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COSMOGONY (or COSMOGENY) is any model concerning the origin of either the cosmos or universe . Developing a complete theoretical model has implications in both the philosophy of science and epistemology .

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology * 2 Overview * 3 Compared with cosmology * 4 Theoretical scenarios * 5 See also * 6 References

ETYMOLOGY

The word comes from the Koine Greek κοσμογονία (from κόσμος "cosmos , the world") and the root of γί(γ)νομαι / γέγονα ("come into a new state of being"). In astronomy , cosmogony refers to the study of the origin of particular astrophysical objects or systems, and is most commonly used in reference to the origin of the Universe, the Solar System, or the Earth–Moon system.

OVERVIEW

Nature timeline view • discuss • edit -13 — – -12 — – -11 — – -10 — – -9 — – -8 — – -7 — – -6 — – -5 — – -4 — – -3 — – -2 — – -1 — – 0 — COSMIC EXPANSION EARLIEST LIGHT COSMIC SPEED-UP SOLAR SYSTEM WATER SINGLE-CELLED LIFE PHOTOSYNTHESIS Multicellular life LAND LIFE EARLIEST GRAVITY DARK ENERGY DARK MATTER ← Earliest universe (−13.80 ) ← Earliest galaxy ← Earliest quasar ← Omega Centauri forms ← Andromeda Galaxy forms ← Milky Way Galaxy spiral arms form ← Alpha Centauri forms ← Earliest Earth (−4.54 ) ← Earliest life ← Earliest oxygen ← Atmospheric oxygen ← Earliest sexual reproduction ← Cambrian explosion
Cambrian explosion
← Earliest humans L i f e P r i m o r d i a l Axis scale : billions of years . Also see: Human
Human
timeline and Life
Life
timeline

The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological model of the early development of the universe . The most commonly held view is that the universe was once a gravitational singularity , which expanded extremely rapidly from its hot and dense state. However, while this expansion is well-modeled by the Big Bang theory , the origins of the singularity remain as one of the unsolved problems in physics . Projection of a Calabi–Yau manifold from string theory . In quantum physics, there remain different, plausible theories regarding what combination of "stuff", space, or time emerged along with the singularity (and therefore this universe). The main disagreement among theories is whether time existed "before" the emergence of our universe or not.

Cosmologist and science communicator Sean M. Carroll explains two competing types of explanations for the origins of the singularity which is the main disagreement between the scientists who study cosmogony and centers on the question of whether time existed "before" the emergence of our universe or not. One cosmogonical view sees time as fundamental and even eternal: The universe could have contained the singularity because the universe evolved or changed from a prior state (the prior state was "empty space", or maybe a state that could not be called "space" at all). The other view, held by proponents like Stephen Hawking
Stephen Hawking
, says that there was no change through time because "time" itself emerged along with this universe (in other words, there can be no "prior" to the universe). Thus, it remains unclear what combination of "stuff", space, or time emerged with the singularity and this universe.

One problem in cosmogony is that there is currently no theoretical model that explains the earliest moments of the universe's existence (during the Planck time ) because of a lack of a testable theory of quantum gravity . Researchers in string theory and its extensions (for example, M theory ), and of loop quantum cosmology , have nevertheless proposed solutions of the type just discussed.

Another issue facing the field of particle physics is a need for more expensive and technologically advanced particle accelerators to test proposed theories (for example, that the universe was caused by colliding membranes ).

COMPARED WITH COSMOLOGY

Cosmology is the study of the structure and changes in the present universe, while the scientific field of cosmogony is concerned with the origin of the universe. Observations about our present universe may not only allow predictions to be made about the future, but they also provide clues to events that happened long ago when ... the cosmos began. So the work of cosmologists and cosmogonists overlaps.

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)

Cosmogony
Cosmogony
can be distinguished from cosmology , which studies the universe at large and throughout its existence, and which technically does not inquire directly into the source of its origins. There is some ambiguity between the two terms. For example, the cosmological argument from theology regarding the existence of God
God
is technically an appeal to cosmogonical rather than cosmological ideas. In practice, there is a scientific distinction between cosmological and cosmogonical ideas. Physical cosmology is the science that attempts to explain all observations relevant to the development and characteristics of the universe as a whole. Questions regarding why the universe behaves in such a way have been described by physicists and cosmologists as being extra-scientific (i.e., metaphysical ), though speculations are made from a variety of perspectives that include extrapolation of scientific theories to untested regimes (i.e., at Planck scales ), and philosophical or religious ideas.

THEORETICAL SCENARIOS

Cosmogonists have only tentative theories for the early stages of the universe and its beginning. As of 2011 , no accelerator experiments probe energies of sufficient magnitude to provide any experimental insight into the behavior of matter at the energy levels that prevailed shortly after the Big Bang . Furthermore, since astronomical observations imply a singularity at the origin of the universe, experiments at any given high energy level will always be dwarfed by the infinite energy level predicted by Big Bang Theory. Therefore, significant technological and conceptual advances would be needed to propose a scientific test for cosmogonical theories.

Proposed theoretical scenarios differ radically, and include string theory and M-theory
M-theory
, the Hartle–Hawking initial state , string landscape , brane inflation , the Big Bang, and the ekpyrotic universe . Some of these models are mutually compatible, whereas others are not.

SEE ALSO

* Creation myth * Digital physics * Earlier Universe
Universe
(Roger Penrose) * False vacuum * Human
Human
timeline * Life
Life
timeline * Multiverse
Multiverse
* Non-standard cosmology * Nothing * Religious cosmology * Theory of everything * Ultimate fate of the universe * Why is there something rather than nothing?

REFERENCES

* ^ A B Ridpath, Ian (2012). A Dictionary of Astronomy. Oxford University Press. * ^ A B Woolfson, M.M. (1979). " Cosmogony
Cosmogony
Today". Quarterly Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society. 20 (2): 97–114. Bibcode :1979QJRAS..20...97W. * ^ Staff. "γίγνομαι - come into a new state of being". Tufts University . Retrieved 17 September 2014. * ^ Wollack, Edward J. (10 December 2010). "Cosmology: The Study of the Universe". Universe
Universe
101: Big Bang Theory. NASA
NASA
. Archived from the original on 14 May 2011. Retrieved 27 April 2011. * ^ A B C "A Universe
Universe
from Nothing?, by Sean Carroll, Discover Magazine Blogs, 28 April 2012.". Retrieved 3 October 2014. * ^ "Cosmic Chemistry: Cosmogony
Cosmogony
: Teacher Text : Background Information" (PDF). Genesismission.jpl.nasa.gov. Retrieved 14 January 2015.

* v * t * e

Big History

THEMES AND SUBJECTS

* Chronology of the universe * Cosmic evolution * Deep time * Time
Time
scales * Goldilocks principle * Modernity

EIGHT THRESHOLDS

* 1: CREATION - Big Bang and cosmogony * 2: STARS - creation of stars * 3: ELEMENTS - creation of chemical elements inside dying stars * 4: PLANETS - formation of planets * 5: LIFE - abiogenesis and evolution of life

* 6: HUMANS - development of Homo sapiens

* Paleolithic era

* 7: AGRICULTURE - Agricultural Revolution * 8: MODERNITY - modern era

WEB-BASED EDUCATION

* Big History Project

* Crash Course Big History

* ChronoZoom
ChronoZoom

NOTABLE PEOPLE

* Walter Alvarez * Eric Chaisson * David Christian * Bill Gates * Carl Sagan
Carl Sagan
* Graeme Snooks * Cynthia Stokes Brown

* v * t * e

Philosophy
Philosophy

BRANCHES

TRADITIONAL

* Metaphysics

* Ontology

* Epistemology * Logic * Ethics * Aesthetics

PHILOSOPHY OF

* Action

* Art

* Culture * Design * Music * Film

* Business * Color * Cosmos
Cosmos
* Dialogue * Education * Environment * Futility * Happiness * Healthcare * History * Human
Human
nature * Humor * Feminism * Language * Life
Life
* Literature * Mathematics

* Mind

* Pain * Psychology

* Philosophy
Philosophy
of psychiatry * Philosophy
Philosophy
of perception * Philosophy
Philosophy
* Religion

* Science
Science

* Physics * Chemistry * Biology * Geography

* Sexuality

* Social science

* Culture * Economics * Justice
Justice
* Law * Politics * Society

* Space and time * Sport

* Technology

* Artificial intelligence * Computer science * Engineering * Information

* War

SCHOOLS OF THOUGHT

BY ERA

* Ancient

* Western

* Medieval * Renaissance * Early modern * Modern * Contemporary

ANCIENT

CHINESE

* Agriculturalism * Confucianism * Legalism * Logicians * Mohism * Chinese naturalism * Neotaoism * Taoism * Yangism * Zen
Zen

GRECO- ROMAN

* Aristotelianism * Atomism * Cynicism * Cyrenaics * Eleatics * Eretrian school * Epicureanism * Hermeneutics

* Ionian

* Ephesian * Milesian

* Megarian school * Neoplatonism * Peripatetic * Platonism * Pluralism * Presocratic * Pyrrhonism * Pythagoreanism * Neopythagoreanism
Neopythagoreanism
* Sophism * Stoicism

INDIAN

* Buddhist * Cārvāka * Hindu * Jain

PERSIAN

* Mazdakism * Zoroastrianism * Zurvanism

MEDIEVAL

EUROPEAN

* Christian philosophy * Scholasticism * Thomism
Thomism
* Renaissance humanism

EAST ASIAN

* Korean Confucianism * Edo Neo- Confucianism * Neo- Confucianism

INDIAN

* Dvaita * Navya-Nyāya * Vishishtadvaita
Vishishtadvaita

ISLAMIC

* Averroism * Avicennism * Illuminationism * ʿIlm al-Kalām * Sufi

JEWISH

* Judeo-Islamic

MODERN

PEOPLE

* Cartesianism
Cartesianism
* Kantianism
Kantianism
* Neo- Kantianism
Kantianism
* Hegelianism * Marxism * Spinozism
Spinozism

0

* Anarchism * Classical Realism
Classical Realism
* Liberalism * Collectivism * Conservatism * Determinism * Dualism
Dualism
* Empiricism * Existentialism * Foundationalism * Historicism
Historicism
* Holism
Holism
* Humanism

* Idealism

* Absolute * British * German * Objective * Subjective * Transcendental

* Individualism * Kokugaku * Materialism
Materialism
* Modernism * Monism * Naturalism * Natural law
Natural law
* Nihilism * New Confucianism * Neo- Scholasticism * Pragmatism * Phenomenology * Positivism * Reductionism * Rationalism * Social contract
Social contract
* Socialism * Transcendentalism
Transcendentalism
* Utilitarianism

CONTEMPORARY

ANALYTIC

* Applied ethics * Analytic feminism * Analytical Marxism * Communitarianism * Consequentialism * Critical rationalism * Experimental philosophy * Falsificationism * Foundationalism / Coherentism * Generative linguistics * Internalism and Externalism * Logical positivism * Legal positivism * Normative ethics * Meta-ethics * Moral realism * Neo-Aristotelian * Quinean naturalism * Ordinary language philosophy
Ordinary language philosophy
* Postanalytic philosophy * Quietism * Rawlsian * Reformed epistemology * Systemics * Scientism * Scientific realism * Scientific skepticism * Contemporary utilitarianism * Vienna Circle * Wittgensteinian

CONTINENTAL

* Critical theory * Deconstruction
Deconstruction
* Existentialism * Feminist * Frankfurt School * New Historicism
Historicism
* Hermeneutics * Neo-Marxism * Phenomenology * Postmodernism * Post-structuralism * Social constructionism
Social constructionism
* Structuralism
Structuralism
* Western Marxism

OTHER

* Kyoto School * Objectivism * Russian cosmism * more...

POSITIONS

AESTHETICS

* Formalism * Institutionalism * Aesthetic response

ETHICS

* Consequentialism * Deontology * Virtue

FREE WILL

* Compatibilism
Compatibilism
* Determinism * Libertarianism

METAPHYSICS

* Atomism * Dualism
Dualism
* Moni