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Etymology

The term cottage pie was in use by 1791.[3][8]

The term shepherd's pie did not appear until 1854,[3] and was initially used synonymously with cottage pie, regardless of whether the meat was beef or mutton.[2][5][9][10][11][12][13][14][pages needed][excessive citations] However, in the UK since the 21st century, the term shepherd's pie is used more commonly when the meat is lamb.[15][16][17]

The French name hachis Parmentier is documented in French in 1900,[18] and in English in 1898.Shepherd's pie, cottage pie, or hachis Parmentier is a ground meat pie with a crust or topping of mashed potato of English origin.[2][3][4][5][6][7]

The r

The recipe has many variations, but the defining ingredients are ground red meat cooked in a gravy or sauce with onions, and topped with a layer of mashed potato before it is baked. Sometimes other vegetables are added to the filling, such as peas, sweetcorn, celery or carrots. The pie is sometimes also gratineed with grated cheese to create a layer of melted cheese on top.

The term cottage pie was in use by 1791.[3][8]

The term shepherd's pie did not appear until 1854,[3] and was initially used synonymously with cottage pie, regardless of whether the meat was beef or mutton.[2][5][9][10][11][12][13][14][pages needed]The term shepherd's pie did not appear until 1854,[3] and was initially used synonymously with cottage pie, regardless of whether the meat was beef or mutton.[2][5][9][10][11][12][13][14][pages needed][excessive citations] However, in the UK since the 21st century, the term shepherd's pie is used more commonly when the meat is lamb.[15][16][17]

The French name hachis Parmentier is documented in French in 1900,[18] and in English in 1898.[19] A hachis is anything finely chopped;[20] the English word 'hash' is borrowed from it.[21] 'Parmentier' is Antoine-Augustin Parmentier, after whom many potato dishes were named, as he was instrumental in the promotion of the potato in France in the 18th century.

In early cookery books, the dish was a means of using leftover roasted meat of any kind, and the pie dish was lined on the sides and bottom with mashed potato, as well as having a mashed potato crust on top.[10][11]

In France, hachis Parmentier was a "commonplace" and "homely" dish of the cuisine bourgeoise, which was nonetheless given place of honor at a Culinary Exhibition in Paris.cuisine bourgeoise, which was nonetheless given place of honor at a Culinary Exhibition in Paris.[19]

Hachis parmentier is an economical way of using leftover meat, especially from pot-au-feu. Henri-Paul Pellaprat lists it in his section on leftovers,[22] as does the "bible" of bourgeois cuisine, Mme. St-Ange, under the name hachis de bœuf au gratin.[23]

A more elaborate version in 1921 by Auguste Escoffier consisted of a baked potato whose contents were emptied, mixed with diced meat and sauce lyonnaise, and returned to the potato shells or skins to be baked.[24] This version is rarely encountered.[citation needed]

Other potato-topped pies include: