishment of the European Union
European Union
by the Maastricht Treaty. That treaty strengthened the Council, with the addition of more intergovernmental elements in the three pillars system. However, at the same time the Parliament and Commission had been strengthened inside the Community pillar, curtailing the ability of the Council to act independently.[6] The Treaty of Lisbon
Treaty of Lisbon
abolished the pillar system and gave further powers to Parliament. It also merged the Council's High Representative with the Commission's foreign policy head, with this new figure chairing the foreign affairs Council rather than the rotating presidency. The European Council
European Council
was declared a separate institution from the Council, also chaired by a permanent president, and the different Council configurations were mentioned in the treaties for the first time.[5] The development of the Council has been characterised by the rise in power of the Parliament, with which the Council has had to share its legislative powers. The Parliament has often provided opposition to the Council's wishes. This has in some cases led to clashes between both bodies with the Council's system of intergovernmentalism contradicting the developing parliamentary system and supranational principles.[8] Powers and functions[edit] The primary purpose of the Council is to act as one of the two chambers of the EU's legislative branch, the other chamber being the European Parliament. It also holds, jointly with the Parliament, the budgetary power of the Union and has greater control than the Parliament over the more intergovernmental areas of the EU, such as foreign policy and macroeconnomic co-ordination. Finally, before the entry into force of the Treaty of Lisbon, it formally held the executive power of the EU which it conferred upon the European Commission.[2][9] Legislative procedure[edit] Main article: European Union
European Union
legislative procedure

Simplified illustration of the voting rules that apply within the ordinary legislative procedure. The actual procedure involves various stages of consultations aimed at achieving compromise between the positions of the two legislative chambers.

The EU's legislative authority is divided between the Council and the Parliament. As the relationships and powers of these institutions have developed, various legislative procedures have been created for adopting laws.[2] In early times, the avis facultatif maxim was: "The Commission proposes, and the Council disposes";[10] but now the vast majority of laws are now subject to the ordinary legislative procedure, which works on the principle that consent from both the Council and Parliament are required before a law may be adopted.[11] Under this procedure, the Commission presents a proposal to Parliament and the Council. Following its first reading the Parliament may propose amendments. If the Council accepts these amendments then the legislation is approved. If it does not then it adopts a "common position" and submits that new version to the Parliament. At its second reading, if the Parliament approves the text or does not act, the text is adopted, otherwise the Parliament may propose further amendments to the Council's proposal. It may be rejected out right by an absolute majority of MEPs. If the Council still does not approve the Parliament's position, then the text is taken to a "Conciliation Committee" composed of the Council members plus an equal number of MEPs. If a Committee manages to adopt a joint text, it then has to be approved in a third reading by both the Council and Parliament or the proposal is abandoned.[12] The few other areas that operate the special legislative procedures are justice & home affairs, budget and taxation and certain aspects of other policy areas: such as the fiscal aspects of environmental policy. In these areas, the Council or Parliament decide law alone.[13][14] The procedure used also depends upon which type of institutional act is being used. The strongest act is a regulation, an act or law which is directly applicable in its entirety. Then there are directives which bind members to certain goals which they must achieve, but they do this through their own laws and hence have room to manoeuvre in deciding upon them. A decision is an instrument which is focused at a particular person or group and is directly applicable. Institutions may also issue recommendations and opinions which are merely non-binding declarations.[15] The Council votes in one of three ways; unanimity, simple majority, or qualified majority. In most cases, the Council votes on issues by qualified majority voting, meaning that there must be a minimum of 55% of member states agreeing (at least 15) who together represent at least 65% of the EU population.[16] A 'blocking minority' can only be formed by at least 4 member states representing at least 35% of the EU population. Foreign affairs[edit]

This section relies largely or entirely on a single source. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. Please help improve this article by introducing citations to additional sources. (December 2015)

The legal instruments used by the Council for the Common Foreign and Security Policy are different from the legislative acts. Under the CFSP they consist of "common positions", "joint actions", and "common strategies". Common positions relate to defining a European foreign policy towards a particular third-country such as the promotion of human rights and democracy in Myanmar, a region such as the stabilisation efforts in the African Great Lakes, or a certain issue such as support for the International Criminal Court. A common position, once agreed, is binding on all EU states who must follow and defend the policy, which is regularly revised. A joint action refers to a co-ordinated action of the states to deploy resources to achieve an objective, for example for mine clearing or to combat the spread of small arms. Common strategies defined an objective and commits the EUs resources to that task for four years.[17] Budgetary authority[edit] Furthermore, the legislative branch officially holds the Union's budgetary authority. The EU's budget (which is around 155 billion euro)[18] is subject to a form of the ordinary legislative procedure with a single reading giving Parliament power over the entire budget (prior to 2009, its influence was limited to certain areas) on an equal footing to the Council. If there is a disagreement between them, it is taken to a conciliation committee as it is for legislative proposals. But if the joint conciliation text is not approved, the Parliament may adopt the budget definitively.[13] In addition to the budget, the Council coordinates the economic policy of members.[4] Organisation[edit] The Council's rules of procedure contain the provisions necessary for its organisation and functioning.[19] Presidency[edit] Main article: Presidency of the Council of the European Union The Presidency of the Council is not a single post, but is held by a member state's government. Every six months the presidency rotates between the states, in an order predefined by the Council's members, allowing each state to preside over the body. From 2007, every three member states co-operate for their combined eighteen months on a common agenda, although only one formally holds the presidency for the normal six-month period. For example, the President for the second half of 2007, Portugal, was the second in a trio of states alongside Germany
and Slovenia
with whom Portugal
had been co-operating. The Council meets in various configurations (as outlined below) so its membership changes depending upon the issue. The person chairing the Council will always be the member from the state holding the Presidency. A delegate from the following Presidency also assists the presiding member and may take over work if requested.[20][21] The exception however is the foreign affairs council, which has been chaired by the High Representative
High Representative
since the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty.[5] The role of the Presidency is administrative and political. On the administrative side it is responsible for procedures and organising the work of the Council during its term. This includes summoning the Council for meetings along with directing the work of COREPER
and other committees and working groups. The political element is the role of successfully dealing with issues and mediating in the Council. In particular this includes setting the agenda of the council, hence giving the Presidency substantial influence in the work of the Council during its term. The Presidency also plays a major role in representing the Council within the EU and representing the EU internationally, for example at the United Nations.[21][22][23] Configurations[edit] Legally speaking, the Council is a single entity (this means that technically any Council configuration can adopt decisions that fall within the remit of any other Council configuration)[24] but it is in practice divided into several different council configurations (or ‘(con)formations’). Article 16(6) of the Treaty on European Union provides:

The Council shall meet in different configurations, the list of which shall be adopted in accordance with Article 236 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union. The General Affairs Council
General Affairs Council
shall ensure consistency in the work of the different Council configurations. It shall prepare and ensure the follow-up to meetings of the European Council, in liaison with the President of the European Council
European Council
and the Commission. The Foreign Affairs Council
Foreign Affairs Council
shall elaborate the Union's external action on the basis of strategic guidelines laid down by the European Council and ensure that the Union's action is consistent.

Each council configuration deals with a different functional area, for example agriculture and fisheries. In this formation, the council is composed of ministers from each state government who are responsible for this area: the agriculture and fisheries ministers. The chair of this council is held by the member from the state holding the presidency (see section above). Similarly, the Economic and Financial Affairs Council is composed of national finance ministers, and they are still one per state and the chair is held by the member coming from the presiding country. The Councils meet irregularly throughout the year except for the three major configurations (top three below) which meet once a month. There are currently ten formations:[25][26]

General Affairs (GAC): General affairs co-ordinates the work of the Council, prepares for European Council
European Council
meetings and deals with issues crossing various council formations. Foreign Affairs (FAC): Chaired by the High Representative, rather than the Presidency, it manages the CFSP, CSDP, trade and development co-operation. It sometimes meets in a defence configuration.[27]

Until 2017, the main meeting room of the Council was in the Justus Lipsius building in Brussels, seen here.

Economic and Financial Affairs (Ecofin): Composed of economics and finance ministers of the member states. It includes budgetary and eurozone matters via an informal group composed only of eurozone member ministers.[28] Agriculture and Fisheries (Agrifish): Composed of the agriculture and fisheries ministers of the member states. It considers matters concerning the Common Agricultural Policy, the Common Fisheries Policy, forestry, organic farming, food and feed safety, seeds, pesticides, and fisheries.[29] Justice and Home Affairs (JHA): This configuration brings together Justice ministers and Interior Ministers of the Member States. Includes civil protection. Employment, Social Policy, Health and Consumer Affairs (EPSCO): Composed of employment, social protection, consumer protection, health and equal opportunities ministers. Competitiveness (COMPET): Created in June 2002 through the merging of three previous configurations (Internal Market, Industry and Research). Depending on the items on the agenda, this formation is composed of ministers responsible for areas such as European affairs, industry, tourism and scientific research. With the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty, the EU acquired competence in space matters,[30] and space policy has been attributed to the Competitiveness Council[31] Transport, Telecommunications and Energy (TTE): Created in June 2002, through the merging of three policies under one configuration, and with a composition varying according to the specific items on its agenda. This formation meets approximately once every two months. Environment (ENV): Composed of environment ministers, who meet about four times a year. Education, Youth, Culture and Sport (EYC): Composed of education, culture, youth, communications and sport ministers, who meet around three or four times a year.[32] Includes audiovisual issues.

Complementing these, the Political and Security Committee (PSC) brings together ambassadors to monitor international situations and define policies within the CSDP, particularly in crises.[26] The European Council is similar to a configuration of the Council, it operates in a similar way and but is composed of the national leaders (heads of government or state) and has its own President,[33] currently Donald Tusk. The body's purpose is to define the general "impetus" of the Union.[34] The European Council
European Council
deals with the major issues such as the appointment of the President of the European Commission
European Commission
who takes part in the body's meetings.[35] Ecofin's Eurozone
component, the Euro
group, is also a formal group with its own President.[28] Its European Council
European Council
counterpart is the Euro
summit formalized in 2011[36] and the TSCG. Following the entry into force of a framework agreement between the EU and ESA there is a Space Council configuration—a joint and concomitant meeting of the EU Council and of the ESA Council at ministerial level dealing with the implementation of the ESP adopted by both organisations.[37][38] Administration[edit]

Pre-2014 emblem of the Council of the European Union

The General Secretariat of the Council provides the continuous infrastructure of the Council, carrying out preparation for meetings, draft reports, translation, records, documents, agendas and assisting the presidency.[39] The Secretary General of the Council is head of the Secretariat. The Secretariat is divided into seven directorates-general, each administered by a director-general. The Committee of Permanent Representatives
Committee of Permanent Representatives
(COREPER) is a body composed of representatives from the states (ambassadors, civil servants etc.) who meet each week to prepare the work and tasks of the Council. It monitors and co-ordinates work and deals with the Parliament on co-decision legislation.[40] It is divided into two groups of the representatives (Coreper II) and their deputies (Coreper I). Agriculture is dealt with separately by the Special
Committee on Agriculture (SCA). The numerous working groups submit their reports to the Council through Coreper or SCA.[26] Voting system[edit] Further information: Voting in the Council of the European Union The Treaty of Lisbon
Treaty of Lisbon
mandates a change in voting system from 1 November 2014 for most cases to double majority Qualified Majority Voting, replacing the voting weights system. Decisions made by the council have to be taken by 55% of member states representing at least 65% of the EU's population.[5]

State Governing parties EU party Population Cabinet

 Germany Christian Democratic Union of Germany Social Democratic Party of Germany Christian Social Union in Bavaria EPP PES EPP 7007824376410000000♠82,437,641 Merkel IV

 France The Republic on the Move! Democratic Movement The Republicans Socialist Party Radical Movement None EDP EPP PES None 7007670246330000000♠67,024,633 Philippe II

 United Kingdom Conservative Party ACRE 7007658085730000000♠65,808,573 May II

 Italy Democratic Party Popular Alternative Centrists for Europe PES EPP EPP 7007612191130000000♠61,219,113 Gentiloni

 Spain People's Party EPP 7007465289660000000♠46,528,966 Rajoy II

 Poland Law and Justice United Poland Poland
Together United Right ACRE MELD None 7007379729640000000♠37,972,964 Morawiecki

 Romania Social Democratic Party Alliance of Liberals and Democrats PES ALDE Party 7007196383090000000♠19,638,309 Dăncilă

 Netherlands People's Party for Freedom and Democracy Christian Democratic Appeal Democrats 66 Christian Union ALDE Party EPP ALDE Party ECPM 7007172207210000000♠17,220,721 Rutte III

 Belgium Reformist Movement New Flemish Alliance Christian Democratic and Flemish Open Flemish Liberals and Democrats ALDE Party EFA EPP ALDE Party 7007113658340000000♠11,365,834 Michel

 Greece Coalition of the Radical Left Independent Greeks European Left None 7007107572930000000♠10,757,293 Tsipras II

 Czech Republic ANO 2011 ALDE Party 7007104676280000000♠10,467,628 Babiš

 Portugal Socialist Party PES 7007103095730000000♠10,309,573 Costa

 Sweden Social Democratic Workers' Party of Sweden Environment Party – the Greens PES EGP 7007100800000000000♠10,080,000 Löfven

 Hungary Fidesz
– Hungarian Civic Alliance Christian Democratic People's Party EPP EPP 7006979756100000000♠9,797,561 Orbán III

 Austria Austrian People's Party Freedom Party of Austria EPP MENL 7006875250000000000♠8,752,500 Kurz

 Bulgaria GERB IMRO – Bulgarian National Movement National Front for the Salvation of Bulgaria EPP None None 7006710185900000000♠7,101,859 Borisov III

 Denmark Left, Denmark's Liberal Party Liberal Alliance Conservative People's Party ALDE Party None EPP 7006574394700000000♠5,743,947 Løkke Rasmussen III

 Finland Finnish Centre Party National Coalition Party Blue Reform ALDE Party EPP None 7006549944700000000♠5,499,447 Sipilä

 Slovakia Direction – Social Democracy Bridge PES EPP 7006543534300000000♠5,435,343 Pellegrini

 Ireland Fine Gael EPP 7006477483300000000♠4,774,833 Varadkar

 Croatia Croatian Democratic Union Croatian People's Party – Liberal Democrats EPP ALDE Party 7006415421300000000♠4,154,213 Plenković

 Lithuania Lithuanian Farmers and Greens Union Social Democratic Party of Lithuania None PES 7006284790400000000♠2,847,904 Skvernelis

 Slovenia Party of Modern Center Democratic Party of Pensioners of Slovenia Social Democrats ALDE Party None PES 7006206589500000000♠2,065,895 Cerar

 Latvia Unity National Alliance "All For Latvia!" – "For Fatherland and Freedom/LNNK" Latvian Green Party Centre Party Latvian Farmers' Union For Latvia
and Ventspils Liepāja Party EPP ACRE EGP None None None 7006195011600000000♠1,950,116 Kučinskis

 Estonia Estonian Centre Party Social Democratic Party Pro Patria and Res Publica Union ALDE Party PES EPP 7006131563500000000♠1,315,635 Ratas

 Cyprus Democratic Rally EPP 7005854802000000000♠854,802 Anastasiades

 Luxembourg Luxembourg
Socialist Workers' Party Democratic Party The Greens PES ALDE Party EGP 7005589370000000000♠589,370 Bettel

 Malta Labour Party PES 7005440433000000000♠440,433 Muscat II

Almost all members of the Council are members of a political party at national level, and most of these are members of a European-level political party. However the Council is composed to represent the EU's states rather than political parties[4] and the nature of coalition governments in a number of states means that individual configurations would vary on which domestic party was assigned the portfolio. However the broad ideological alignment of each state does have a bearing on the nature of the law the Council produces and the extent to which the link between domestic parties puts pressure on the members in the European Parliament
European Parliament
to vote a certain way.

Member State Dominant Europarty Additional Europarties

Austria EPP MENL


Bulgaria EPP NI

Croatia EPP ALDE

Cyprus EPP

Czech Republic ALDE





Germany EPP PES

Greece EL NI

Hungary EPP

Ireland EPP NI



Lithuania NI PES

Luxembourg ALDE PES EGP

Malta PES

Netherlands ALDE EPP ECPM


Portugal PES

Romania PES ALDE

Slovenia ALDE NI PES

Slovakia PES EPP

Spain EPP

Sweden PES EGP

United Kingdom ACRE

ACRE Alliance of Conservatives and Reformists in Europe

ADDE Alliance for Direct Democracy in Europe

ALDE Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe Party

ECPM European Christian Political Movement

EDP European Democratic Party

EFA European Free Alliance

EGP European Green Party

EL Party of the European Left

EPP European People's Party

MELD Movement for a Europe of Liberties and Democracy

MENL Movement for a Europe of Nations and Freedom

NI Non-Attached

PES Party of European Socialists

The dominant Europarty is the one holding the member state’s seat in the European Council. Additional Europarties are the ones which also sit in (some configurations of) the Council of the European Union.

Location[edit] Further information: Location of European Union
European Union
institutions, Europa building, and Justus Lipsius building By a decision of the European Council
European Council
at Edinburgh in December 1992, the Council has its seat in Brussels
but in April, June, and October, it holds its meetings in Luxembourg.[41] Between 1952 and 1967 the ECSC Council held its Luxembourg
meetings in the Cercle Municipal on Place d’Armes. Its secretariat moved on numerous occasions but between 1955 and 1967 it was housed in the Verlorenkost district of the city. In 1957 with the creation of two new Communities with their own Councils, discretion on location was given to the current President. In practice this was to be in the Château of Val-Duchesse until the autumn of 1958, at which point it moved to 2 Rue Ravensteinstraat in Brussels.[42] The 1965 agreement (finalised by the Edinburgh agreement and annexed to the treaties) on the location of the newly merged institutions, the Council was to be in Brussels
but would meet in Luxembourg
during April, June, and October. The ECSC secretariat moved from Luxembourg to the merged body Council secretariat in the Ravenstein building of Brussels. In 1971 the Council and its secretariat moved into the Charlemagne building, next to the Commission's Berlaymont, but the Council rapidly ran out of space and administrative branch of the Secretariat moved to a building at 76 Rue Joseph II/Jozef II-straat and during the 1980s the language divisions moved out into the Nerviens, Frère Orban, and Guimard buildings.[42] In 1995 the Council moved into the Justus Lipsius building, across the road from Charlemagne. However, its staff was still increasing, so it continued to rent the Frère Orban building to house the Finnish and Swedish language
Swedish language
divisions. Staff continued to increase and the Council rented, in addition to owning Justus Lipsius, the Kortenberg, Froissart, Espace Rolin, and Woluwe Heights buildings. Since acquiring the Lex building
Lex building
in 2008, the three aforementioned buildings are no longer in use by the Council services. When the Council is meeting in Luxembourg, it meets in the Kirchberg Conference Centre[42] and its offices are based at the European Centre on the plateau du Kirchberg.[26] The Council has also met occasionally in Strasbourg, in various other cities, and also outside the Union: for example in 1974 when it met in Tokyo and Washington while trade and energy talks were taking place. Under the Council's present rules of procedures the Council can, in extraordinary circumstances, hold one of its meetings outside Brussels
and Luxembourg.[42] From 2017, both the Council of the European Union
European Union
and the European Council adopted the purpose built Europa building
Europa building
as their official headquarters, although they continue to utilise the facilities afforded by the adjacent Justus Lipsius building. The focal point of the new building, the distinctive multi-storey "lantern" shaped structure in which the main meeting room is located, is utilised in both EU institutions' new official logos.[3][43] See also[edit]

Book: European Union

Comparisons with other institutions


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(12 December 1992). " European Council
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in Edinburgh: 11–12 December 1992, Annex 6 to Part A" (PDF). European Parliament. Retrieved 2007-06-24.  ^ a b c d "Seat of the Council of the European Union". European NAvigator. Retrieved 2008-02-11.  ^ "New HQ, new logo". POLITICO. 2014-01-15. Retrieved 2017-05-07. 

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