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Cosmic Vision
Cosmic Vision
(also known as Cosmic Vision
Cosmic Vision
2015–2025) is a European Space Agency (ESA) long-term space science missions programme spanning between years 2015 and 2025, a successor to the Horizon 2000
Horizon 2000
long-term scientific programme.[1]

Contents

1 History 2 Missions

2.1 Small class 2.2 Medium class 2.3 Large class

3 Missions of opportunity 4 See also 5 References 6 External links

History[edit] The initial call of ideas and concepts was launched in 2004 with a subsequent workshop held in Paris
Paris
to define more fully the themes of the Vision under the broader headings of Astronomy
Astronomy
and Astrophysics, Solar System
Solar System
Exploration and Fundamental Physics. By early 2006 the formulation for a 10-year plan based around 4 key questions emerged:

What are the conditions for planet formation and the emergence of life? How does the Solar System
Solar System
work? What are the fundamental physical laws of the Universe? How did the Universe
Universe
originate and what is it made of?

In March 2007 a call for mission ideas was formally released, which yielded in 19 astrophysics, 12 fundamental physics and 19 Solar System mission proposals. In March 2012 ESA
ESA
announced it had begun working on a series of small class (S-class) science missions. The first winning S-class concept is set to receive 50 million euros (£42m) and will be readied for launch in 2017.[2][needs update] Missions[edit] Small class[edit] Small class missions (S-class) are intended to have a cost to ESA
ESA
not exceeding 50 million euros. A first call for mission proposals was issued in March 2012.[3] Approximately 70 letters of Intent were received.[4] In October 2012 the first S-class mission was selected:

S1, CHEOPS, a mission to search for exoplanets by photometry; launch planned for the end of 2018.[5] S2, SMILE, a joint mission between ESA
ESA
and the Chinese Academy of Sciences to study the interaction between Earth's magnetosphere and the solar wind. Selected on 4 June 2015 from 13 competing proposals, its launch is planned for 2021.[6]

Medium class[edit] Medium class (M-class) projects are relatively stand-alone projects and have a price cap of approximately 500 million euros. The first two M-class missions, M1 and M2, were selected in October 2011:[7]

M1, Solar Orbiter, an adopted mission for close-up observations of the Sun; launch planned for February 2019.[8] M2, Euclid, a selected mission to study dark energy and dark matter; launch planned for 2020.[9] M3, PLATO, a mission to search for exoplanets and measure stellar oscillations. Selected on 19 February 2014, its launch is planned for 2026.[10] Other competing concepts that were studied included the four candidate missions EChO, LOFT, MarcoPolo-R and STE-QUEST.[11] M4, ARIEL (Atmospheric Remote-Sensing Infrared Exoplanet
Exoplanet
Large-survey) which will observe transits of nearby exoplanets to determine their chemical composition and physical conditions.[12] The mission was selected by ESA
ESA
on 20 March 2018 as fourth medium-class science mission, to be launched in mid-2028.[13][14] After a preliminary culling of proposals in March 2015, a short list of three mission proposals selected for further study was announced on 4 June 2015.[15][16][12] The final selection was to take place in November 2017,[14] but has been pushed back by a semester. The shortlist consisted also of two other proposals: THOR (Turbulence Heating ObserveR) which would address a fundamental problem in space plasma physics concerned with the heating of plasma and the subsequent dissipation of energy,[12] and XIPE ( X-ray
X-ray
Imaging Polarimetry Explorer) which would study X-ray
X-ray
emissions from high-energy sources such as supernovas, galaxy jets, black holes and neutron stars, to discover more about the behaviour of matter under extreme conditions.[12] A call for M5 mission proposals was announced in April 2016. Select proposals will be chosen for further study after the M4 selection decisions. The launch is tentatively scheduled for the 2029–2030 timeframe, though missions of reduced complexity could be launched at earlier dates.[17][18]

Large class[edit] Originally it was intended that Large class (L-class) projects were to be carried out in collaboration with other partners and should have an ESA
ESA
cost not exceeding 900 million euros. However, in April 2011 it became clear that budget pressures in the US meant that an expected collaboration with NASA
NASA
on the L1 mission would not be practical; so the down-selection was delayed and the missions re-scoped on the assumption of ESA
ESA
lead with some limited international participation.[19] Three L-class missions have been selected:

L1, JUICE (Jupiter Icy Moon Explorer), a mission to the Jupiter system (with heritage from Laplace); launch planned for 2022.[20] L2, ATHENA (Advanced Telescope for High Energy Astrophysics), an X-ray observatory with a launch planned for 2028.[21] L3, LISA (Laser Interferometer Space Antenna), a space mission concept designed to detect and accurately measure gravitational waves at lower frequencies than Earth-bound detectors.[22] Its launch is planned for 2034.[10]

Missions of opportunity[edit] Occasionally ESA
ESA
makes contributions to space missions led by another space agency. A contribution to SPICA (Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics), a Japanese JAXA
JAXA
mission was evaluated as such a mission of opportunity within the Cosmic Vision. It is no longer considered within that framework,[23] but is one of the mission proposals being considered for M5. See also[edit]

List of projects of the European Space Agency New Frontiers program
New Frontiers program
( NASA
NASA
mission class) Discovery program
Discovery program
( NASA
NASA
mission class)

References[edit]

^ "ESA's 'Cosmic Vision'". ESA. 19 February 2014. Retrieved 25 August 2014.  ^ "Esa to start mini space mission series". BBC. 12 March 2012. Retrieved 20 February 2014.  ^ "Call for a small mission opportunity in ESA's science programme for a launch in 2017". ESA. 9 March 2012. Retrieved 20 February 2014.  ^ "S-class mission letters of intent". ESA. 16 April 2012. Retrieved 20 February 2014.  ^ " ESA
ESA
Science Programme's new small satellite will study super-Earths". ESA. 19 October 2012. Retrieved 20 February 2014.  ^ " ESA
ESA
and Chinese Academy of Sciences
Chinese Academy of Sciences
to study SMILE as joint mission". ESA. 4 June 2015. Retrieved 5 August 2015.  ^ "Dark and bright: ESA
ESA
chooses next two science missions". ESA. 4 October 2011. Retrieved 23 August 2014.  ^ "Europe's Solar Orbiter
Solar Orbiter
on track for 2019 launch". Air & Cosmos. 28 August 2017. Retrieved 19 September 2017.  ^ "Mission status". ESA. 28 November 2013. Retrieved 20 February 2014.  ^ a b "Gravitational wave mission selected, planet-hunting mission moves forward". ESA. 20 June 2017. Retrieved 20 June 2017.  ^ " ESA
ESA
selects planet-hunting PLATO mission". ESA. 19 February 2014. Retrieved 11 February 2015.  ^ a b c d "Three candidates for ESA's next medium-class science mission". ESA. 4 June 2015. Retrieved 4 June 2015.  ^ "ESA's next science mission to focus on nature of exoplanets". esa.int. March 20, 2018.  ^ a b "COSMIC VISION M4 CANDIDATE MISSIONS: PRESENTATION EVENT". ESA. 5 May 2017. Retrieved 19 September 2017.  ^ "Call for a Medium-size mission opportunity in ESA's Science Programme for a launch in 2025 (M4)". ESA. 19 August 2014. Retrieved 23 August 2014.  ^ "Europe drops asteroid sample-return idea". BBC. 18 March 2015. Retrieved 16 April 2015.  ^ "Announcement of the plans for the issuing of a Call for a Medium-size mission for launch in 2029-2030 (M5)". ESA. 20 July 2015. Retrieved 8 January 2016.  ^ "Call for a Medium-size mission opportunity in ESA's Science Programme (M5)". ESA. 29 April 2016. Retrieved 2 May 2016.  ^ "New approach for L-class mission candidates". ESA. 19 April 2011. Retrieved 20 February 2014.  ^ "JUICE is Europe's next large science mission". ESA. 2 May 2012. Retrieved 23 August 2014.  ^ " ESA
ESA
Science & Technology: Athena to study the hot and energetic Universe". ESA. 27 June 2014. Retrieved 23 August 2014.  ^ Guido Mueller (22 August 2014). "Prospects for a space-based gravitational-wave observatory". SPIE. doi:10.1117/2.1201408.005573. Retrieved 30 September 2014.  ^ "SPICA - A space infrared telescope for cosmology and astrophysics". ESA. 19 February 2014. Retrieved 20 February 2014. 

External links[edit]

ESA
ESA
Cosmic Vision
Cosmic Vision
website List of proposed missions on ESA
ESA
page

v t e

European Space Agency

Spaceports

Guiana Space Centre Esrange

Launch vehicles

Ariane 5 Arianespace
Arianespace
Soyuz Vega

Facilities

ESOC ESTEC ESRIN EAC ESAC ECSAT CDF ST-ECF

Communications

ESTRACK European Data Relay System

Programmes

Aurora Copernicus

Sentinel

Cosmic Vision CryoSat EGNOS ELIPS ExoMars FLPP Galileo LPP SSA

Predecessors

ELDO ESRO

Related topics

Arianespace ESA
ESA
Television EUMETSAT European Space Camp GEWEX Planetary Science Archive

Projects and missions

Science

Solar physics

ISEE-2
ISEE-2
(1977–87) Ulysses (1990–2009) SOHO (1995–present) Cluster II (2000–present) Solar Orbiter
Solar Orbiter
(2019) Lagrange (2020s)

Planetary science

Giotto (1985–92) Huygens (1997–2005) SMART-1
SMART-1
(2003–06) Mars Express
Mars Express
(2003–present) Rosetta/Philae (2004–16) Venus Express
Venus Express
(2005–14) ExoMars
ExoMars
Trace Gas Orbiter (2016–present) BepiColombo
BepiColombo
(2018) ExoMars
ExoMars
rover (2020) Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer
Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer
(2022)

Astronomy
Astronomy
and cosmology

Cos-B
Cos-B
(1975–82) IUE (1978–96) EXOSAT
EXOSAT
(1983–86) Hipparcos
Hipparcos
(1989–93) Hubble (1990–present) Eureca (1992–93) ISO (1995–98) XMM-Newton
XMM-Newton
(1999–present) INTEGRAL
INTEGRAL
(2002–present) CoRoT
CoRoT
(2006–13) Planck (2009–13) Herschel (2009–13) Gaia (2013–present) CHEOPS
CHEOPS
(2018) James Webb (2019) Euclid (2020) PLATO (2026) ARIEL (2028) ATHENA (2028) LISA (2034)

Earth observation

Meteosat First Generation (1977–97) ERS-1 (1991–2000) ERS-2 (1995–2011) Meteosat Second Generation (2002–present) Envisat
Envisat
(2002–12) Double Star (2003–07) MetOp
MetOp
(2006–present) GOCE (2009–13) SMOS (2009–present) CryoSat-2
CryoSat-2
(2010–present) Swarm (2013–present) Sentinel-1
Sentinel-1
/ 1A / 1B (2014–present) Sentinel-2
Sentinel-2
/ 2A / 2B (2015–present) Sentinel-3
Sentinel-3
/ 3A (2016–present) Sentinel-5 Precursor
Sentinel-5 Precursor
(2017) ADM-Aeolus
ADM-Aeolus
(2018) EarthCARE
EarthCARE
(2019) Meteosat Third Generation
Meteosat Third Generation
(Sentinel-4) (2019) BIOMASS (fr) (2021) MetOp-SG-A (2021) SMILE (2021) MetOp-SG-B (2022) FLEX (2022)

ISS spaceflight

ISS contribution (1998–present) Columbus (2008–present) Jules Verne (2008) Cupola (2010–present) Johannes Kepler (2011) Edoardo Amaldi (2012) Albert Einstein (2013) Georges Lemaître (2014) European Robotic Arm
European Robotic Arm
(2018)

Telecommunications

GEOS 2 (1978) Olympus-1 (1989–93) Artemis (2001–present) GIOVE-A
GIOVE-A
(2005–present) GIOVE-B
GIOVE-B
(2008–present) HYLAS-1 (2010–present) Galileo IOV (2011–present) Galileo FOC (2014–present) European Data Relay System
European Data Relay System
(2016–present)

Technology demonstrators

ARD (1998) PROBA-1 (2001–present) YES2 (2007) PROBA-2
PROBA-2
(2009–present) PROBA-V
PROBA-V
(2013–present) IXV (2015) LISA Pathfinder
LISA Pathfinder
(2015–17) OPS-SAT (2018) Lunar Lander (2018) AIDA (2020) PROBA-3
PROBA-3
(2020)

Cancelled and proposed

ALTIUS Columbus Man-Tended Free Flyer CSTS Darwin Mission Don Quijote e.Deorbit EChO Eddington EXPERT Hermes Hopper LOFT Luna 27 Marco Polo MarcoPolo-R Mars sample return mission ODINUS PRIDE SPICA STE-QUEST THOR XIPE

Failed

Cluster CryoSat-1 GEOS 1

Future missions in italics

Category Commons Wikinews

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