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CORTICOSTEROIDS are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex of vertebrates , as well as the synthetic analogues of these hormones. Two main classes of corticosteroids, glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids , are involved in a wide range of physiologic processes, including stress response , immune response , and regulation of inflammation , carbohydrate metabolism , protein catabolism , blood electrolyte levels, and behavior.

Some common naturally occurring steroid hormones are cortisol (C 21H 30O 5), corticosterone (C 21H 30O 4), cortisone (C 21H 28O 5) and aldosterone (C 21H 28O 5). (Note that aldosterone and cortisone share the same chemical formula but the structures are different.) The main corticosteroids produced by the adrenal cortex are cortisol and aldosterone.

CONTENTS

* 1 Classes * 2 Medical uses

* 3 Pharmacogenetics

* 3.1 Asthma
Asthma

* 4 Adverse effects * 5 Biosynthesis

* 6 Classification

* 6.1 By chemical structure

* 6.1.1 Group A — Hydrocortisone
Hydrocortisone
type * 6.1.2 Group B — Acetonides (and related substances) * 6.1.3 Group C — Betamethasone type

* 6.1.4 Group D — Esters

* 6.1.4.1 Group D1 — Halogenated (less labile) * 6.1.4.2 Group D2 — Labile prodrug esters

* 6.2 By route of administration

* 6.2.1 Topical steroids * 6.2.2 Inhaled steroids * 6.2.3 Oral forms * 6.2.4 Systemic forms

* 7 History

* 8 Society and culture

* 8.1 Etymology

* 9 See also * 10 References

CLASSES

Cortisol
Cortisol
Corticosterone
Corticosterone
Cortisone Aldosterone
Aldosterone

* GLUCOCORTICOIDS such as cortisol affect carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism, and have anti-inflammator y, immunosuppressive , anti-proliferative , and vasoconstrictive effects. Anti-inflammatory effects are mediated by blocking the action of inflammatory mediators (transrepression) and inducing anti-inflammatory mediators (transactivation). Immunosuppressive effects are mediated by suppressing delayed hypersensitivity reactions by direct action on T-lymphocytes . Anti-proliferative effects are mediated by inhibition of DNA synthesis and epidermal cell turnover. Vasoconstrictive effects are mediated by inhibiting the action of inflammatory mediators such as histidine . * MINERALOCORTICOIDS such as aldosterone are primarily involved in the regulation of electrolyte and water balance by modulating ion transport in the epithelial cell s of the renal tubules of the kidney .

MEDICAL USES

Synthetic pharmaceutical drugs with corticosteroid-like effects are used in a variety of conditions, ranging from brain tumors to skin diseases . Dexamethasone
Dexamethasone
and its derivatives are almost pure glucocorticoids, while prednisone and its derivatives have some mineralocorticoid action in addition to the glucocorticoid effect. Fludrocortisone
Fludrocortisone
(Florinef) is a synthetic mineralocorticoid. Hydrocortisone
Hydrocortisone
(cortisol) is typically used for replacement therapy, e.g. for adrenal insufficiency and congenital adrenal hyperplasia .

Medical conditions treated with systemic corticosteroids:

* Allergy
Allergy
and respirology medicine

* Asthma
Asthma
(severe exacerbations) * Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
(COPD) * Allergic rhinitis * Atopic dermatitis * Hives * Angioedema * Anaphylaxis * Food allergies * Drug allergies * Nasal polyps * Hypersensitivity pneumonitis * Sarcoidosis
Sarcoidosis
* Eosinophilic pneumonia * Interstitial lung disease

* Dermatology
Dermatology

* Pemphigus vulgaris
Pemphigus vulgaris
* Contact dermatitis

* Endocrinology (usually at physiologic doses)

* Adrenal insufficiency * Congenital adrenal hyperplasia

* Gastroenterology
Gastroenterology

* Ulcerative colitis * Crohn’s disease * Autoimmune hepatitis

* Hematology

* Lymphoma
Lymphoma
* Leukemia * Hemolytic anemia * Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura
Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura
* Multiple Myeloma

* Rheumatology / Immunology
Immunology

* Rheumatoid arthritis
Rheumatoid arthritis
* Systemic lupus erythematosus * Polymyalgia rheumatica
Polymyalgia rheumatica
* Polymyositis
Polymyositis
* Dermatomyositis * Polyarteritis * Vasculitis
Vasculitis

* Ophthalmology

* Uveitis
Uveitis
* Keratoconjunctivitis
Keratoconjunctivitis

* Other conditions

* Multiple sclerosis * Organ transplantation * Nephrotic syndrome * Chronic hepatitis (flare ups ) * Cerebral edema
Cerebral edema
* IgG4-related disease * Prostate cancer
Prostate cancer
* Tendinosis

* Lichen planus
Lichen planus

Topical formulations are also available for the skin , eyes (uveitis ), lungs (asthma ), nose (rhinitis ), and bowels . Corticosteroids are also used supportively to prevent nausea, often in combination with 5-HT3 antagonists (e.g. ondansetron ).

Typical undesired effects of glucocorticoids present quite uniformly as drug-induced Cushing\'s syndrome . Typical mineralocorticoid side-effects are hypertension (abnormally high blood pressure), hypokalemia (low potassium levels in the blood), hypernatremia (high sodium levels in the blood) without causing peripheral edema , metabolic alkalosis and connective tissue weakness. There may also be impaired wound healing or ulcer formation because of the immunosuppressive effects.

Clinical and experimental evidence indicates that corticosteroids can cause permanent eye damage by inducing central serous retinopathy (CSR, also known as central serous chorioretinopathy, CSC). A variety of steroid medications, from anti-allergy nasal sprays ( Nasonex , Flonase ) to topical skin creams, to eye drops ( Tobradex ), to prednisone have been implicated in the development of CSR.

Corticosteroids have been widely used in treating people with traumatic brain injury . A systematic review identified 20 randomised controlled trials and included 12,303 participants, then compared patients who received corticosteroids with patients who received no treatment. The authors recommended people with traumatic head injury should not be routinely treated with corticosteroids.

PHARMACOGENETICS

ASTHMA

There is some basis for genetic variation in patients' response to inhaled corticosteroids. Two genes of interest are CHRH1 (corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1) and TBX21 (transcription factor T-bet). Both genes display some degree of polymorphic variation in humans, which may explain how some patients respond better to inhaled corticosteroid therapy than others.

ADVERSE EFFECTS

Lower arm of a 47-year-old female showing skin damage caused by topical corticosteroid use.

Use of corticosteroids has numerous side-effects, some of which may be severe:

* Neuropsychiatric: steroid psychosis , and anxiety , depression . Therapeutic doses may cause a feeling of artificial well-being ("steroid euphoria"). The neuropsychiatric effects are partly mediated by sensitization of the body to the actions of adrenaline. Therapeutically, the bulk of corticosteroid dose is given in the morning to mimic the body's diurnal rhythm; if given at night, the feeling of being energized will interfere with sleep. An extensive review is provided by Flores and Gumina. * Cardiovascular: Corticosteroids can cause sodium retention through a direct action on the kidney, in a manner analogous to the mineralocorticoid aldosterone . This can result in fluid retention and hypertension . * Metabolic: Corticosteroids cause a movement of body fat to the face and torso, resulting respectively in "moon face " and "buffalo hump". and away from the limbs. Due to the diversion of amino-acids to glucose, they are considered anti-anabolic, and long term therapy can cause muscle wasting * Endocrine: By increasing the production of glucose from amino-acid breakdown and opposing the action of insulin, corticosteroids can cause hyperglycemia , insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus . * Skeletal: Steroid-induced osteoporosis may be a side-effect of long-term corticosteroid use. Use of inhaled corticosteroids among children with asthma may result in decreased height. * Gastro-intestinal: While cases of colitis have been reported, corticosteroids are therapeutically employed when the colitis has an auto-immune nature, e.g. ulcerative colitis and Crohn\'s disease . While the evidence for corticosteroids causing peptic ulceration is relatively poor except for high doses taken for over a month, the majority of doctors as of 2010 still believe this is the case, and would consider protective prophylactic measures. * Eyes: chronic use may predispose to cataract and retinopathy . * Vulnerability to infection: By suppressing immune reactions (which is one of the main reasons for their use in allergies), steroids may cause infections to flare up, notably candidiasis . * Pregnancy: Corticosteroids have a low but significant teratogenic effect, causing a few birth defects per 1,000 pregnant women treated. Corticosteroids are therefore contraindicated in pregnancy. * Habituation: Topical steroid addiction (TSA) has been reported in long-term users of topical steroids (users who applied topical steroids to their skin over a period of weeks, months, or years). TSA is characterised by uncontrollable, spreading dermatitis and worsening skin inflammation which requires a stronger topical steroid to get the same result as the first prescription. When topical steroid medication is lost, the skin experiences redness, burning, itching, hot skin, swelling, and/or oozing for a length of time. This is also called 'red skin syndrome' or 'topical steroid withdrawal'(TSW). After the withdrawal period is over the atopic dermatitis can cease or is less severe than it was before. * In children the short term use of steroids by mouth increases the risk of vomiting, behavioral changes, and sleeping problems.

BIOSYNTHESIS

Steroidogenesis
Steroidogenesis
, including corticosteroid biosynthesis.

The corticosteroids are synthesized from cholesterol within the adrenal cortex . Most steroidogenic reactions are catalysed by enzymes of the cytochrome P450 family. They are located within the mitochondria and require adrenodoxin as a cofactor (except 21-hydroxylase and 17α-hydroxylase ).

Aldosterone
Aldosterone
and corticosterone share the first part of their biosynthetic pathway. The last part is mediated either by the aldosterone synthase (for aldosterone ) or by the 11β-hydroxylase (for corticosterone ). These enzymes are nearly identical (they share 11β-hydroxylation and 18-hydroxylation functions), but aldosterone synthase is also able to perform an 18-oxidation. Moreover, aldosterone synthase is found within the zona glomerulosa at the outer edge of the adrenal cortex ; 11β-hydroxylase is found in the zona fasciculata and zona glomerulosa .

CLASSIFICATION

BY CHEMICAL STRUCTURE

In general, corticosteroids are grouped into four classes, based on chemical structure. Allergic reactions to one member of a class typically indicate an intolerance of all members of the class. This is known as the "Coopman classification", after S. Coopman, who defined this classification in 1989.

The highlighted steroids are often used in the screening of allergies to topical steroids.

Group A — Hydrocortisone
Hydrocortisone
Type

Hydrocortisone
Hydrocortisone
, methylprednisolone , prednisolone , prednisone , and triamcinolone (short- to medium-acting glucocorticoids).

Group B — Acetonides (and Related Substances)

Amcinonide
Amcinonide
, budesonide , desonide , fluocinolone acetonide , fluocinonide , halcinonide , and triamcinolone acetonide .

Group C — Betamethasone Type

Beclometasone , betamethasone , dexamethasone , fluocortolone , halometasone , and mometasone .

Group D — Esters

Group D1 — Halogenated (less Labile)

Alclometasone dipropionate , betamethasone dipropionate , betamethasone valerate , clobetasol propionate , clobetasone butyrate , fluprednidene acetate , and mometasone furoate .

Group D2 — Labile Prodrug Esters

Ciclesonide , cortisone acetate , hydrocortisone aceponate , hydrocortisone acetate , hydrocortisone buteprate , hydrocortisone butyrate , hydrocortisone valerate , prednicarbate , and tixocortol pivalate .

BY ROUTE OF ADMINISTRATION

Topical Steroids

Main article: Topical steroid

For use topically on the skin, eye, and mucous membranes .

Topical corticosteroids are divided in potency classes I to IV in most countries (A to D in Japan). There are seven categories used in the United States.

Inhaled Steroids

for use to treat the nasal mucosa, sinuses, bronchii, and lungs. This group includes:

* Flunisolide
Flunisolide
* Fluticasone furoate
Fluticasone furoate
* Fluticasone propionate * Triamcinolone
Triamcinolone
acetonide * Beclomethasone dipropionate * Budesonide
Budesonide

There is also a combination preparation containing fluticasone propionate and salmeterol xinafoate (a long-acting bronchodilator). It is approved for children over 12 years old.

Oral Forms

Such as prednisone, prednisolone or dexamethasone .

Systemic Forms

Available in injectables for intravenous and parenteral routes.

HISTORY

Introduction of early corticosteroids CORTICOSTEROID INTRODUCED

Cortisone 1948

Hydrocortisone
Hydrocortisone
1951

Fludrocortisone
Fludrocortisone
acetate 1954

Prednisolone 1955

Prednisone
Prednisone
1955

Methylprednisolone
Methylprednisolone
1956

Triamcinolone
Triamcinolone
1956

Dexamethasone
Dexamethasone
1958

Betamethasone 1958

Triamcinolone
Triamcinolone
acetonide 1958

Fluorometholone 1959

The first known use of corticosteroids was in 1944. Tadeusz Reichstein together with Edward Calvin Kendall and Philip Showalter Hench were awarded the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
for Physiology
Physiology
and Medicine
Medicine
in 1950 for their work on hormones of the adrenal cortex, which culminated in the isolation of cortisone .

Initially hailed as a miracle cure and liberally prescribed during the 1950s, steroid treatment brought about adverse events of such a magnitude that the next major category of anti-inflammatory drugs, the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), was so named in order to demarcate from the opprobrium.

Corticosteroids have been used as drug treatment for some time. Lewis Sarett of Merck -webkit-column-width: 30em; column-width: 30em; list-style-type: decimal;">

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* v * t * e

Pharmacology
Pharmacology
: major drug groups

Gastrointestinal tract / metabolism (A )

* stomach acid

* Antacids * H2 antagonists * Proton pump inhibitors

* Antiemetics * Laxatives * Antidiarrhoeals /Antipropulsives * Anti-obesity drugs * Anti-diabetics * Vitamins * Dietary minerals

Blood
Blood
and blood forming organs (B )

* Antithrombotics

* Antiplatelets * Anticoagulants * Thrombolytics/fibrinolytics

* Antihemorrhagics

* Platelets * Coagulants * Antifibrinolytics

Cardiovascular system (C )

* cardiac therapy/antianginals

* Cardiac glycosides * Antiarrhythmics * Cardiac stimulants

* Antihypertensives * Diuretics * Vasodilators * Beta blockers * Calcium channel blockers

* renin-angiotensin system

* ACE inhibitors * Angiotensin II receptor antagonists * Renin inhibitors

* Antihyperlipidemics

* Statins * Fibrates * Bile acid sequestrants

SKIN (D )

* Emollients * Cicatrizants * Antipruritics * Antipsoriatics * Medicated dressings

Genitourinary system (G )

* Hormonal contraception * Fertility agents * SERMs * Sex hormones

Endocrine system (H )

* Hypothalamic-pituitary hormones

* Corticosteroids

* Glucocorticoids * Mineralocorticoids

* Sex hormones * Thyroid hormones /Antithyroid agents

Infections and infestations (J , P , QI )

* Antimicrobials : Antibacterials (Antimycobacterials ) * Antifungals * Antivirals

* Antiparasitics

* Antiprotozoals * Anthelmintics * Ectoparasiticides

* IVIG * Vaccines

Malignant disease (L01-L02 )

* Anticancer agents

* Antimetabolites * Alkylating * Spindle poisons * Antineoplastic * Topoisomerase inhibitors

Immune disease (L03-L04 )

* Immunomodulators

* Immunostimulants * Immunosuppressants

Muscles , bones , and joints (M )

* Anabolic steroids

* Anti-inflammatories

* NSAIDs

* Antirheumatics * Corticosteroids * Muscle
Muscle
relaxants * Bisphosphonates

Brain and nervous system (N )

* Analgesics

* Anesthetics

* General * Local

* Anorectics * Anti-ADHD Agents * Antiaddictives * Anticonvulsants * Antidementia Agents * Antidepressants * Antimigraine Agents * Antiparkinson\'s Agents * Antipsychotics * Anxiolytics * Depressants * Entactogens * Entheogens * Euphoriants

* Hallucinogens

* Psychedelics * Dissociatives * Deliriants

* Hypnotics /Sedatives * Mood Stabilizers * Neuroprotectives * Nootropics * Neurotoxins * Orexigenics * Serenics * Stimulants * Wakefulness-Promoting Agents

Respiratory system (R )

* Decongestants * Bronchodilators * Cough medicines * H1 antagonists

SENSORY ORGANS (S )

* Ophthalmologicals * Otologicals

OTHER ATC (V )

* Antidotes * Contrast media * Radiopharmaceuticals * Dressings * Senotherapeutics

* v * t * e

Endogenous steroids

PRECURSORS

* Cholesterol
Cholesterol
* 22R-Hydroxycholesterol
22R-Hydroxycholesterol
* 20α,22R-Dihydroxycholesterol * Pregnenolone
Pregnenolone
* 11β-Hydroxypregnenolone * 17α-Hydroxypregnenolone * 21-Hydroxypregnenolone * 17α,21-Dihydroxypregnenolone * 11β,17α,21-Trihydroxypregnenolone

CORTICOSTEROIDS

GLUCOCORTICOIDS

* 3α,5α- Tetrahydrocorticosterone * 5α-Dihydrocorticosterone
5α-Dihydrocorticosterone
* 11-Deoxycorticosterone * 11-Deoxycortisol * 11-Ketoprogesterone * 21-Deoxycortisol * 21-Deoxycortisone * Corticosterone
Corticosterone
* Cortisol
Cortisol
* Cortisone * 17α-Hydroxypregnenolone * 17α-Hydroxyprogesterone
17α-Hydroxyprogesterone
* Pregnenolone
Pregnenolone
* Progesterone
Progesterone

MINERALOCORTICOIDS

* 5α-Dihydroaldosterone * 11-Dehydrocorticosterone
11-Dehydrocorticosterone
(11-oxocorticosterone, 17-deoxycortisone)

* 11-Deoxycortisol * 11-Deoxycorticosterone * 11β-Hydroxyprogesterone (21-deoxycorticosterone) * 18-Hydroxy-11-deoxycorticosterone * 18-Hydroxycorticosterone * 18-Hydroxyprogesterone * Aldosterone
Aldosterone
* Corticosterone
Corticosterone
* Cortisol
Cortisol

SEX STEROIDS

ANDROGENS

* 11-Ketodihydrotestosterone * 11-Ketotestosterone * 7β-Hydroxyepiandrosterone * 11β-Hydroxyandrostenedione * Adrenosterone (11-ketoandrostenedione) * Androstenediol * Androstenedione * Androsterone * Dehydroandrosterone * DHEA * DHEA sulfate * Dihydrotestosterone * Epiandrosterone * Epitestosterone * 16α-Hydroxyandrostenedione * 16α-Hydroxy-DHEA * 16α-Hydroxy-DHEA sulfate * Testosterone
Testosterone

* Metabolites: 3α-Androstanediol * 3α-Androstanediol glucuronide * 3β-Androstanediol * 3α,5β-Androstanediol * 3β,5β-Androstanediol * 5β-Androstanedione * 5β- Dihydrotestosterone * Androstanetriols * Androstenediol sulfate * Androsterone glucuronide * Androsterone sulfate * Dihydrotestosterone glucuronide * Dihydrotestosterone sulfate * Etiocholanolone * Etiocholanolone glucuronide * Epietiocholanolone * Testosterone
Testosterone
glucuronide * Testosterone
Testosterone
sulfate

ESTROGENS

* Estranes: Estetrol * Estradiol
Estradiol
* Estrone
Estrone
* Estriol * 16β- Epiestriol (16β-hydroxyestradiol) * 17α- Epiestriol (16α-hydroxy-17α-estradiol) * 16β,17α- Epiestriol (16β-hydroxy-17α-estradiol) * 2-Hydroxyestradiol * 2-Hydroxyestriol * 2-Hydroxyestrone * 4-Hydroxyestradiol * 4-Hydroxyestriol * 4-Hydroxyestrone * 4-Methoxyestradiol
4-Methoxyestradiol
* 16α-Hydroxyestrone

* Others: 27-Hydroxycholesterol * 3α-Androstanediol * 3β-Androstanediol * 4- Androstenedione * 5- Androstenediol * DHEA * DHEA sulfate * 7-Keto-DHEA * 7α-Hydroxy-DHEA * 16α-Hydroxy-DHEA

* Metabolites: 2-Methoxyestradiol * 2-Methoxyestrone * 4-Methoxyestrone * Estradiol
Estradiol
glucuronide * Estradiol
Estradiol
sulfate * Estrone
Estrone
glucuronide * Estrone
Estrone
sulfate * Estriol glucuronide * Estriol sulfate * Lipoidal estradiol (e.g., estradiol stearate , estradiol palmitate )

PROGESTOGENS

* Progesterone
Progesterone
* 16α-Hydroxyprogesterone * 17α-Hydroxyprogesterone
17α-Hydroxyprogesterone
* 20α-Dihydroprogesterone * 5α-Dihydroprogesterone * 11-Deoxycorticosterone * 5α-DHDOC

* Metabolites: Allopregnanediol * Pregnanediol * Pregnanediol glucuronide * Pregnanetriol

NEUROSTEROIDS

* Cholestanes: 24S-Hydroxycholesterol * Cholesterol
Cholesterol

* Pregnanes: 3α-Dihydroprogesterone * 3β-Dihydroprogesterone * 5α-Dihydrocorticosterone
5α-Dihydrocorticosterone
* 5α-Dihydroprogesterone * 5β-Dihydroprogesterone * Allopregnanolone * Corticosterone
Corticosterone
* DHC * DHDOC * Deoxycorticosterone * Epipregnanolone * Isopregnanolone * Pregnanolone * Pregnenolone
Pregnenolone
* Pregnenolone
Pregnenolone
sulfate * Progesterone
Progesterone
* THB * THDOC

* Androstanes: 3α-Androstanediol * 3α-Androstenol * 7-Keto-DHEA * 7α-Hydroxy-DHEA * 7β-Hydroxy-DHEA * 7α-Hydroxyepiandrosterone * 7β-Hydroxyepiandrosterone * Androsterone * DHEA * DHEA sulfate * Etiocholanolone

* PHEROMONES : 3α-Androstenol * 3β-Androstenol * Androstadienol * Androstadienone * Androstenone * Androsterone * Estratetraenol

OTHERS

* VITAMIN D : 7-Dehydrocholesterol * Calcidiol/ Calcifediol * Calcitriol * Cholecalciferol
Cholecalciferol

* OTHERS: 7α-Hydroxycholesterol * 11α-Hydroxyprogesterone * 11β-Hydroxyprogesterone * Cholesterol
Cholesterol
sulfate

CORTICOSTEROIDS AND ANTICORTICOSTEROIDS

* v * t * e

Glucocorticoids and antiglucocorticoids (H02 )

GLUCOCORTICOIDS

NATURAL

* Cortisone

* Cortisone acetate

* Cortodoxone (cortexolone, 11-deoxycortisol)

* Desoxycortone (deoxycortone, cortexone, 11-deoxycorticosterone)

* Desoxycortone esters

* Hydrocortisone
Hydrocortisone
(cortisol )#

* Hydrocortisone
Hydrocortisone
esters

* Prebediolone acetate

* Pregnenolone
Pregnenolone

* Pregnenolone
Pregnenolone
acetate * Pregnenolone
Pregnenolone
succinate

SYNTHETIC

* Cortisol-like and related (16-unsubstituted): Chloroprednisone * Cloprednol * Difluprednate * Fludrocortisone
Fludrocortisone
* Flugestone acetate
Flugestone acetate
(flurogestone acetate) * Fluocinolone

* Fluorometholone

* Fluorometholone acetate

* Fluperolone

* Fluperolone acetate

* Fluprednisolone

* Fluprednisolone esters

* Loteprednol * Medrysone
Medrysone

* Methylprednisolone
Methylprednisolone

* Methylprednisolone
Methylprednisolone
esters

* Prednicarbate * Prednisolone * Prednisone
Prednisone

* Tixocortol
Tixocortol

* Tixocortol pivalate

* Methasones and related (16-substituted): Alclometasone

* Beclometasone

* Beclometasone esters

* Betamethasone

* Betamethasone esters

* Clobetasol

* Clobetasol propionate

* Clobetasone

* Clocortolone

* Clocortolone esters

* Cortivazol * Desoximetasone

* Dexamethasone
Dexamethasone

* Dexamethasone
Dexamethasone
esters

* Diflorasone

* Diflucortolone

* Diflucortolone valerate

* Fluclorolone * Flumetasone * Fluocortin

* Fluocortolone

* Fluocortolone esters

* Fluprednidene acetate

* Fluticasone
Fluticasone

* Fluticasone furoate
Fluticasone furoate
* Fluticasone propionate

* Halometasone * Meprednisone

* Mometasone
Mometasone

* Mometasone
Mometasone
furoate

* Paramethasone * Prednylidene * Rimexolone * Triamcinolone
Triamcinolone
* Ulobetasol (halobetasol)

* Cyclic ketals (16,17-cyclized): Amcinonide
Amcinonide
* Budesonide
Budesonide
* Ciclesonide * Deflazacort * Desonide * Fluclorolone acetonide (flucloronide) * Fludroxycortide (flurandrenolone, flurandrenolide) * Flunisolide
Flunisolide
* Fluocinolone acetonide * Fluocinonide * Formocortal (fluoroformylone) * Halcinonide

* Triamcinolone
Triamcinolone
acetonide

* Triamcinolone
Triamcinolone
acetonide esters

ANTIGLUCOCORTICOIDS

* Antagonists: Aglepristone * Ketoconazole * Mifepristone * Ulipristal acetate

SYNTHESIS MODIFIERS

* Acetoxolone * Aminoglutethimide * Carbenoxolone * Enoxolone * Ketoconazole * Metyrapone * Mitotane
Mitotane
* Trilostane

* #WHO-EM * ‡Withdrawn from market

* Clinical trials :

* †Phase III * §Never to phase III

SEE ALSO: Androgens and antiandrogens • Estrogens and antiestrogens • Progestogens and antiprogestogens • Mineralocorticoids and antimineralocorticoids

* v * t * e

Mineralocorticoids and antimineralocorticoids (H02 )

MINERALOCORTICOIDS

* Desoxycortone (desoxycorticosterone)

* Desoxycortone esters

* Hydrocortisone
Hydrocortisone
(cortisol)

* Hydrocortisone
Hydrocortisone
esters

* Fludrocortisone
Fludrocortisone

* Fludrocortisone
Fludrocortisone
acetate

* Methylprednisolone
Methylprednisolone

* Methylprednisolone
Methylprednisolone
esters

* Prednisolone

* Prednisolone esters

* Prednisone
Prednisone

* Prednisone
Prednisone
esters

ANTIMINERALOCORTICOIDS

* Steroidal: Canrenoate potassium (potassium canrenoate) * Canrenone * Drospirenone * Dydrogesterone * Eplerenone
Eplerenone
* Gestodene * Medrogestone
Medrogestone
* Progesterone
Progesterone
* Spironolactone
Spironolactone
* Trimegestone

* Nonsteroidal: Amlodipine
Amlodipine
* Apararenone § * Benidipine * Esaxerenone † * Felodipine * Finerenone † * Nifedipine * Nimodipine * Nitrendipine

SYNTHESIS MODIFIERS

* Acetoxolone * Aminoglutethimide * Carbenoxolone * Enoxolone * Ketoconazole * Metyrapone * Mitotane
Mitotane
* Trilostane

* #WHO-EM * ‡Withdrawn from market

* Clinical trials :

* †Phase III * §Never to phase III

SEE ALSO: Androgens and antiandrogens • Estrogens and antiestrogens • Progestogens and antiprogestogens • Glucocorticoids and antiglucocorticoids

CORTICOSTEROID RECEPTOR MODULATORS

* v * t * e

Glucocorticoid receptor modulators

GR

AGONISTS

* Cortisol-like and related (16-unsubstituted): 3α,5α- Tetrahydrocorticosterone * 5α-Dihydrocorticosterone
5α-Dihydrocorticosterone
* 9α-Fluorocortisone
9α-Fluorocortisone
(alfluorone)

* 11-Dehydrocorticosterone
11-Dehydrocorticosterone
(11-oxocorticosterone, 17-deoxycortisone)

* 11-Dehydrocorticosterone
11-Dehydrocorticosterone
acetate

* 11-Deoxycorticosterone (desoxycortone, deoxycortone, desoxycorticosterone)

* Desoxycortone esters

* 11-Deoxycortisol (cortodoxone, cortexolone)

* Cortifen (cortiphen, kortifen) * Cortodoxone acetate

* 21-Deoxycortisol

* Δ7- Prednisolone

* Δ7- Prednisolone 21-acetate

* Amebucort

* Chloroprednisone

* Chloroprednisone acetate

* Cloprednol

* Cloprednol acetate

* Corticosterone
Corticosterone

* Corticosterone
Corticosterone
acetate * Corticosterone
Corticosterone
benzoate

* Cortisol
Cortisol
(hydrocortisone )

* Benzodrocortisone
Benzodrocortisone
(hydrocortisone benzoate) * Hydrocortamate (hydrocortisone diethylaminoacetate) * Hydrocortisone
Hydrocortisone
esters

* Cortisone

* Cortisone acetate

* Deprodone

* Deprodone propionate

* Dichlorisone

* Dichlorisone acetate * Dichlorisone diacetate

* Difluprednate * Endrisone (endrysone)

* Etiprednol

* Etiprednol dicloacetate (etiprednol dichloroacetate)

* Fludrocortisone
Fludrocortisone
(fludrocortone)

* Fludrocortisone
Fludrocortisone
acetate

* Fluorometholone

* Fluorometholone acetate

* Fluperolone

* Fluperolone acetate

* Fluprednisolone

* Fluprednisolone esters

* Halopredone

* Halopredone acetate (halopredone diacetate)

* Isoflupredone (9α-fluoroprednisolone)

* Isoflupredone acetate

* Loteprednol

* Loteprednol etabonate

* Mazipredone (depersolone) * Medrysone
Medrysone

* Methylprednisolone
Methylprednisolone

* Methylprednisolone
Methylprednisolone
esters

* Prebediolone

* Prebediolone acetate

* Prednisolone

* Prednazate * Prednazoline * Prednicarbate (prednisolone ethylcarbonate propionate) * Prednimustine * Prednisolamate (prednisolone diethylaminoacetate) * Prednisolone esters

* Prednisone
Prednisone

* Prednisone
Prednisone
esters

* Pregnenolone
Pregnenolone

* Pregnenolone
Pregnenolone
acetate * Pregnenolone
Pregnenolone
succinate (pregnenolone hemisuccinate)

* Resocortol * Tipredane

* Tixocortol
Tixocortol

* Butixocort (tixocortol butyrate)

* Butixocort propionate

* Tixocortol pivalate

* Methasones and related (16-substituted): 16α-Methyl-11-oxoprednisolone

* Alclometasone

* Alclometasone dipropionate

* Amelometasone

* Beclometasone (beclomethasone)

* Beclometasone esters

* Betamethasone (betametasone)

* Betamethasone esters * Cortobenzolone (betamethasone salicylate)

* Ciclometasone (ciclomethasone, cyclomethasone)

* Clobetasol

* Clobetasol propionate

* Clobetasone

* Clobetasone butyrate

* Clocortolone

* Clocortolone esters

* Cloticasone

* Cloticasone propionate

* Cormetasone (cormethasone)

* Cormetasone acetate

* Descinolone * Desoximetasone (desoxymethasone)

* Dexamethasone
Dexamethasone
(dexametasone)

* Dexamethasone
Dexamethasone
esters

* Diflorasone

* Diflorasone diacetate

* Diflucortolone

* Diflucortolone pivalate * Diflucortolone valerate

* Dimesone

* Dimesone acetate

* Doxibetasol (doxybetasol) * Fluclorolone

* Flumetasone (flumethasone)

* Flumetasone acetate * Flumetasone pivalate

* Fluocinolone

* Fluocortin

* Fluocortin butyl (fluocortin butylate)

* Fluocortolone

* Fluocortolone esters

* Fluprednidene (fluprednylidene)

* Fluprednidene acetate

* Fluticasone
Fluticasone

* Fluticasone furoate
Fluticasone furoate
* Fluticasone propionate

* Halocortolone * Halometasone

* Icometasone

* Icometasone enbutate (icometasone butyrate acetate)

* Isoprednidene

* Locicortolone (locicortone)

* Locicortolone dicibate (locicortone dicibate)

* Meclorisone

* Meclorisone dibutyrate

* Meprednisone (methylprednisone)

* Meprednisone acetate * Meprednisone hydrogen succinate (methylprednisone hemisuccinate)

* Mometasone
Mometasone

* Mometasone
Mometasone
furoate

* Paramethasone

* Paramethasone acetate * Paramethasone disodium phosphate * Paramethasone phosphate

* Prednylidene

* Prednylidene diethylaminoacetate

* Rimexolone

* Ticabesone

* Ticabesone propionate

* Timobesone

* Timobesone acetate

* Triamcinolone
Triamcinolone

* Triamcinolone
Triamcinolone
diacetate

* Ulobetasol (halobetasol)

* Ulobetasol propionate

* Vamorolone

* Cyclic ketals (16,17-cyclized): Acrocinonide (triamcinolone acroleinide) * Amcinafal
Amcinafal
(triamcinolone pentanonide) * Amcinafide (triamcinolone acetophenide) * Amcinonide
Amcinonide
(triamcinolone acetate cyclopentanonide) * Budesonide
Budesonide
* Ciclesonide * Cicortonide * Deflazacort (azacort) * Descinolone acetonide

* Desonide (hydroxyprednisolone acetonide)

* Desonide disodium phosphate * Desonide pivalate

* Dexbudesonide

* Drocinonide

* Drocinonide phosphate

* Fluazacort * Fluclorolone acetonide (flucloronide) * Fludroxycortide (flurandrenolone, flurandrenolide) * Flumoxonide

* Flunisolide
Flunisolide

* Flunisolide
Flunisolide
acetate

* Fluocinolone acetonide

* Ciprocinonide (fluocinolone acetonide cyclopropylcarboxylate) * Fluocinonide (fluocinolide, fluocinolone acetonide acetate) * Procinonide (fluocinolone acetonide propionate)

* Formocortal * Halcinonide * Itrocinonide

* Rofleponide

* Rofleponide palmitate

* Tralonide

* Triamcinolone
Triamcinolone
acetonide

* Flupamesone (triamcinolone acetonide metembonate) * Triamcinolone
Triamcinolone
acetonide esters

* Triamcinolone
Triamcinolone
aminobenzal benzamidoisobutyrate (TBI-PAB) * Triclonide

* Others/atypical (other expanded steroid ring systems, homosteroids, and non-pregnane steroids): Cortisuzol * Cortivazol * Domoprednate * Naflocort

* Nicocortonide

* Nicocortonide acetate

* Nivacortol (nivazol) * Oxisopred * RU-28362

* Non-corticosteroids with some glucocorticoid activity: 15β-Hydroxycyproterone acetate * 17α-Hydroxyprogesterone
17α-Hydroxyprogesterone
* Chlormadinone acetate * Cyproterone * Cyproterone acetate * Delmadinone acetate * Flugestone * Flugestone acetate
Flugestone acetate
(flurogestone acetate) * Fluoxymesterone * Gestodene * Medrogestone
Medrogestone
* Medroxyprogesterone acetate * Megestrol acetate
Megestrol acetate
* Metribolone * Norgestomet * Osaterone acetate * Progesterone
Progesterone
* Promegestone * Quingestrone * Segesterone acetate (nestorone) * Tetrahydrogestrinone
Tetrahydrogestrinone

* Nonsteroidal glucocorticoids: AZD-5423 * GSK-9027

MIXED (SEGRMS )

* Dagrocorat * Fosdagrocorat * Mapracorat

ANTAGONISTS

* 7α-Hydroxy-DHEA * 17α-Methylprogesterone * Aglepristone * Asoprisnil * Asoprisnil ecamate * C108297 * C113176 * CORT-108297 * Cyproterone acetate * Guggulsterone * Ketoconazole * Lilopristone * LLY-2707 * Miconazole
Miconazole
* Mifepristone * Onapristone * ORG-34116 * ORG-34517 (SCH-900636) * ORG-34850 * Pregnenolone
Pregnenolone
16α-carbonitrile * RTI 3021–012 * RTI 3021–022 * Telapristone * Tibolone * Toripristone * Ulipristal acetate

See also Receptor/signaling modulators Androgenics Estrogenics Mineralocorticoidics Progestogenics Steroid metabolism modulators List of corticosteroids

* v * t * e

Mineralocorticoid
Mineralocorticoid
receptor modulators

MR

AGONISTS

* 11-Dehydrocorticosterone
11-Dehydrocorticosterone
(11-oxocorticosterone, 17-deoxycortisone)

* 11-Dehydrocorticosterone
11-Dehydrocorticosterone
acetate

* 11-Deoxycorticosterone (desoxycortone, deoxycortone, desoxycorticosterone)

* Desoxycortone esters

* 11-Deoxycortisol (cortodoxone, cortexolone)

* Cortifen (cortiphen, kortifen) * Cortodoxone acetate

* 11β-Hydroxyprogesterone * 16α,18-Dihydroxy-11-deoxycorticosterone * 17α-Hydroxyaldosterone * 18-Hydroxy-11-deoxycorticosterone * 19-Norprogesterone * Aldosterone
Aldosterone

* Corticosterone
Corticosterone

* Corticosterone
Corticosterone
acetate * Corticosterone
Corticosterone
benzoate

* Cortisol
Cortisol
(hydrocortisone )

* Benzodrocortisone
Benzodrocortisone
(hydrocortisone benzoate) * Hydrocortamate (hydrocortisone diethylaminoacetate) * Hydrocortisone
Hydrocortisone
esters

* Cortisone

* Cortisone acetate

* Fludrocortisone
Fludrocortisone
(fludrocortone)

* Fludrocortisone
Fludrocortisone
acetate

* Mometasone
Mometasone

* Mometasone
Mometasone
furoate

* Prednisolone

* Prednazate * Prednazoline * Prednicarbate (prednisolone ethylcarbonate propionate) * Prednimustine * Prednisolamate (prednisolone diethylaminoacetate) * Prednisolone esters

* Prednisone
Prednisone

* Prednisone
Prednisone
esters

ANTAGONISTS

* Steroidal: 6β-Hydroxy-7α-thiomethylspironolactone * 7α-Thiomethylspironolactone (SC-26519) * 7α-Thioprogesterone (SC-8365) * 7α-Thiospironolactone (SC-24813) * 16α-Hydroxyprogesterone * 17α-Hydroxyprogesterone
17α-Hydroxyprogesterone
* 18-Deoxyaldosterone * Canrenoate potassium (potassium canrenoate) * Canrenoic acid (canrenoate) * Canrenone (canrenoate y-lactone) * Dicirenone * Dimethisterone * Drospirenone * Dydrogesterone * Eplerenone
Eplerenone
* Gestodene * Guggulsterone * Medrogestone
Medrogestone
* Mespirenone * Mexrenoate potassium * Mexrenoic acid (mexrenoate) * Mexrenone * Oxprenoic acid (oxprenoate) * Oxprenoate potassium (RU-28318) * Pregnenolone
Pregnenolone
* Progesterone
Progesterone
* Prorenoate potassium * Prorenoic acid (prorenoate) * Prorenone * RO-14-9012 * RU-26752 * SC-5233 (spirolactone) * SC-8109 * SC-11927 (CS-1) * SC-19886 * SC-27169 * Spirorenone
Spirorenone
* Spironolactone
Spironolactone
* Spiroxasone * Tibolone * Trimegestone * ZK-91587 * ZK-97894

* Nonsteroidal: Amlodipine
Amlodipine
* Apararenone * Benidipine * BR-4628 * Esaxerenone * Felodipine * Finerenone * Nifedipine * Nimodipine * Nitrendipine * PF-03882845 * SM-368229

See also Receptor/signaling modulators Androgenics Estrogenics Glucocorticoidics Progestogenics Ste