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The Corsicans
Corsicans
(Corsican, Italian and Ligurian: Corsi; French: Corses) are the native people and ethnic group originating in Corsica, a Mediterranean island and a territorial collectivity of France.[6]

Contents

1 Origin 2 Population in Corsica

2.1 The Corsican diaspora 2.2 Immigration

3 Culture

3.1 Languages

3.1.1 Number of Corsican speakers

3.2 Cuisine

4 Notable Corsicans 5 Fictional Corsicans
Corsicans
people 6 See also 7 References 8 External links

Origin[edit] See also: Prehistory of Corsica
Corsica
and History of Corsica

Filitosa, Statue menhir

The island was populated since the Mesolithic
Mesolithic
(Dame de Bonifacio) and the Neolithic
Neolithic
by people who came from the Italian peninsula, especially the modern regions of Tuscany
Tuscany
and Liguria.[7][8] An important megalithic tradition developed locally since the 4th millennium BC.[9] Reached, like Sardinia, by Polada culture
Polada culture
influences in the Early Bronze Age,[10] in the 2nd millennium BC
2nd millennium BC
Corsica, the southern part in particular, saw the rise of the Torrean civilization, strongly linked with the Nuragic civilization. The Corsican people are named after a people known by the Romans as Corsi. The Corsi, who gave their name to the island and dwelt also in Northeastern Sardinia
Sardinia
(Gallura). The Corsi were formed by several tribes that dwelt in Corsica
Corsica
island (Ptolemy, Geography), namely the Belatones (Belatoni), Cervini, Cilebenses (Cilibensi), Cumanenses (Cumanesi), Licinini, Macrini, Opini, Subasani, Sumbri, Tarabeni, Titiani, and the Venacini.[11] In the far north-east of the island of Sardinia
Sardinia
there were tribes that also belonged to the Corsi, they dwelt at the extreme north-east of Sardinia
Sardinia
and were composed of the Lestricones / Lestrigones (Lestriconi / Lestrigoni); Longonenses (Longonensi). These Corsi shared the island with the Tibulati, who dwelt at the extreme north of Sardinia
Sardinia
near the ancient town of Tibula. Further research is needed to answer the question of the origin of the ancient Corsi and that of the modern Corsican people. According to several scholars they may have been a group of tribes of the Ligures, like the Ilvates in the neighboring Ilva island (today's Elba), and spoken the old Ligurian language.[12] However, it is known that the Sardinians
Sardinians
are genetically similar to the Corsican population.[13][14]

The commercial and territorial expansion of the Republic of Pisa

Corsica
Corsica
was later colonized by Etruscans
Etruscans
from what is modern Tuscany, with some brief, localized colonies of Greeks and Carthaginians, until being taken over by the Romans. In subsequent centuries, Corsica
Corsica
was ruled and settled by Pisans and the Genoese, and the Corsican language today is itself a variant of the Tuscan language
Tuscan language
or dialect.[15] Corsica
Corsica
was part of the Republic of Pisa
Republic of Pisa
for over two centuries, from 1050 to 1295, and was then under the control of the Republic of Genoa for nearly five centuries, from 1285 to the creation of the Corsican Republic in 1755, and it is likely that these peoples have contributed to some degree to modern Corsican ancestry. Population in Corsica[edit]

Population of Corsica
Corsica
(2011 Census)

Place of birth of residents of Corsica

Percent of population

Corsica

56.3%

Continental France

28.6%

Overseas France

0.3%

Born in foreign countries with French citizenship at birth¹

5.0%

Immigrants²

9.8%

Reference:[2] ¹Essentially Pieds-Noirs
Pieds-Noirs
who resettled in Corsica. ²An immigrant is by French definition a person born in a foreign country and who didn't have French citizenship at birth.

Corsica
Corsica
has a population of 322,120 inhabitants (Jan. 2013 estimate).[1] At the 2011 census, 56.3% of the inhabitants of Corsica were born on the island and 28.6% in Continental France, while 0.3% were natives of Overseas France
France
and 14.8% hailed from foreign (non-French) countries.[2] The majority of the foreign population in Corsica
Corsica
comes from the Maghreb
Maghreb
(particularly Moroccans, who made up 33.5% of all immigrants in Corsica
Corsica
at the 2011 census), and from Southern Europe (particularly Portuguese, 22.7% of all immigrants, followed by the Italians, 13.7%).[16] The Corsican diaspora[edit] During the 19th century and the first part of the 20th century, Corsican emigration was significant. Large numbers of Corsicans
Corsicans
left the island for the French mainland or foreign countries. During the 19th century, the favorite destinations of migrants were the French colonies and South America
South America
(for more details, see Corsican immigration to Puerto Rico and Corsican immigration to Venezuela). Then, between the 1920s and the 1950s, the major destination became the French mainland (primarily Marseille, today considered as the "first Corsican city of the world" with a number around 200,000).[citation needed] Causes of this emigration are various; poverty is the main reason (the French laws for restriction of exportations, the Second Industrial Revolution and the agricultural crisis had an adverse effect on the local economy). Later, the departures have become more considerable owing to the demographic strain caused by First World War. Immigration[edit]

Place of birth of residents of Corsica (at the 1982, 1990, 1999, and 2011 censuses)

Census Born in Corsica Born in Continental France Born in Overseas France Born in foreign countries with French citizenship at birth¹ Immigrants2

2011 56.3% 28.6% 0.3% 5.0% 9.8%

from the Maghreb3 from Southern Europe4 from the rest of the world

4.3% 3.8% 1.7%

1999 59.5% 24.8% 0.3% 5.5% 10.0%

from the Maghreb3 from Southern Europe4 from the rest of the world

5.3% 3.3% 1.4%

1990 62.0% 21.3% 0.2% 6.0% 10.5%

1982 61.6% 20.4% 0.2% 6.0% 11.8%

¹Essentially Pieds-Noirs
Pieds-Noirs
who resettled in Corsica
Corsica
after the independence of Tunisia, Morocco
Morocco
and Algeria, many of whom had Corsican ancestry. 2An immigrant is by French definition a person born in a foreign country and who didn't have French citizenship at birth. Note that an immigrant may have acquired French citizenship since moving to France, but is still listed as an immigrant in French statistics. On the other hand, persons born in France
France
with foreign citizenship (the children of immigrants) are not listed as immigrants. 3Morocco, Tunisia, Algeria 4Portugal, Italy, Spain, Andorra, Gibraltar, Monaco

Source: INSEE[2][16][17]

Culture[edit] Languages[edit] Main articles: Corsican language, French language, Ligurian (Romance language), and Gallurese
Gallurese
dialect Alongside French (Français), the official language throughout France, Corsican (Corsu) is the other most widely spoken language on the island: it is a Romance language
Romance language
pertaining to the Italo-Dalmatian branch and akin to medieval Tuscan. Corsican was long the vernacular language besides Italian (Italiano), which retained official status in Corsica
Corsica
until 1859. Since then, it has been replaced by French due to the annexation of the island by France
France
in 1768. Over the next two centuries, the use of French grew to the extent that, by the Liberation in 1945, all islanders had a working knowledge of French. The twentieth century saw a wholesale language shift, with islanders changing their language practices to the extent that there were no monolingual Corsican speakers left by the 1960s. By 1990, an estimated 50% of islanders had some degree of proficiency in Corsican, and a small minority, perhaps 10%, used Corsican as a first language.[18] Fewer and fewer people speak also a Ligurian dialect in what has long been a language island, Bonifacio: it is locally known by the name of bunifazzin.[19] Gallurese dialect
Gallurese dialect
is a variety of Corsican[20][21][22][23] spoken in the extreme north of Sardinia, including the region of Gallura
Gallura
and the archipelago of La Maddalena. In the Maddalena archipelago, the local dialect (called Isulanu, Maddaleninu, Maddalenino) was brought by shepherds from Alta Rocca and Sartène
Sartène
in southern Corsica
Corsica
during immigration in the 17th to 18th centuries. Though influenced by Gallurese, it has maintained the original characteristics of Corsican. There are also numerous words of Genoese and Ponzese origin.[20][24] Number of Corsican speakers[edit] The January 2007 estimated population of the island was 281,000, while the figure for the March 1999 census, when most of the studies – though not the linguistic survey work referenced in this article – were performed, was about 261,000 (see under Corsica). Only a fraction of the population at either time spoke Corsican with any fluency. The 2001 population of 341,000 speakers on the island given by Ethnologue[25] exceeds either census and thus may be considered questionable,[original research?] like its estimate of 402,000 speakers worldwide. The use of Corsican over French has been declining. In 1980 about 70% of the population "had some command of the Corsican language."[26] In 1990 out of a total population of about 254,000 the percentage had declined to 50%, with only 10% using it as a first language.[18] The language appeared to be in serious decline when the French government reversed its non-supportive stand and began some strong measures to save it. Whether these measures will succeed remains to be seen. No recent statistics on Corsican are available. UNESCO
UNESCO
classifies the Corsican language
Corsican language
as a potentially endangered language, as it has "a large number of children speakers" but is "without an official or prestigious status."[27] The classification does not state that the language is currently endangered, only that it is potentially so. In fact it is being vigorously affirmed[by whom?]. Often acting according to the current long-standing sentiment unknown Corsicans
Corsicans
cross out French roadway signs and paint in the Corsican names. The Corsican language
Corsican language
is a key vehicle for Corsican culture, which is notably rich in proverbs and in polyphonic song. Cuisine[edit] Main article: Cuisine of Corsica

Corsican cuisine.

From the mountains to the plains and sea, many ingredients play a role. Game such as wild boar (Cignale, Singhjari) is popular, and in old times mouflon (muvra) were consumed. There also is seafood and river fish such as trout. Delicatessen such as figatellu, coppa, ham (prizuttu), lonzu are made from Corsican pork (porcu nustrale). Cheeses like Brocciu, casgiu merzu (the Corsican version of the Sardinian casu marzu), casgiu veghju are made from goat or sheep milk. Chestnuts are the main ingredient in the making of pulenta. A variety of alcoholic drinks also exist, ranging from aquavita (brandy), red and white Corsican wines (Vinu Corsu), muscat (plain or sparkling), and the famous "cap corse" produced by Mattei. Notable Corsicans[edit]

Alizée
Alizée
(pop singer) Angelo Mariani (chemist) Antoine Christophe Saliceti (Member of the National Convention
National Convention
during the French Revolution) Arturo Uslar Pietri
Arturo Uslar Pietri
(Venezuelan writer) Baptiste Giabiconi
Baptiste Giabiconi
(model) Carlo Andrea, count Pozzo di Borgo
Carlo Andrea, count Pozzo di Borgo
(Imperial Russian diplomat) Carlo Bonaparte
Carlo Bonaparte
(father of Napoléon Bonaparte) Caroline Bonaparte
Caroline Bonaparte
(sister of Napoléon Bonaparte) César Campinchi
César Campinchi
(lawyer and French politician) César Vezzani (opera singer) Charles Pasqua
Charles Pasqua
(French politician, former Minister of Internal Affairs) Danielle Casanova
Danielle Casanova
(World War II Resistance hero) Elisa Bonaparte
Elisa Bonaparte
(sister of Napoléon Bonaparte) François-Xavier Ortoli (French politician, former President of the European Commission) Fred Scamaroni (World War II Resistance hero) Garance Doré, born Mariline Fiori[28] (fashion blogger and illustrator) [29] Henry Padovani (singer, Founder of the popular group The Police) Ignace Cardini (Naturalist, doctor and humanist) Jean-Francois Bernardini (Founder and leader of the popular group I Muvrini) Jérôme Bonaparte
Jérôme Bonaparte
(brother of Napoléon Bonaparte) John Bernard (American politician, representing Minnesota in the House of Representatives) Joseph Bonaparte
Joseph Bonaparte
(brother of Napoléon Bonaparte) Joseph Fesch
Joseph Fesch
(cardinal) Laetitia Casta
Laetitia Casta
(model/actress) Letizia Ramolino
Letizia Ramolino
(mother of Napoléon Bonaparte) Louis Bonaparte
Louis Bonaparte
(brother of Napoléon Bonaparte) Lucien Bonaparte
Lucien Bonaparte
(brother of Napoléon Bonaparte) Marie-Claude Pietragalla
Marie-Claude Pietragalla
(dancer/choreographer) Marion Bartoli
Marion Bartoli
(professional tennis player) Mathieu Flamini
Mathieu Flamini
(professional football player who plays for Arsenal FC and has formerly played for AC Milan)[30] Michel Ferracci-Porri (writer) Michel Giacometti ( Ethnomusicologist
Ethnomusicologist
who worked primarily in Portugal) Napoléon Bonaparte Nicolas Rouffiange Pasquale Paoli
Pasquale Paoli
(Corsican patriot and military leader) Pasquino Corso
Pasquino Corso
(16th century condottiero) Patrick Fiori
Patrick Fiori
(singer) Pauline Bonaparte
Pauline Bonaparte
(sister of Napoléon Bonaparte) Petru Giovacchini Petru Guelfucci (singer) Raul Leoni
Raul Leoni
(president of Venezuela, 1964-1969) Sampieru Corsu Tino Rossi
Tino Rossi
(singer, actor) Vincent de Moro-Giafferi
Vincent de Moro-Giafferi
(lawyer, nicknamed the "Grand Moro")

Fictional Corsicans
Corsicans
people[edit]

Mireille Bouquet, an daughter of mafia family in 2001 anime series Noir

See also[edit]

Italians
Italians
in France Corsica History of Corsica Etruscan civilization List of Nuragic tribes Republic of Pisa Republic of Genoa Corsican language Sassarese Gallurese Sardinian people Italian people French people Corsican immigration to Puerto Rico Corsican immigration to Venezuela Italian irredentism in Corsica

References[edit]

^ a b INSEE. "Estimation de population au 1er janvier, par région, sexe et grande classe d'âge – Année 2013" (in French). Retrieved 2014-02-20.  ^ a b c d INSEE. "Fichier Données harmonisées des recensements de la population de 1968 à 2011" (in French). Archived from the original on 2014-10-25. Retrieved 2014-10-25.  ^ Atlante linguistico etnografico italiano della Corsica, Gino Bottiglioni and Guido Colucci, Pisa, 1933. ^ Storia della Corsica
Corsica
Italiana, Gioacchino Volpe, Varese, Industrie Grafiche Amedeo Nicola e C., 1939 ^ G. Vona, P. Moral, M. Memmì, M.E. Ghiani and L. Varesi, Genetic structure and affinities of the Corsican population (France): Classical genetic markers analysis, American Journal of Human Biology; Volume 15, Issue 2, pages 151–163, March/April 2003 ^ Corsicans
Corsicans
- World Directory of Minorities ^ Laurent-Jacques Costa, Corse préhistorique, Éditions Errance, Paris, 2004 p.215 – 216 ^ Gabriel Camps, Préhistoire d'une île. Les origines de la Corse, 1988 ^ Peregrine, Peter N.; Ember, Melvin (2001). Encyclopedia of Prehistory. 4 : Europe. Springer. pp. 157, 169. ISBN 0-306-46255-9.  ^ Paolo Melis, I rapporti fra la Sardegna settentrionale e la Corsica nell’antica età del Bronzo ^ Xavier Poli in La Corse dans l'Antiquité et dans le Haut Moyen Âge Librairie Albert Fontemoing Paris 1907 ^ Attilio Mastino- Corsica
Corsica
e Sardegna in età antica ^ G. Vona, P. Moral, M. Memmì, M.E. Ghiani and L. Varesi, Genetic structure and affinities of the corsican population (France): Classical genetic markers analysis, American Journal of Human Biology; Volume 15, Issue 2, pages 151–163, March/April 2003 ^ Corsican Genetics: Abstracts and Summaries ^ Harris, Martin; Vincent, Nigel (1997). Romance Languages. London: Routlegde. ISBN 0-415-16417-6.  ^ a b INSEE. "IMG1B – Les immigrés par sexe, âge et pays de naissance" (in French). Retrieved 2014-10-25.  ^ INSEE. "D_FD_IMG2 – Base France
France
par départements – Lieux de naissance à l'étranger selon la nationalité" (in French). Archived from the original on 2013-10-12. Retrieved 2013-06-25.  ^ a b "Corsican in France". Euromosaic. Retrieved 2008-06-13.  To access the data, click on List by languages, Corsican, Corsican in France, then scroll to Geographical and language background. ^ Enciclopedia Treccani - Dialetti liguri ^ a b Atti Convegno Lingua Gallurese, Palau 2014 ^ Blasco Ferrer 1984: 180–186, 200 ^ Contini 1987: 1°, 500–503 ^ Dettori 2002 ^ Corsican at Ethnologue ^ "Corsican". Retrieved 2008-06-13.  ^ " Corsican language
Corsican language
use survey". Euromosaic. Retrieved 2008-06-13.  To find this statement and the supporting data click on List by languages, Corsican, Corsican language
Corsican language
use survey and look under INTRODUCTION. ^ Salminen, Tapani (1993–1999). " UNESCO
UNESCO
Red Book on Endangered Languages: Europe:". Retrieved 2008-06-13.  ^ (PDF) http://www.hoganlovells.com/files/Publication/3187a458-e309-4006-bcd6-4d9ecda0f992/Presentation/PublicationAttachment/79d844ce-8e6a-4d07-88db-556832393c8e/PARLIB01-%231243417-v1-World_Trademark_Review_Daily_301112.PDF. Retrieved 2014-10-09.  Missing or empty title= (help)[dead link] ^ https://www.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424127887324328204578571780929535480 ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VaAW1m2G77I

Smith, William (1872). Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: J. Murray. pp. pages 689–692. Downloadable Google Books.

External links[edit]

Strabo's text of Geographica - Geography (Strabo) Ptolemy's text of Geographica - Geography (Ptolemy)

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